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Using Interactive Whiteboard
Technology to Implement the
Concrete-Representational-
Abstract Mathematical Sequence
Janet V...
Abstract
 Many students with disabilities struggle in the area of
mathematics.
 This is especially true related to the d...
The C-R-A Sequence
 The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) teaching
sequence is an evidence-based instructional pra...
The Representative Stage
 When students reach mastery level at the concrete level,
instruction progresses to the represen...
Interactive Whiteboard
 An IWB is a large (e.g., 50” - 95”) electronic display that
is connected to a computer and a proj...
How the IWB Operates
 It operates via software that allows the teacher and
students to use it for various purposes.
 By ...
The CRA combined with the IWB
 Teachers use the same lesson components advanced
organizer
 teacher demonstration
 guide...
Motivation through Games and
Interactive Activities
 Motivating games and activities are used for guided
practice to enha...
IWBs and Mathematics
 Research supports the claim that the use of interactive
whiteboards improves student desire to atta...
Research Behind Technology as a
Motivating Factor
 The technology has enormous potential to improve
learning and teaching...
Research Behind Teaching with the IWB
 They found that student motivation improved, especially
when the teacher showed po...
Research that Shows that Interest in
Mathematics Increased with the IWB
 Interest in mathematics was increased by the use...
Combination of Evidence-based
Instructional Practices
 Evidence-based instruction that combines the Concrete-
Representat...
Overcome Math Anxiety with Fun
 The increased success and enjoyment related to
mathematics instruction also has the poten...
References
Torff, B. & Tirotta, R. (2010). Interactive whiteboards produce
small gains in elementary students’ self-report...
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  1. 1. Using Interactive Whiteboard Technology to Implement the Concrete-Representational- Abstract Mathematical Sequence Janet Van Heck UNLV
  2. 2. Abstract  Many students with disabilities struggle in the area of mathematics.  This is especially true related to the development of conceptual knowledge.  Many students experience a lack of motivation and sometimes even experience anxiety related to this aspect of the school curriculum.  The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) teaching sequence delivered via explicit instruction and interactive whiteboard (IWB) technology helps increase both conceptual knowledge and math motivation.
  3. 3. The C-R-A Sequence  The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) teaching sequence is an evidence-based instructional practice that is used to support the development of conceptual understanding in mathematics.  When teachers use the CRA sequence, instruction on a new math skill begins at the concrete level (i.e., manipulative devices are used to represent and solve the type of math problems being taught).
  4. 4. The Representative Stage  When students reach mastery level at the concrete level, instruction progresses to the representational level (i.e., tallies).  When students reach mastery level at the representational level, instruction progresses to the abstract level.
  5. 5. Interactive Whiteboard  An IWB is a large (e.g., 50” - 95”) electronic display that is connected to a computer and a projector.  The IWB shows the image of a computer screen.
  6. 6. How the IWB Operates  It operates via software that allows the teacher and students to use it for various purposes.  By projecting a computer screen onto the board, the user can control all Windows and Mac applications with the simple movement of his or her finger on the board.
  7. 7. The CRA combined with the IWB  Teachers use the same lesson components advanced organizer  teacher demonstration  guided practice  independent practice  These lessons use both manipulative devices and drawings.  The IWB is used during each component of the lesson.
  8. 8. Motivation through Games and Interactive Activities  Motivating games and activities are used for guided practice to enhance fluency with the newly learned skill.  When corrective feedback was needed, the teacher simply used the overwrite features of the IWB.
  9. 9. IWBs and Mathematics  Research supports the claim that the use of interactive whiteboards improves student desire to attain mastery of the data .  This has been supported in qualitative research studies and also in surveys about student use of interactive whiteboards .
  10. 10. Research Behind Technology as a Motivating Factor  The technology has enormous potential to improve learning and teaching in school.  Researchers claim that it has a powerful enticement for students.  Researchers have conducted studies that examined advancement in student desire to learn in mathematics.
  11. 11. Research Behind Teaching with the IWB  They found that student motivation improved, especially when the teacher showed positive support for the use of the IWB.  Teachers who strongly supported using the board, and likely used the technology well, produced larger motivational effects in their students .
  12. 12. Research that Shows that Interest in Mathematics Increased with the IWB  Interest in mathematics was increased by the use of the interactive white board.  Students were more engaged in the math lesson in working with the board than students who did not work with the board .
  13. 13. Combination of Evidence-based Instructional Practices  Evidence-based instruction that combines the Concrete- Representational-Abstract teaching sequence with the use of an IWB has the potential to improve students’ conceptual understanding of mathematics skills while simultaneously increasing their motivation to practice these skills
  14. 14. Overcome Math Anxiety with Fun  The increased success and enjoyment related to mathematics instruction also has the potential to help students who struggle from math anxiety. Using an explicit instruction template to develop consistency across lessons is very effective. Students benefits from this type of instruction and also enjoy the learning process!
  15. 15. References Torff, B. & Tirotta, R. (2010). Interactive whiteboards produce small gains in elementary students’ self-reported motivation in mathematics. Computers & Education, 54, 379–383. Hennessy, S., Deaney, R., Ruthven, K., & Winterbottom, M. (2007). Pedagogical strategies for using the interactive whiteboard to foster learner participation in school science. Learning, Media, and Technology, 32, 283–301. Hudson, P. & Miller, S. P. (2006). Designing and Implementing Mathematics Instruction for Students with Diverse Learning Needs. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

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