Jayanti R Pande
RTMNU MBA Sem 4 – TEAM DYNAMICS [HR]
MODULE NO 4: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Conflict is a disagreement between two or
more parties caused by incompatible goals,
interests, or beliefs. It can be minor or violent
and arise from differences in values, culture,
power, or ideology. Managing or resolving
conflict can greatly impact the outcome and
relationship between the parties involved.
DEFINITION OF CONFLICT
Conflict is an opposition or clash between two
or more parties with differing goals, interests,
Joe Kelly – “Conflict is defined as opposition
or dispute between persons, groups or ideas.”
NATURE OF CONFLICT
1 Differences in opinions and perspectives:
Conflict can arise when team members have
different ideas, opinions, and perspectives on
how to approach a task or project.
2 Communication breakdown:
Misunderstandings, lack of communication, or
poor communication can lead to conflict in
3 Personality clashes: Personal differences,
such as conflicting values, beliefs, or
behaviors, can cause tension and conflict
among team members.
4 Competition for resources: Conflict can
arise when team members compete for
limited resources, such as time, money, or
5 Power struggles: Conflict can occur when
team members struggle for power or
influence within the team, or when there is a
perceived imbalance of power between team
TYPES/LEVELS OF CONFLICT
1] INDIVIDUAL LEVEL CONFLICT - conflicts
between individuals in personal or work-
A. Intra-individual conflict - conflict within an
individual caused by competing demands or
values, leading to stress or anxiety.
B. Inter-individual conflict - conflict between
two or more individuals due to differences in
opinion, values, or goals in personal or
2] GROUP LEVEL CONFLICT - conflicts
between members of a group or between
A. Intra-group conflict - conflict within a
group due to differing opinions, values, or
goals that can reduce group cohesiveness and
B.Inter-group conflict - conflict between two
or more groups caused by differences in
opinions, values, or goals that can result in
harmful outcomes, and occur in various
3] ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL CONFLICT -
conflicts that occur within or between
A.Intra-organizational conflict - conflict
within an organization due to differences in
opinion, values, or goals among its members,
occurring between different departments or
B.Inter-organizational conflict - conflict
between two or more organizations due to
differences in opinion, values, or goals,
occurring due to competition for resources,
market share, or customers.
SOURCES/BASES OF CONFLICT:
1 Organizational Change: Disruptive changes
can create uncertainty and differences of
opinions among employees.
2 Values Differences: Differences in values,
beliefs, and priorities among employees can
lead to conflicts.
3 Perception Differences: Different
perceptions of the same situation can lead to
misunderstandings and conflicts.
4 Lack of Trust: A lack of trust between
employees or between employees and
management can lead to conflicts.
5 Interdepartmental Disputes: Conflicts can
arise between different departments or teams
in an organization, often due to
disagreements about job responsibilities and
PROCESS OF CONFLICT
1 Latent conflict: Potential conflict exists but
is not yet expressed or acknowledged.
2 Perceived conflict: Parties become aware of
the conflict and perceive it as a problem.
Jayanti R Pande
3 Felt conflict: Emotional response to the
conflict, including frustration, anger, anxiety,
4 Manifest conflict: Conflict becomes more
visible, involving open disagreement and
5 Conflict outcome: Parties work towards a
solution that addresses underlying issues and
resolves the conflict.
EFFECTS OF CONFLICT
Promotes personal growth
Creates a negative work environment
Conflict management is the process of
resolving conflicts through effective
communication, collaboration, and respect. It
can prevent escalation and improve
workplace relationships and productivity. HR
professionals and managers play a vital role,
and it may involve mediation, negotiation, or
specific techniques like conflict mapping.
Addressing conflicts promptly and with
flexibility can promote a positive workplace
TYPES OF TEAM CONFLICT
1 Task-based conflicts: Differing opinions on
how to approach a task or project.
2 Leadership conflicts: Differing opinions on
how to lead or manage the team.
3 Work style conflicts: Different work styles
or ways of approaching tasks.
4 Personality clashes: Differences in
personality that lead to tension or
PROCESS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
1 Preliminary step: Create a culture of open
communication and establish ground rules for
2 Diagnosing the issue: Identify the source of
conflict and gather information from all
3 Conflict handling models:
A. Controlling conflict: Use assertive
communication, active listening, and
negotiation skills to control conflict
B. Not allowing the emergence of conflict:
Prevention through expectation setting,
effective communication channels, and
C. Mediation: Third-party intervention to
facilitate discussions and achieve mutually
D. Mutual problem solving: Collaboratively
solve problems by addressing underlying
interests and needs
STRATEGIES [By Kenneth Thomas]
1 Avoiding: Ignoring or avoiding the conflict in
hopes that it will go away or resolve itself.
2 Accommodating: Prioritizing the needs and
wants of the other party in the conflict and
making concessions to maintain a good
3 Competing: Taking a firm stand and
pursuing one's own interests at the expense
of the other party.
4 Compromising: Finding a middle ground or
mutually acceptable solution that both parties
can agree on.
5 Collaborating: Working together with the
other party to identify and address the
underlying issues and interests to create a
mutually beneficial solution.
Collaboration is working together to achieve a
shared goal, involving coordination and
cooperation. It can happen within or between
teams/organizations, using communication
and technology to tap into collective
knowledge and drive innovation.
DEFIINITION OF COLLABORATION
Collaboration is the process of working
together to achieve a common goal.
Wood and Gray - “Collaboration is an
interactive process, using shared rules, norms
& structure to act or decide on issues related
CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLABORATION
1 Shared goals: Working towards a common
Jayanti R Pande
purpose or objective.
2 Open communication: Freely exchanging
ideas and feedback.
3 Mutual respect: Valuing each other's
perspectives and contributions.
4 Trust: Believing in the reliability and
integrity of others.
5 Cooperation: Willingness to work together
towards a shared goal.
FUNCTIONS OF COLLABORATION
1. Idea generation: Producing a wide range
of potential solutions or approaches.
2. Problem-solving: Analyzing complex
issues and generating effective solutions.
3. Decision-making: Choosing the best
course of action from among multiple
4. Task allocation: Assigning responsibilities
and delegating tasks.
5. Knowledge sharing: Combining individual
expertise and perspectives to create new
insights and understanding.
BASES OF COLLABORATION
1 Group Norms: Established guidelines for
communication and work can enhance
2 Payoff: Belief in benefits of collaboration
can motivate members to engage in the
3 Perceived Power: Power dynamics can
influence willingness to engage in
4 Mutual Trust: High level of mutual trust is
often necessary for successful collaboration.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPETITIVE &
1. Focus on individual goals: Competitive
behaviour is often focused on individual
goals and achievements, rather than on
working together with others.
2. Win-lose mentality: In competitive
situations, there is often a win-lose
mentality, where one person or team's
success means another's failure.
3. Limited communication: Competitive
behaviour can involve limited
communication, as individuals may be
focused on their own success rather than
on sharing information and working
4. Limited collaboration: Competitive
behaviour may involve limited
collaboration, as individuals may be
hesitant to work together if it doesn't
directly benefit their own goals.
5. Conflict and tension: Competitive
behaviour can create conflict and tension
among team members, especially if the
goals of different individuals or teams are
in direct opposition.
6. Limited innovation: Competitive
behaviour may limit innovation, as
individuals may be hesitant to share new
ideas or collaborate on new approaches if
they feel it gives others an advantage.
1. Focus on shared goals: Collaborative
behaviour is focused on working together
to achieve shared goals, rather than on
2. Win-win mentality: In collaborative
situations, the focus is on achieving
success for everyone involved, rather than
on one person or team winning at the
expense of another.
3. Open communication: Collaborative
behaviour involves open communication,
as individuals share information and work
together to solve problems and achieve
4. Active collaboration: Collaboration
involves active collaboration, as
individuals work together to achieve
shared goals, share resources and ideas,
and support each other.
5. Positive relationships: Collaboration can
create positive relationships among team
members, as they work together toward a
common purpose and build trust and
respect for one another.
6. Innovation: Collaboration can foster
innovation, as team members share
diverse perspectives and ideas, and work
together to create new solutions and
Jayanti R Pande
1 Team Building: Games and activities to
develop trust, communication, and teamwork.
2 Process Streamlining: Reduce confusion and
improve efficiency for effective collaboration.
3 Communication Improvement: Build trust
and ensure common goals by improving
4 Employee Engagement: Increase motivation
and productivity for better collaboration.
5 Interdependence: Encourage working
together for trust-building and achieving
6 Collaboration Portal: Streamline
communication, facilitate idea-sharing, and
FACTORS IN COLLABORATIVE BEHAVIOUR
A] Cooperative initiative factor: Willingness
to initiate cooperation and work towards a
B] Compensatory cooperation factor: Making
up for previous losses or mistakes through
C] Unconditional cooperation factor:
Cooperating without expecting anything in
D] Chronic competition factor: The presence
of competition that undermines cooperation
and hinders the achievement of shared goals.
ESSENTIALS OF COLLABORATION
1] Goals: A shared understanding of what the
group aims to achieve.
2] Accountability: Clear responsibilities and
expectations for each member of the group.
3] Planning: Developing a strategy or
roadmap for achieving the group's goals.
4] Communication: Open and honest
communication channels that allow for
effective collaboration and problem-solving.
5] Training: Providing members with the skills
and knowledge needed to effectively
collaborate and contribute to the group's