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Western Philippines University
What is Lymphatic System?
•The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs
that primarily consists of lymph vessel...
Lymph
•Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic
system.
•Lymph returns proteins and excess interstitial...
1. Lymph Vessels
Like arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels
sprawl in a connected system to collect the
lymph that leaks f...
2. Lymph Nodes
They filter the lymph that passes through the vessels
and add lymphocytes to it.
- Lymphocytes are a type o...
3. Tonsils
A main function of tonsils is to trap germs
(bacteria and viruses) which you may breathe in.
Proteins called an...
4. Thymus
The function of the thymus is to receive
immature T cells that are produced in the red
bone marrow and train the...
5. Spleen
The largest organ of the lymphatic system,
processes blood and removes dead or defective red
blood cells, and ke...
Body Defenses
The body is constantly in contact with bacteria, fungi,
and viruses.
The body has two defense systems for fo...
Nonspecificdefensesystem
•Mechanisms protect against a variety of invaders
•Responds immediately to protect body from fore...
Specificdefense system
•Known as the immune system
•Specific defense is required for each type of invader
Body Defenses
Body Defenses
1st Line of Defense (Surface Membrane Barriers)
1. The skin
• Physical barrier to foreign materials
• pH of the skin is ac...
Defensive Cells
Phagocytes
(neutrophils and
macrophages)
• Engulfs foreign material into
a vacuole
• Enzymes from lysosome...
2nd Line of Defense (Inflammatory Response)
•Triggered when body tissues are injured
•Produces four cardinal signs
1. Redn...
Functions of the Inflammatory Response
• Prevents spread of damaging agents
• Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
• Sets...
The Inflammatory Response
•Begins with a chemical ‘alarm”- Histamines when
cells are injured
•Blood vessels dilate increas...
3rd Line of Defense (The Immune System )
•Antigen specific – recognizes and acts against
particular foreign substances
•It...
2 Types of Immunity
Humoral immunity
• Its Antibody-mediated immunity where antibodies are
present in the body’s fluids
• ...
Antigens
(Nonself = foreign intruders)
•Antigen = any substance capable of exciting the
immune system and provoking an imm...
Self - Antigens
• Human cells have many surface proteins
• Our immune cells do not attack our own proteins
• Our cells in ...
Passive Immunity
• Antibodies are obtained from someone else
- From a mother to her fetus
- Artificially from immune serum...
Disorders of the Immunity
1. Allergies (Hypersensitivity)
Reaction with allergen
2. Immunodeficiencies
Production or fun...
Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System
•Lymphoid organs are poorly developed before birth, except
the thymus & sple...
Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lymphatic system and body defenses
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Lymphatic system & Immunity
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Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lymphatic system and body defenses

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lymphatic System and body defenses.
This presentation was made by Jethro Baltazar showing the Lymphatic system, Parts of Lymphatic system, Function of Lymphatic System, The body defenses including the importance of Lymphatic System in defending our body, Disorders of immunity and Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System.

Email me at emulsifier1998@gmail.com and jethrobaltazar1998@yahoo.com for more information and permission to download. You can also text me at 09096530340.

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Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lymphatic system and body defenses

  1. 1. Western Philippines University
  2. 2. What is Lymphatic System? •The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that primarily consists of lymph vessels, lymph nodes and lymph. •Is part of the body’s defense system against microorganisms and other harmful substances. In addition, it help maintain fluid balance in tissues and to absorbs fats from the digestive tract.
  3. 3. Lymph •Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system. •Lymph returns proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph may pick up bacteria and bring them to lymph nodes where they are destroyed. Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels: • Bacteria • Viruses • Cancer cells • Cell debris
  4. 4. 1. Lymph Vessels Like arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels sprawl in a connected system to collect the lymph that leaks from the blood capillaries and conduct it to the large veins of the neck. The network functions to return lymph to the general circulation.
  5. 5. 2. Lymph Nodes They filter the lymph that passes through the vessels and add lymphocytes to it. - Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. There are two types, small lymphocytes and large lymphocytes, and they defend the host from disease and infection.
  6. 6. 3. Tonsils A main function of tonsils is to trap germs (bacteria and viruses) which you may breathe in. Proteins called antibodies produced by the immune cells in the tonsils help to kill germs and help to prevent throat and lung infections.
  7. 7. 4. Thymus The function of the thymus is to receive immature T cells that are produced in the red bone marrow and train them into functional, mature T cells that attack only foreign cells.
  8. 8. 5. Spleen The largest organ of the lymphatic system, processes blood and removes dead or defective red blood cells, and keeps a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhaging. It also produces new red blood cells in a developing fetus. The spleen also serves as a site where lymphocyte populations increase. Did you know that you can live without a spleen? Your liver will take over some of the spleen's work!
  9. 9. Body Defenses The body is constantly in contact with bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The body has two defense systems for foreign materials: •Nonspecific defense system •Specific defense system
  10. 10. Nonspecificdefensesystem •Mechanisms protect against a variety of invaders •Responds immediately to protect body from foreign materials •Provided by body surface coverings - intact skin, mucous membrane, cellular proteins and inflammatory response. •Specialized human cells •Chemicals produced by the body as the immune system. Body Defenses
  11. 11. Specificdefense system •Known as the immune system •Specific defense is required for each type of invader Body Defenses
  12. 12. Body Defenses
  13. 13. 1st Line of Defense (Surface Membrane Barriers) 1. The skin • Physical barrier to foreign materials • pH of the skin is acidic to inhibit bacterial growth • Sebum is toxic to bacteria • Vaginal secretions are very acidic 2. Stomach mucosa • Secretes hydrochloric acid • Has protein-digesting enzymes - Saliva and lacrimal fluid contain lysozyme - Mucus traps microogranisms in digestive and respiratory pathways
  14. 14. Defensive Cells Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) • Engulfs foreign material into a vacuole • Enzymes from lysosomes digest the material Natural killer cells • Can lyse and kill cancer cells • Can destroy virus- infected cells
  15. 15. 2nd Line of Defense (Inflammatory Response) •Triggered when body tissues are injured •Produces four cardinal signs 1. Redness 2. Heat 3. Swelling 4. Pain •Results in a chain of events leading to protection and healing Inflammatory response
  16. 16. Functions of the Inflammatory Response • Prevents spread of damaging agents • Disposes of cell debris and pathogens • Sets the stage for repair
  17. 17. The Inflammatory Response •Begins with a chemical ‘alarm”- Histamines when cells are injured •Blood vessels dilate increases blood flow to area causing redness and heat. •Capillary beds become permeable becoming leaky, which increases edema •Pain receptors are activated •Phagocytes and WBC are attracted to the area: - Chemotaxis = cells follow chemical gradient
  18. 18. 3rd Line of Defense (The Immune System ) •Antigen specific – recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances •It stalks and eliminates any invading pathogen •Systemic – not restricted to the initial infection site •Has memory – recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens
  19. 19. 2 Types of Immunity Humoral immunity • Its Antibody-mediated immunity where antibodies are present in the body’s fluids • Cells produce chemicals for defense Cellular immunity • Cell-mediated immunity where lymphocytes themselves defend the body. • Cells are the protective factors that target virus infected cells
  20. 20. Antigens (Nonself = foreign intruders) •Antigen = any substance capable of exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response •Examples of common antigens: • foreign proteins, nucleic acids, large carbohydrates, pollen grains, microorganisms •As the immunity system develops, it inventories all these proteins so it recognizes them as self.
  21. 21. Self - Antigens • Human cells have many surface proteins • Our immune cells do not attack our own proteins • Our cells in another person’s body can trigger an immune response because they are foreign •Restricts donors for transplants
  22. 22. Passive Immunity • Antibodies are obtained from someone else - From a mother to her fetus - Artificially from immune serum or gamma globulin • Immunological memory does not occur. • Protection provided by “borrowed antibodies” is short-lived
  23. 23. Disorders of the Immunity 1. Allergies (Hypersensitivity) Reaction with allergen 2. Immunodeficiencies Production or function of immune cells or complement is abnormal 3. Autoimmune Diseases The immune system does not distinguish between self and nonself The body produces antibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes that attack its own tissues
  24. 24. Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System •Lymphoid organs are poorly developed before birth, except the thymus & spleen •A newborn has no functioning lymphocytes at birth; only passive immunity from the mother •If lymphatics are removed or lost, severe edema results, but vessels grow back in time.
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Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lymphatic System and body defenses. This presentation was made by Jethro Baltazar showing the Lymphatic system, Parts of Lymphatic system, Function of Lymphatic System, The body defenses including the importance of Lymphatic System in defending our body, Disorders of immunity and Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System. Email me at emulsifier1998@gmail.com and jethrobaltazar1998@yahoo.com for more information and permission to download. You can also text me at 09096530340.

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