2. NON PROJECTED AV AIDS
AV Aids facilitate the understanding of spoken and written words. Audiovisual
education or multimedia-based education (MBE) is instruction where particular attention
is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material with the goal of improving
comprehension and retention.
“All materials used in the classroom or in other teaching situations, to facilitate
the understanding of the written or spoken words.”
Audio-Visual aids are supplementary devices by which the teacher, through the
utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish and
correlate concepts, interpretations and appreciations.
-Mckown and Roberts
NON-PROJECTED AV AIDS
Non-Projected AV Aidsare aids that do not need the use of equipment for projection.
These are the most widely used media in many isolated and rural areas around the world.
They allow instruction to move from abstract ideas to concrete experiences.
Non-projected visuals are the realia or real objects, model, still pictures, field trip
and display materials.
Can be easily acquired or obtained.
Can be used without electricity.
Appropriate for those with low budget.
Can be used in different levels of instruction & discipline.
3. Can be used to stimulate creative expression such as telling stories.
Can be damaged easily with regular used.
Hard to store.
May be too small for group viewing.
TYPES OF NON PROJECTED AV AIDS
AV Aids can be classified into
1) Graphic aids
h) Flash Cards
i) Pictures & photographs
j) Time line
2) Display Boards
a) Black Board
b) Roll-up Board
c) Peg Board
d) Hook & Loop Board
e) Flannel Board
f) Magnetic Board
g) Bulletin Board
3) 3-D Aids
4. d) Diorama
4) Audio Aids
b) Tape Recorder
c) Public address System
A chart may be defined as a combination of graphic & pictorial media designed for the
orderly & logically visualizing of relationship between key facts & ideas. The most used
charts are flip charts, flow charts, display charts, tabular charts, tree charts & time chart.
Showing relationship by means of facts, figures and statistics
Presenting material symbolically
Showing continuity in process
Presenting abstract ideas in visual form
Showing development of structure
Creating problems and stimulating thinking
Encouraging utilization of other media of communication
Motivating the students.
Size of the Chart
The optimum size of chart is 20" x 30". The size of the letters should be
Title—Two and half inches
Subtitle and headings—One and one- third inches
Space between lines—One to two inches
5. Types of charts
NARRATIVE CHART - Left-to-right arrangement of facts and idea for
expressing the events in a process. It is also used to explain the cause and effect
ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS - shows structure or chain of command in an
organization such as school, company, corporations, civic groups or government
department. This also shows interrelationship of personnel or departments.
CLASSIFICATION CHARTS- used chiefly to classify or categorize objects,
places or species.
TIME CHART- shows chronological relationships between events. They mostly
show the historical events in sequence.
FLOWCHARTS- also known as process charts which shows sequence,
procedure or a flow of process
TABULAR CHARTS - these are tables contains numerical information and data
Effective use of Charts
Sufficiently large in size
Explain only one concept
Provision for hanging the chart
Use of pointer
Proper storage, preservation and reuse
Charts are an effective tool for learning
They arouse interest in the student
They are prepared in a very low-cost
They are portable and available for use and reuse
They are used to explain, clarify and simplify the complicated subject matter.
They attract attention, and reduce the amount of verbal explanation given by the
Charts cannot be used for large groups
They cannot be used for illiterate audience
Charts can oversimplify data, which can provide a misleading view of the data
Cannot be used for illiterate groups
Posters are bold and attractive representations of an idea concept and are usually given
in color. Poster captures the eye and conveys the desired message.
Principles of Poster Making
Brevity: A poster must be brief, so that it can be read in the shortest time
possible not more than five words is best. The message should be clear.
Simplicity: Too many words should not be used on a paper.
Idea: A poster must tell its story, at a glance. Hence illustrations and captions
should be large enough.
Layout: The poster must be organized properly to convey the idea, Bold simple
styled letters will be easy to read expressive letters also can be used to attract
attention and to convey the idea.
Color: Colors when used properly make the poster more attractive. Black or
Yellow is recognized to be the most striking combination.
Lettering: Letters should be legible and of appropriate size.
Poster size: This usually confirm to the paper sizes available such as 10”x15”,
15”x20”, 20”x30” etc.
Characteristics of a Poster
The following characteristics identify a poster from other graphics:
Words are minimal. Usually 4 or 5 only.
Layout of elements is simple and arranged well.
Colors and text are efficient.
Illustrations are bold and lettering styles are simple.
7. Posters are attractive.
Uses of a Poster
Posters may use in many ways such as:
To motivate the students
Single ideas or subject are presented
It can publicize important school and community projects and events
It captures attentions and conveys message quickly
It gives a strong and lasting impression.
Complex ideas and concepts can be conveyed more easily through posters.
Posters are very attractive and hence they convey the message more quickly
They can stand alone and are self-explanatory
Great for promoting local community events using noticeboards and shop
Poster making is time-consuming
Can be frustrating to students who are not visual learners
Posters always may not give enough information
When a poster is seen too often, it becomes a part of environment and then no
longer attracts attention
Not easy to modify or edit
Needs a good design to have impact
Can easily get lost in the visual noise of locations
8. FLASH CARDS
Flash cards are small cards of generally 25×30 cm in size which are shown for a few
moments before the class to send across a message or impart an idea. Flash cards would
be used along with the other graphic aids to make the lesson effective.
Preparation of flashcards
Cut a chart paper and cut it into four equal parts to get the flash cards.
Write the content on it either in the free hand or using lettering stencils and
Also the height of writing on the flash card is to be large enough so that the
whole class can see the flash card properly.
Guidelines for effective use of flash cards
Selection of topic and the content to be displayed should be carefully planned
Illustrations in the flash cards should be simple
The number of cards should not exceed 10-12
The size of the group should not be more than 40
Arrange the cards in the proper sequence
A brief introduction of the topic should be given to the group before displaying
Display the cards in congruent with the content
Hold the cards and turn towards different parts of the group and ensure it viewed
by all members in the group
Significant points should be pointed out
Look at the cards while the concept is explained from the card
Involve the audience in discussion
They can be used easily for illiterate groups.
They can attract attention and convey messages quickly
Easy to prepare, portable and economic
They are dynamic and flexible and maintain continuity
They are helpful in overcoming the language barrier
They are very effective to convey important messages in areas where people
They can be used to develop the cognitive abilities of recognition and recall of
They can be used to introduce, present and review a topic
Way of presentation influences the effectiveness of flash cards.
Maintenance of the flashcards for a longer time may be difficult.
They cannot be used for a bigger audience.
Viewers may lose interest when too many cards are used.
Literate and high class people may not be attracted by this method
Non-Projected AV Aids are aids that do not need the use of equipment for projection.
These are the most widely used media in many isolated and rural areas around the world.
They can be easily acquired or obtained and used without electricity but can be damaged
easily with regular used and are hard to store. Non-Projected AV aids can be further
classified into graphic aids, display boards, 3-D aids and audio aids.
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