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Historical Figures in Special Education

Describes important people in special education in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Historical Figures in Special Education

  1. 1. Henry Goddard Cyril Burt Donald M. Baer Samuel Gridley Howe James Hinshelwood
  2. 2. Henry Goddard Brought Binet scale to America in 1908. Participated in the writing of the first U.S. law requiring special education for children with intellectual disability in 1911. Developed the Army Alpha and Beta group tests.
  3. 3. Henry Goddard – some drawbacks Nature of intelligence Intellectual differences associated with national origin. Need for institutionalization. Role of heredity in feeble-mindedness. Kalikuk family.
  4. 4. Selected as a Top Five for Intellectual Disability Significant contributions to the field in his time. Lasting legacy in special education through his work in writing the first law addressing special education in Congress.
  5. 5. Cyril Burt In the UK, one of the most influential psychologists of his time. First psychologist to be knighted in 1946. Eleven Plus program
  6. 6. Cyril Burt Work with identical twins. Credibility was questioned. Compared with scientists of his time, his work was viewed as very flawed.
  7. 7. Views of Psychologists Have Changed Genetic factors. Measure of intellect is complex. Environmental factors. Self-contained classrooms are replaced with inclusion.
  8. 8. Top Five for Intellectual Disability Incredible contribution during his time in the field of intellectual disabilities Innovative work on factor analysis.
  9. 9. Donald M. Baer Director of the Department of Human Development and Family Life at the University of Kansas from 1955 until 2002. Developed applied behavior analysis.
  10. 10. Donald M. Baer Studied people with severe intellectual disability Methods included applied behavior analysis, which dealt with socially significant factors. Applied behavior analysis was first set forth in his writings.
  11. 11. Donald M. Baer Applied behavior analysis remained effective because its methods worked and could be experimentally verified and replicated. Raised the morale in the entire field and aided efforts in de-institutionalization.
  12. 12. Chosen as a Top Five for Intellectual Disability Quality of his work on socially important behaviors. Other researchers were able to draw on his work for legislation, litigation, and administrative actions. An advocate in that he practiced good science on socially relevant topics.
  13. 13. Samuel Gridley Howe Expanded the Perkins Institute for the Blind in 1848 to include individuals with intellectual disability. Predicted the dangers of residential institutions. Institutions spread across the U.S. despite his warnings.
  14. 14. Samuel Gridley Howe Also noted for his work with the blind. Brought blind students before state legislatures in order to obtain funding for his school. Known for teaching a blind-deaf mute, Laura Bridgeman to read, write, and hold communication with others.
  15. 15. Top Five for Intellectual Disability First to found a school for intellectual disabilities. The school was replicated nationally, and despite his warnings against it, institutions sprang up across America.
  16. 16. James Hinshelwood First physician to recommend a specific instructional approach for students with dyslexia. Made first attempt in the literature to explain word blindness and to establish a scientific basis.
  17. 17. James Hinshelwood Often more than one case in a family. Similar to adults who had lost the ability to read due to brain injury. He believed dyslexia may be a result of disease, birth injury, or defective development of the embryo.
  18. 18. James Hinshelwood Concerned with terminology. “Word blindness” later came to be termed dyslexia.
  19. 19. Top Five for Learning Disabilities First to recognize that a different instructional approach for students with written language disorders is necessary. First to recognize what we now call dyslexia as a medical condition.
  20. 20. References Routh, D. (2005). Historical Reflections on Advocacy in the Psychology of Intellectual Disability. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 34 (4), 606 – 611.  Richards, L. (2006) The Cadmus of the Blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. 20 (2), 584-585. Smith, D., (2007). Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference. San Francisco, CA: Pearson. Richardson, S. (1992). Historical Perspectives on Dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 25 (1), 40-47.

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