“We’ve got nothing, technology-wise, that anyone else can’t
have. There is no secret Toyota quality machine out there.
The quality machine is the workforce-the team members on
the paint line, the suppliers, the engineers-everybody who
has a hand in production takes the attitude that we are
making world-class vehicles.”-Georgetown Kentucky Toyota Plant,
Gold quality Awardee
“No organization can survive without good people; people
who are improving. The human resource is the only one that
competitors cannot copy, and the only one that can
synergize, that is produce output whose value is greater than
the sum of its parts.
“The person who figures out how to harness the collective
genius of the people in his or her organization is going to
blow the competitions away.”
-CEO of Citibank
A study found that there is a direct correlation between
customer and workforce satisfaction.
An extensive study by the Gallup Organization of 7,939
business units in 36 companies showed that employee
satisfaction and engagement were positively related not only
to customer satisfaction and loyalty, but also to productivity,
profit, turnover, and safety.
ISO 9000:2000 includes several workforce-focused
requirements: “Personnel performing work affecting
product quality shall be competent on the basis of
appropriate education, training, skills, and experience.”
refers to everyone who is actively involved of accomplishing the work in
Managers at all levels
Key Workforce-Focused Practices for
❖ Understand the key factors that drive workforce
engagement, satisfaction, and motivation.
❖ Design and manage work and jobs to promote
effective communication, cooperation, skill sharing,
empowerment, innovation, and the ability to benefit
from diverse ideas and thinking of employees and
develop an organizational culture conducive to high
performance and motivation.
❖ Make appropriate investments in development and
learning, both for the workforce and the organization’s
❖ Create an environment that ensures and improves
workplace health, safety, and security, and supports the
workforce via policies, services, and benefits.
❖ Develop a performance management
system based on compensation,
recognition, reward, and incentives that
supports high performance work and
❖ Assess workforce engagement and
satisfaction and use results for improvement.
❖ Assess workforce capability and capacity needs
and use the results to capitalize on core
competencies, address strategic challenges, recruit
and retain skilled and competent people, and
accomplish the work of the organization.
❖ Manage career progression for the entire
workforce and succession planning for
management and leadership positions.
Evolution of Workforce Management
➢ Father of scientific management
➢ Obsessed with order and control
➢ piece rate system increased
productivity among factory workers
➢ Born in 1856 at Germantown
➢ Philosophy known as Taylorism
➢ Died 1915
Evolution of work-force management
Is the function performed in the organization that facilitates
the most effective use of people (employees) to achieve
organizational and individual goals.
Build a high-perfromance workplace and maintain an
enironment for wuality wxcellence to enable employees &
organization to achieve strategic objectives & adapt to
WORKFORCE MANAGEMENT Activities designed to
provide for and coordinate the people of an organization:
❏ Determining the organizations workforce needs
❏ Assisting in the design of work systems
❏ Recruiting, selecting , training,and developing,
counseling,motivating and rewarding employees.
❏ Acting as a liason, with unionsand governments
❏ Handling others matters of employee well being.
(Today, this principles have permeated not only in HR but
also in daily job responsibilities of managers at all levels.
STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
➢ Concerned with the contributions HR strategies make to
organizational effectiveness and how this contributions
➢ It involves designing,and implementing a set of
internally consistent policies and practices to ensure that
an organizations human capital (employees collective
knowledge, skills,and abilities)contributes to overall
HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK CULTURE
Performance- the extent to which an individual
contributes to achieving the goals and objectives of
High-performance work- work approaches used
to systematically pursue ever higher levels of overall
organizational and human performance .
❖ Knowledge and skill sharing
❖ Alignment with organizational directions,
customer focus,and rapid response to changing
business needs and market place requirements.
“Conditions of Collaboration” in a High Performance
❖ Respect- believing in the inherent worth of another person
❖ Values- are the guiding principles and behaviors that embody
how the organization and its people are expected to operate.
❖ Aligned values- create a congruency between what the
organization stands for and the personal beliefs of individual
❖ Shared purpose- is the fundamental reason an
❖ Communication- is often cited as one of the most
important factors related to motivation.
❖ Trust- management trusts the worforce and vice-versa is vital.
❖ The extent of workforce commitment both
emotional and intellectual, to accomplishing the
work, mission, and vision of the organization.
■ Find personal meaning and motivation in their
■ Have a strong emotional bond to their organization,
are actively involved in and committed to their
■ Feel that their jobs are important, know that their
opinions and ideas have value and
■ Often go beyond their immediate job
responsibilities for the good of the organization.
ADVANTAGE OF WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT
● Replace the adversarial mentality with trust and
● Develops the skills and leaderships capability of
individuals, creating a sense of mission and fostering trust
● Increase employee morale and commitment to the
● Foster creativity and innovation , the source of
● Helps people understands quality principles and instill
these principles into the corporate culture
● Allows employee to solve problems at the source
● Improves quality and productivity
Top 10 drivers of workforce engagement
1. Commitment to organizational values
2. Knowing that customers are satisfied with
products and services
3. Beliefs that opinions counts
4. Clearly understanding work expectations
5. Understanding of how personal contributions
help meet customers need
6. Being recognized and rewarded fairly.
7. Knowing that senior leaders value the
8. Being treated equally with respect
9. Being able to concentrate on the job
and work processes
10. Alignment of personal work
objectives to work plan.
Employee Involvement (EI)
❖ Any activity by which employees participate in work-related
decisions and improvement activities, with the objectives of tapping
the creative energies of all employees and improving their
❖ Employee suggestion system is a management tool for submission ,
evaluation, and implementation of an employee’s idea to save cost,
increase quality, or improve other elements of work such as safety.
Motivation – is the art of creating
conditions that aloow every one of us, warts and
all, to get his work done at his own peak level of
- an individual’s response to a felt need
(there is no such thing as an unmotivated employee,
but the system within which people work can either
seriously impede motivation or enhance it)
Designing High-Performance Work Systems
❖ Work and Job Design
❖ Work Environment
❖ Workforce Learning and Development
❖ Compensation and Recognition
❖ Performance Management
Work and Job Design
❖ Work design refers to how employees are
organized in formal and informal units, such as
departments and teams.
❖ Job design refers to responsibilities and tasks
assigned to individuals.
Job Design Characteristics
• Task significance- the degree that job gives substantial impact on
• Task identity- the degree in which the task is perceived as a whole,
identifiable piece of work from start to finish.
• Skill variety- job that requires to use variety of skills and talents
• Autonomy- the task permits freedom, independence and personal
• Feedback from job- clear and timely information about the
effectiveness of performance of individual is available.
Enhancing Work Design Job enlargement
– expanding workers’ jobs
● Job rotation – having workers learn several tasks
and rotate among them
● Job enrichment – granting more authority,
responsibility, and autonomy
➔ The model proposes that five core characteristics of job
design (task significance, task identity, skill variety,
autonomy, and feedback from the job) influence three
critical psychological states (experienced
meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and
knowledge of results), which in turn, drive work
outcomes (employee motivation, growth satisfaction,
overall job satisfaction, and work effectiveness).
Giving people authority to make decisions
based on what they feel is right, to have
control over their work, to take risks and
learn from mistakes, and to promote change.
“A sincere belief and trust in people.”
• Provide education, resources, and encouragement
• Remove restrictive policies/procedures
• Foster an atmosphere of trust
• Share information freely
• Make work valuable
• Train managers in “hands-off” leadership
• Train employees in allowed latitude
➔ A small number of people with complementary
skills who are committed to a common purpose,
set of performance goals, and approach for
which they hold themselves mutually
Types of Teams Management teams Natural
work teams Self managed teams
● Virtual teams
● Quality circles
● Problem solving teams
● Project teams
Team Skill Requirements
● Conflict management and resolution
● Team management
● Leadership skills
● Decision making
● Cross-cultural training
Ingredients for Successful Teams
★ Clarity in team goals
★ Improvement plan
★ Clearly defined roles
★ Clear communication
★ Beneficial team behaviors
★ Well-defined decision procedures
★ Balanced participation
★ Established ground rules
★ Awareness of group process
★ Use of scientific approach
Compensation and Recognition
➔ refer to all aspects of pay and reward, including
promotions, bonuses, and recognition, either
monetary and nonmonetary or individual and group.
● Merit versus capability/performance based plans
● Monetary or non-monetary
● Formal or informal
● Individual or group
Effective Recognition and Reward
● Give both individual and team awards
● Involve everyone
● Tie rewards to quality
● Allow peers and customers to nominate and recognize
● Publicize extensively
● Make recognition fun
Assessing Workforce Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and
● Process Measures
➔ number of suggestions that employees make, numbers of
participants in project teams, participation in educational
programs, average time it takes to complete a process
improvement project, whether teams are getting better, smarter,
and faster at performing improvements, improvements in team
selection and planning processes, frequency of use of quality
improvement tools, employee understanding of problem-solving
approaches, and senior management involvement.
Measuring Workforce Engagement
❖ Gallup Q survey statements that Gallup found as those that best
form the foundation of strong feelings of engagement.
● what is expected in one’s work
● having the right materials and equipment to do the job
● receiving recognition and feedback on progress and development
● having opinions that count
● feeling of importance of the job
● opportunities to learn grow and develop
Gallup Engagement Index Classification
1. Engaged employees who work with passion and feel a profound connection
to their company. They drive innovation and move the organization forward.
2. Not-engaged employees who are essentially “checked out.” They are
sleepwalking through their workday. They are putting in time, but not enough
energy or passion into their work.
3. Actively disengaged employees who aren’t just unhappy at work; they’re
busy acting out their unhappiness. Every day, these workers undermine what
their engaged coworkers accomplish.
Sustaining High-Performance Work Systems
Regular assessment of:
● workforce capability and capacity needs;
● hiring, training and retention of employees; and
● career progression and succession planning
Workforce Capability and Capacity
➔ refers to an organization’s ability to
accomplish its work processes
through the knowledge, skills,
abilities, and competencies of its
➔refers to an organization’s ability to ensure
sufficient staffing levels to accomplish its work
processes and successfully deliver products and
services to customers, including the ability to meet
seasonal or varying demand levels.
Effective Hiring Practices
● Determine key employee skills and competencies.
● Identify job candidates based on required skills and
● Screen job candidates to predict suitability and match
● Formal processes to identify, develop, and position
● Mentoring, coaching, and job rotation
● Career paths and progression for all employees
● Succession planning is vital to long-term
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