2. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Definition: Statements discussing known factors or hypothetical situations and their
Usage: To communicate that something is true or happens only if something else is
true happens, only under a certain condition.
Contain a conditional clause (often referred to as the (if clause)
Eg: - 1)If a certain condition is true, then a particular result happens.
2) If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
3) When water reaches 1
00 degrees, it boils
3. TYPESOF CONDITIONALS
II ZERO (Imperative) Type – II Verb – I (Imperative) Verb – I
I ZERO – TYPE – I Verb-I Verb – I
III Type – I Verb – I + V1
4. IV Type – II Verb – II + V1
V Type – III Verb – had + V3 + have + V3
5. To talk about frequently happening actions
) If electricity fails, we use an oil lamp.
2) If he is tired, he doesn’t go for a walk.
Habitual states and actions
Use If clause (subordinate) &
Main Clause verb – V1
Zero conditional – 1
6. Refers imperative actions like
commands, advices, requests
Zero conditional – 2
• If Clause verb – V1
• Main Clause Imperative form
) If electricity fails, switch on the generator.
2) If you are tired, don’t go out.
3) If the temperature does not come down, call in the doctor.
7. Used to refer to a state of an action that may
happen or be true.
• Action ismore likely to occur.
Type – I
• Conditional Clause – V1 (Present)
• Main Clause – will/shall + V1 (Simple Future.)
8. If Clauses
In if conditional sentence there are two clauses :
1. Subordinate clause (If clause)
2. Main clause
If you stay calm, I will give you the ice cream
Subordinate clause Main clause
9. 1. Changing the sentences in to if clause:
1. Open condition
If the verb in the given sentence is in V1use open condition syntax
Syntax: If + subject + V1+ object/complement, subject + will
10. Note: if there is and/or/or else/ otherwise in the given sentence, change
subordinate clause into negative
. the fee. Then come to school. (so use open condition syntax).
If you pay the fee, you can come to the class.
2. in fast or the doors will be closed. If you don’t come in, the doors
will be closed.
11. 2. Improbable Condition:
If the verb is in V1and both sentences are in negative, use improbable
Even if there is ‘want’ in the given sentence, use the same syntax.
V1+ object/ complement
Syntax: If + subject + V2 + object/complement, subject + would
Not + V1
her address. I Not can’t write to her
If I knew her address, I could write to her.
12. Note: if there is ‘don’t’ in the very beginning of a sentence use open condition.
Note that after I/he/she/it we often use the subjunctive form ‘were’ and
not ‘was’. (Some people think that ‘were’ is the only ‘correct’ form but
other people think ‘was’ is equally ‘correct’.)
If she were happy in her job, she wouldn’t be looking for another one.
13. 3. Unfulfilled condition:
If the verb is in V2 /did + V1or there is was/were in the given sentence use
unfulfilled condition syntax.
V3 + object/ complement
Syntax: If+subject +had+V3+object/complement, subject + would
. Change sentences from:
14. I early. So the teacher asked me to stand out.
If I had come early, the teacher would not have asked me to stand out
. If I were you
The form ‘If I were you’ which is often used to give advice.
If I were you, I’d look for a new place to live.
If I were you, I’d go back to school and get more qualifications.
did + V1
did not come
15. Omitting if
Had I known… (instead of If I had known…)
Were you my daughter,… (instead of : If you were my daughter,…)
Should you need my advice,… (instead of : If you should need my advice,…)
Note that unless means if not and hence it would be wrong to use another not in clauses
with unless. Study the following examples.
She must consult a doctor. Otherwise she will not know what her problem is.
Unless she consults a doctor, she will not know what her problem is. (NOT Unless she
does not consult a doctor she will not know what her problem is.)
16. Zero’conditional clause
In ‘zero’ conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple
‘IF’ CLAUSE (CONDITION)
If + simple present
If you heat ice
If it rains
You get wet
Note: The order of the clauses is not fixed – the ‘if’ clause can be first or second.
17. WORKSHEET 12A
1. Combine the sentences using ‘If’
1. Unless you work hard, you can’t get the first rank.
2. I did not have enough money. I did not buy the book.
3. You did not invite me, so I did not attend your birthday party.
4. I don’t think you have enough money, so you cannot buy this beautiful bicycle.
5. The doctor arrived too late. He could not save the old man.
6. ‘He was not careful, so he could not avoid the accident.
7. No precautions were taken, so many were killed in the cyclone.
8. I missed the train because I was held up in the traffic jam.
9. He did not meet the chief guest. He came to the function late.
18. 10. She did not carry her driving license. She had to pay a fine.
11. I don’t have a car. So I can’t give you ride.
12. I also went there. I didn’t know that you were going there as well.
13. They got in because you didn’t lock the door properly.
14. You must reach the station within fifteen minutes or I will die.
15. I didn’t have your telephone number. I couldn’t call you.
16. I didn’t know it was hot. I didn’t bring the umbrella.
17. Don’t go out. You will not be given.
18. Be good. You get ice cream.
19. Buy one glass. The other one is free.
19. 20. I will contact you before five this evening. It means that our party is on.
21. I will call you before five this evening. This means that you must meet me at the
22. Malini is not here. She will not approve of what you are doing.
23. You are suffering from severe cold, but don’t seem to have the idea of consulting a
24. You get a lot of opportunities but you don’t avail yourself of them.
25. Unless she refuses me personally, I will never believe it.
26. I never wrote letter; so she did not like me.
20. WORKSHEET 12B
I. Combine the sentences using “Unless”
1. If he does no pay any respect, he will be taken to the principal.
2. If he is not careful, he will be caught some day.
3. If I follow his instructions, I will be saved from a lot of trouble.
4. If I shelter the culprit, I will become an accessory to the crime.
5. If the priest does not arrive in time, the last rites will not be performed.
6. If you are not hungry, please don’t eat. (Don’t)
7. If you knock the door, someone will open it. (No one)