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Chanakya

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Chanakya

  1. 1. ChanakyaChanakya ((चाणक्यचाणक्य)) One of the greatest philosophersOne of the greatest philosophers in the history of mankind.in the history of mankind.
  2. 2. General InformationGeneral Information  Born around 350 BC and died around 283 BCBorn around 350 BC and died around 283 BC  Name at birth was Vishnugupta but was laterName at birth was Vishnugupta but was later known as Chknown as Chāānakya and Kautilyanakya and Kautilya  Born in Patliputra, Maghadh which is currentlyBorn in Patliputra, Maghadh which is currently Patna, Bihar in IndiaPatna, Bihar in India  Teacher of political science at TaxilaTeacher of political science at Taxila UniversityUniversity  Later became Prime Minister of EmperorLater became Prime Minister of Emperor Chandragupta MauryaChandragupta Maurya
  3. 3. Childhood and EducationChildhood and Education  Vishnugupta was born to Rishi Chanak inVishnugupta was born to Rishi Chanak in Patliputra who was a revolutionary againstPatliputra who was a revolutionary against the evil emperor of Magadh. Chanak wasthe evil emperor of Magadh. Chanak was exiled after publicly speaking out against theexiled after publicly speaking out against the king. Vishnugupta left soon after to study atking. Vishnugupta left soon after to study at the famous Taxila University.the famous Taxila University.  Taxila was the best University of the time andTaxila was the best University of the time and offered education in many different fields.offered education in many different fields.
  4. 4. Life in TaxilaLife in Taxila  After completing his education, VishnuguptaAfter completing his education, Vishnugupta became a professor at the Taxila University.became a professor at the Taxila University. Here he got the names Chanakya andHere he got the names Chanakya and Kautilya due to his fame and wits.Kautilya due to his fame and wits.  Gandhar Republic attacked Taxila becauseGandhar Republic attacked Taxila because the dim-witted prince of Taxila sent soldiersthe dim-witted prince of Taxila sent soldiers to the border to abuse and torture the peopleto the border to abuse and torture the people living there.living there.  Taxila was defeated in no time but Porus, theTaxila was defeated in no time but Porus, the king of Gandhar, demanded thatking of Gandhar, demanded that Gandharians not be attacked again and leftGandharians not be attacked again and left without taking or destroying anything.without taking or destroying anything.
  5. 5. Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great  Before Taxila could recover from being defeated,Before Taxila could recover from being defeated, thousands of refugees came into Taxila saying thatthousands of refugees came into Taxila saying that there was a white invader by the name of Alexshendrathere was a white invader by the name of Alexshendra who was planning on attacking India.who was planning on attacking India.  The dim-witted prince of Taxila became friends withThe dim-witted prince of Taxila became friends with Alexander when he arrived and gave him soldiers andAlexander when he arrived and gave him soldiers and money to support his planned conquests.money to support his planned conquests.  When Chanakya heard about his he immediatelyWhen Chanakya heard about his he immediately turned the school into a war training station andturned the school into a war training station and rebeled against the Greeks. Chanakya created hisrebeled against the Greeks. Chanakya created his own army and an impressive system of spies toown army and an impressive system of spies to destroy the Greeks. Alexander conquered manydestroy the Greeks. Alexander conquered many kingdoms before he left India. While traveling back tokingdoms before he left India. While traveling back to Greece, he died. The general he had left in India wasGreece, he died. The general he had left in India was killed by a spy acting as a messenger. The Greek rulekilled by a spy acting as a messenger. The Greek rule in India collapsed and Bharat (India) was free again.in India collapsed and Bharat (India) was free again.
  6. 6. ChandraguptaChandragupta  After defeating the Greeks Chanakya returned to hisAfter defeating the Greeks Chanakya returned to his homeland, Patliputra. One day, while walking on thehomeland, Patliputra. One day, while walking on the road he stepped on some thorns. He controlled hisroad he stepped on some thorns. He controlled his anger, bent down and destroyed every one of theanger, bent down and destroyed every one of the thorns.thorns.  The prime minister who had recently been insulted byThe prime minister who had recently been insulted by the tyrannical Dhananand (the king) saw this eventthe tyrannical Dhananand (the king) saw this event and thought that such a determined man could helpand thought that such a determined man could help him get his revenge. He then took Chanakya to thehim get his revenge. He then took Chanakya to the king’s court. The king laughed and made fun of him.king’s court. The king laughed and made fun of him. Chanakya swore to destroy the king and his sons forChanakya swore to destroy the king and his sons for that insult.that insult.  The prime minister recommended that Dhananand’sThe prime minister recommended that Dhananand’s eldest son Chandragupta would be fit to rule. Hiseldest son Chandragupta would be fit to rule. His father and eight brothers had repeatedly tried to killfather and eight brothers had repeatedly tried to kill him because his mother was of low-caste and he washim because his mother was of low-caste and he was extremely strong and intelligent.extremely strong and intelligent.
  7. 7. Defeat of MagadhDefeat of Magadh  Chanakya went around telling peasants andChanakya went around telling peasants and common folk that Magadh needed to be incommon folk that Magadh needed to be in stronger hands and not under the rule of thestronger hands and not under the rule of the tyrannous Dhanananda.tyrannous Dhanananda.  Chandragupta gathered a huge militia in thisChandragupta gathered a huge militia in this way. While he was doing this, Chanakyaway. While he was doing this, Chanakya persuaded a greedy King called Parvatak topersuaded a greedy King called Parvatak to help because Chanakya assured him half ofhelp because Chanakya assured him half of Magadh.Magadh.  Chandragupta’s army attacked and defeatedChandragupta’s army attacked and defeated the army of Magadh with Chanakya’s guidance.the army of Magadh with Chanakya’s guidance.
  8. 8. RakshasRakshas  Dhananad’s chief minister Rakshas was still trying toDhananad’s chief minister Rakshas was still trying to avenge his master’s death. He met with Parvatakavenge his master’s death. He met with Parvatak (The king Chanakya promised half his land) and(The king Chanakya promised half his land) and convinced the king to help him by promising him theconvinced the king to help him by promising him the entire kingdom of Magadh.entire kingdom of Magadh.  Chandragupta became sick so Rakshas bribed theChandragupta became sick so Rakshas bribed the physician to put poison in the medicine. Chanakyaphysician to put poison in the medicine. Chanakya made the physician drink the medicine himself and inmade the physician drink the medicine himself and in this way Chandragupta was saved.this way Chandragupta was saved.  A few weeks later, Chandragupta was being moved toA few weeks later, Chandragupta was being moved to the former palace of Dhananand. Rakshas plantedthe former palace of Dhananand. Rakshas planted soldiers in the cellars to kill Chandragupta at night.soldiers in the cellars to kill Chandragupta at night.  Chanakya saw ants coming from a crack in the floorChanakya saw ants coming from a crack in the floor carrying grains of rice during his inspection andcarrying grains of rice during his inspection and immediately realized that there were soldiers in theimmediately realized that there were soldiers in the basement. He ordered the guards to burn the palacebasement. He ordered the guards to burn the palace immediately and not to let anyone escape.immediately and not to let anyone escape.
  9. 9. RakshasRakshas  Rakshas was very angry after many of his warriors wereRakshas was very angry after many of his warriors were burned but he didn’t give up. He sent a poisonousburned but he didn’t give up. He sent a poisonous dancerdancer to Chandragupta to kill him. Chanakyato Chandragupta to kill him. Chanakya immediately recognized the “dancer” and sent her toimmediately recognized the “dancer” and sent her to King Parvatak yo kill himKing Parvatak yo kill him  Rakshas then allied with Parvatak’s son Malyaketu andRakshas then allied with Parvatak’s son Malyaketu and 5 other kings to attack Magadh. To break this alliance,5 other kings to attack Magadh. To break this alliance, Chanakya’s spies saved Rakshas’s friend and took himChanakya’s spies saved Rakshas’s friend and took him to Rakshas. As payment for this favor, Rakshas let theto Rakshas. As payment for this favor, Rakshas let the spy stay with him.spy stay with him.  The same night, the spy let himself be caught nearThe same night, the spy let himself be caught near Mlayaketu’s tent. He was carrying a fake letter fromMlayaketu’s tent. He was carrying a fake letter from Rakshas telling Chandragupta that he and the five kingsRakshas telling Chandragupta that he and the five kings were going to betray him. When he read this he killedwere going to betray him. When he read this he killed the five other kings and only let Rakshas go because hethe five other kings and only let Rakshas go because he was a Brahmin. Chanakya then met Rakshas and madewas a Brahmin. Chanakya then met Rakshas and made him the prime minister of Magadh because he admiredhim the prime minister of Magadh because he admired Rakshas’s loyalty and determination.Rakshas’s loyalty and determination.
  10. 10. GiftsGifts How Chanakya’s gifts helped himHow Chanakya’s gifts helped him achieve his goals.achieve his goals.
  11. 11. Special Gifts and AbilitiesSpecial Gifts and Abilities  Chanakya was amazing at guessing his enemy’sChanakya was amazing at guessing his enemy’s every move and never once did he fail to predictevery move and never once did he fail to predict his enemy’s doings. He was also very good athis enemy’s doings. He was also very good at persuasion. (defeating Rakshas)persuasion. (defeating Rakshas)  Chanakya was very good at spy work andChanakya was very good at spy work and managing spy-systems and conductingmanaging spy-systems and conducting unexpected attacks on his enemies (defeat of theunexpected attacks on his enemies (defeat of the Greeks)Greeks)  Chanakya was a great political philosopher whoChanakya was a great political philosopher who wrote the Arthashastra and Nitishastra. He haswrote the Arthashastra and Nitishastra. He has been called the Indian Machiavelli for his works.been called the Indian Machiavelli for his works.
  12. 12. Chanakya vs. MachiavelliChanakya vs. Machiavelli  Both were political philosophersBoth were political philosophers  Machiavelli’s works are based on how toMachiavelli’s works are based on how to maintain control while Chanakya’s works talkmaintain control while Chanakya’s works talk about basic principles and what is an idealabout basic principles and what is an ideal ruler.ruler.  Both men’s works related to their respectiveBoth men’s works related to their respective time periods but they still have some basictime periods but they still have some basic things in common.things in common.  Chanakya used his principles and defeatedChanakya used his principles and defeated the Greeks and Maghada while Machiavellithe Greeks and Maghada while Machiavelli didn’t defeat any government or empire.didn’t defeat any government or empire.
  13. 13. AccomplishmentsAccomplishments The many great things ChanakyaThe many great things Chanakya accomplished in his lifetime.accomplished in his lifetime.
  14. 14. UnitingUniting IndiaIndia  Chanakya was the person who thought of the plansChanakya was the person who thought of the plans to defeat Alexander out of India. To accomplishto defeat Alexander out of India. To accomplish this, he united different kingdoms to fight againstthis, he united different kingdoms to fight against the Greeks which was a very rare occurrence.the Greeks which was a very rare occurrence.  He also thought of the plans to take over hisHe also thought of the plans to take over his homeland, Magadh, from the tyrannical rule of thehomeland, Magadh, from the tyrannical rule of the Nand Dynasty and handed it over to his mainNand Dynasty and handed it over to his main apprentice, Chandragupta Maurya. Underapprentice, Chandragupta Maurya. Under Chanakya’s guidance, Chandragupta created aChanakya’s guidance, Chandragupta created a huge empire unititig most of India by usinghuge empire unititig most of India by using Magadh’s enormous military force and wealth. ThisMagadh’s enormous military force and wealth. This later became the great Ashokan Empire and for thelater became the great Ashokan Empire and for the first time in it’s history, India was a united nation.first time in it’s history, India was a united nation.
  15. 15. Major Works by ChanakyaMajor Works by Chanakya  The Arthashastra is a treatise onThe Arthashastra is a treatise on statecraft, economic policy and militarystatecraft, economic policy and military strategy written by Chanakya. It is dividedstrategy written by Chanakya. It is divided into 15 books and is basically a king’sinto 15 books and is basically a king’s “manual” on how to run a kingdom.“manual” on how to run a kingdom.  The Nitishastra is a book about politicalThe Nitishastra is a book about political ethics taken from various Shastras andethics taken from various Shastras and compiled by Chanakya and is also usefulcompiled by Chanakya and is also useful when running a government.when running a government.
  16. 16. Excerpt from ArthashastraExcerpt from Arthashastra  A debt should be paid off till the last penny, andA debt should be paid off till the last penny, and an enemy should be destroyed without a trace.an enemy should be destroyed without a trace.  A human being should strive for four things in lifeA human being should strive for four things in life —— dharmadharma (duty),(duty), arthaartha (money),(money), kamakama (pleasure) and(pleasure) and mokshamoksha (salvation). A person(salvation). A person who hasn't striven for even one of these thingswho hasn't striven for even one of these things has wasted life.has wasted life.  A man is great by deeds, not by birth.A man is great by deeds, not by birth.  A person should not be too honest. Just asA person should not be too honest. Just as straight trees are chopped-down first, honeststraight trees are chopped-down first, honest people are taken advantage of first.people are taken advantage of first.  Friendship should be among equals .Friendship should be among equals .
  17. 17. ImpactImpact  In India, Chanakya is held as a intelligent scholarIn India, Chanakya is held as a intelligent scholar who rid India of the Greeks and killed the bad andwho rid India of the Greeks and killed the bad and tyrannous kings of the time and gave way to thetyrannous kings of the time and gave way to the Ashokan Empire. His books are also veryAshokan Empire. His books are also very esteemed and have helped many people operateesteemed and have helped many people operate businesses and even governments.businesses and even governments.  In the west, however, scholars view him as aIn the west, however, scholars view him as a malicious but genius Brahmin who ruthlesslymalicious but genius Brahmin who ruthlessly slaughtered and overthrew kings to put himself inslaughtered and overthrew kings to put himself in power. This of course is not true but is the cause ofpower. This of course is not true but is the cause of misinformation from the British.misinformation from the British.  In his time he became very famous and liked afterIn his time he became very famous and liked after defeating the Greeks but after defeating Magadh,defeating the Greeks but after defeating Magadh, many commoners and nobles loyal to the Nandmany commoners and nobles loyal to the Nand Dynasty wanted revenge.Dynasty wanted revenge.
  18. 18. Comparison of Chanakya’s life toComparison of Chanakya’s life to my ownmy own  In Chanakya’s life there were hundreds ofIn Chanakya’s life there were hundreds of different kingdoms and it was very unsafedifferent kingdoms and it was very unsafe to travel because of dacoits and princesto travel because of dacoits and princes who liked to torture peoplewho liked to torture people  In my life there aren’t any evil kings orIn my life there aren’t any evil kings or foreign invaders that I have to be scaredforeign invaders that I have to be scared of or fight against.of or fight against.
  19. 19. If Chanakya was still alive…If Chanakya was still alive…  If Chanakya was still alive I wouldn’t beIf Chanakya was still alive I wouldn’t be surprised if the entire earth would be asurprised if the entire earth would be a super country with its government in India.super country with its government in India.  I also think that there would be very lessI also think that there would be very less wars and only “ideal” rulers according towars and only “ideal” rulers according to the Arthashastra would be allowed inthe Arthashastra would be allowed in office.office.
  20. 20. SourcesSources  Microsoft Encarta 2004Microsoft Encarta 2004  Amar Chitra Katha: ChanakyaAmar Chitra Katha: Chanakya  http://www.researchfellow.net/fpost131.htmlhttp://www.researchfellow.net/fpost131.html  http://www.worldofbiography.com/9046-Chanahttp://www.worldofbiography.com/9046-Chana  Chandra Prakash Dwivedi’s “Chanakya”Chandra Prakash Dwivedi’s “Chanakya”
  21. 21. TimelineTimeline  11/18/07 – Sources Found11/18/07 – Sources Found  11/25/07 – PPT started11/25/07 – PPT started  12/9/07 – Finish content12/9/07 – Finish content  12/16/07 – Finalize and animate12/16/07 – Finalize and animate

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