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UNICEF
IT 515 Final Proposal
Jo-AnneBrandes
Tableof Contents
Background..................................................................................................
 Licensing/Compliance Boards/Regulators.............................................................................26
Et...
Background
UNICEF has been around for almost 70 years, providing services ranging from feeding children
in Europe during W...
UNICEF workers are dependent on communication locally between each other and emergency
personnel and communication back to...
those are the best solutions, I think they are outdated and there are some new innovative
technologies that are better sui...
mobile phones can be accessible is an absolute requirement for communication. As mentioned
in an article by Ben Popper fro...
“The Serval Project aims to bring infrastructure-free mobile communication to people in need, such as
during crisis and di...
Twitter, Facebook). inReach is also compatible with a mobile phone so the user can access
topographic maps, NOAA charts fo...
 Like the Serval only project, the need to install the application on every phone in the
network, therefore the need to h...
Stakeholder Effect
 UNICEF personnel locally
o Local personnel can now rely on a mobile network to communicate with other...
Implementation
 Download and install the Serval app from the Google Play store
 Currently root access is required
 Use ...
o Global survivors/family are still unable to communicate reliably with local
victims as the range is not good enough
DeLo...
 Mobile phones need to be donated to if not available in certain locations because of
funding
Benefits
 Mobile to mobile...
Selection
After a careful analysis of Google Loon, the Serval Project and Serval+InReach it seems that in
the long run aft...
about an area 80km in diameter using LTE ("Project Loon" n.d.). Mobile phones using Google
Loon will still need the follow...
and made it the number one search engine/browser of today. “I think that connectivity will
become a human right,” said say...
The Google Loon project does not need to rely on consumers learning about the internet,
consumers are already knowledgeabl...
countries where UNICEF provides the most efforts and disasters, lower incomes, no internet
access and high poverty levels ...
o Roll out to more sites after beta phase is complete (including testing,
deployment (go live), on going maintenance/suppo...
been publically launched. This is probably the best option for UNICEF as Google has a history
of “ditching projects” like ...
expediently build new balloons though this again needs to be developed further before Google
can publically deploy Loon. A...
imagine a Wi-Fi network blasting down at high power from the heavens.If your wireless router is using the
same airwaves, i...
1. Form Project Team
2. Research and Analysis
3. Collaboration Discussions
4. Discuss Plans for Public Installation
a. Sit...
necessary to communicate the upcoming changes well in advance and then as the time gets
closer to the switch to Loon as we...
 UNICEF
o Management, Administration, Global Relief Personnel (all encompassing), IT
 Telecom Providers
o Management, IT...
 UNICEF
 Management – provide relief personnel the ability to communicate via
voice/data globally and locally, communica...
 The “government” – clarification regarding if the balloon is an unmanned
aircraft (UAS), does it fit under the FAA defin...
1. In any business practice, honesty and integrity must be top priority for executives
including having an open door polic...
organization so there are concerns about child safety, child pornography, human trafficking and
such that need to be taken...
 Each country will need its own separate agreement
 Will there be financial assistance? Agreements based on assistance
...
“Countries who abide by the ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization] use their standards to
decide if an aircraft ...
ensure security. As discussed with security concerns, when privacy is gained security is lost and
when security is gained,...
5. Wireless communication policies
6. Policies for personal identifiers
7. Email/VM policies
The implementation of Google ...
 Hacked for the purposes of dropping the balloons on top of the most congested airspace
and potentially threatening to br...
the balloons fly at “military reconnaissance altitude” which many countries are certainly not
going to approve of given pl...
Appendices
Appendix 1
Alpha Phase Timeline
Appendix 2
Beta Phase Timeline
Appendix 3
Pubic Phase Timeline
References:
Agarwal, S. (2015). Google’s balloon-based internet for everyone project Loon flies rough
weather in India. ti...
Lotich, P. (2014). 8 Steps to Implementing Successful Organizational Change — The Thriving
Small Business. The Thriving Sm...
You don’t want to be playing hide-and-seek with your signal out there. (n.d.). Retrieved January
8, 2016, from http://www....
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  1. 1. UNICEF IT 515 Final Proposal Jo-AnneBrandes
  2. 2. Tableof Contents Background..................................................................................................................................... 4 Innovative Technologies................................................................................................................ 6 Google Project Loon – Balloon-Powered Internet for Everyone........................................................6 The Serval Project..........................................................................................................................7 DeLorme inReach+Serval Project Combo ........................................................................................8 Technology Assessment ............................................................................................................... 10 Google Loon.................................................................................................................................10 Cost.........................................................................................................................................10 Implementation........................................................................................................................10 Benefits...................................................................................................................................10 Stakeholder Effect....................................................................................................................11 The Serval Project........................................................................................................................11 Cost.........................................................................................................................................11 Implementation........................................................................................................................12 Benefits...................................................................................................................................12 Stakeholder Effect....................................................................................................................12 DeLorme inReach+Serval Project Combo ......................................................................................13 Cost.........................................................................................................................................13 Implementation........................................................................................................................13 Benefits...................................................................................................................................14 Stakeholder Effect....................................................................................................................14 Selection ....................................................................................................................................... 15 Ideal Timing .................................................................................................................................. 16 Timelines....................................................................................................................................... 19 Variables....................................................................................................................................... 21 Implementation Plan.................................................................................................................... 23 1. Form Project Team...........................................................................................................24 2. Research and Analysis.......................................................................................................24 3. Collaboration Discussions..................................................................................................24 4. DiscussPlans for Public Installation....................................................................................24 a. Site Assessment................................................................................................................24 b. Deploy/Go-Live.................................................................................................................24 c. QA/Test...........................................................................................................................24 5. Documentation ................................................................................................................24 6. Training............................................................................................................................24 7. Maintenance/Follow-up....................................................................................................24 Communication/Current Processes...............................................................................................24 Stakeholders................................................................................................................................. 25  Google.................................................................................................................................25  UNICEF................................................................................................................................26  Telecom Providers ...............................................................................................................26
  3. 3.  Licensing/Compliance Boards/Regulators.............................................................................26 Ethical Compliance....................................................................................................................... 28 Legal Compliance.......................................................................................................................... 30 United Nations (UN).....................................................................................................................30 Host Countries.............................................................................................................................30 Google.........................................................................................................................................31 Security......................................................................................................................................... 33 FAA .............................................................................................................................................34 EPA..............................................................................................................................................35 Department of Defense/NSA........................................................................................................35 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 36 Appendices................................................................................................................................... 37 Appendix 1 ..................................................................................................................................37 Alpha Phase Timeline................................................................................................................37 Appendix 2 ..................................................................................................................................37 Beta Phase Timeline .................................................................................................................37 Appendix 3 ..................................................................................................................................38 Pubic Phase Timeline................................................................................................................38 References.................................................................................................................................... 39
  4. 4. Background UNICEF has been around for almost 70 years, providing services ranging from feeding children in Europe during World War II to helping with the refugee and migrant crisis in Syria just this past year. One of the many functions of UNICEF is to respond to natural disasters and assist those who need help. As one can imagine, during a natural disaster, communication is key. UNICEF needs a reliable, fail safe, physically robust way to communicate 24/7 to local personnel and their headquarters. People are trying to get hold of help and of loved ones; emergency personnel need to communicate with each other within the local area and - of course - supplies are key, so communication back to a home base is vital. During the China earthquake in 2008, Katz mentions that “the communication within Chengdu was down because of the dramatic increase of usage.” (Katz, 2011 p.92). He continues to talk about how communication was “congested” and “disrupted”. This can be expected though and is a huge challenge for UNICEF while assisting in natural disaster situations. Katz continues to mention that mobile phone use “became impossible” about a half hour after the earthquake. In the London bombings in 2005, Katz recalls that phone calls rose 67% and text messages increased by 20% and that alone jammed up the networks in the London area. (Katz, 2011 p.92). The issue that arises during these natural disasters is of course increased traffic as discussed earlier but also damage to cell towers, antennas, backup supplies, cables and any power that make the cell towers actually work. This is a huge challenge given the reliance on mobile networks in this current age. Landline phones cannot handle the influx so people turn to mobile phones. The issue comes when cellular towers are down for numerous days because of cell tower damage so there needs to be another way.
  5. 5. UNICEF workers are dependent on communication locally between each other and emergency personnel and communication back to headquarters for supplies in these critical first days. Many of the challenges associated with improving communications are limited budgets, weather (especially after and during natural disasters), distance (local vs global) and users that are not used to high tech equipment in many countries. According to Graywolf Survival, when it comes to emergency communication there are a few choices:  CB radios (lack of people using them in your range – limited)  Satellite phones (very expensive for the phone and the service)  GMRS, FRS and MURS radios (power and range limitations)  Ham radio (require repeaters for long distances) The above solutions do not rely on a mobile network so this makes them a great temporary solution. Graywolf suggests that the use of ham radios is the best of the four options. He states the following: “Ham radio is the go-to communication systemfor pretty much every emergency response systemand is what MARS (the Military Auxiliary Radio System) and ARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service) both use,as well as many search and rescue and otheremergency groups.” Ham radio has the benefit that it can reach NOAA, the national weather service frequencies, and it can also scan local emergency frequencies. Ham radios can get a much wider range than CB radios so it will be much easier to reach someone on the same frequency during a disaster situation. This of course relies on the fact that the repeaters are up and power has not gone down. There must be repeaters in the area that can help transmit the data over long distances and according to Graywolf most repeaters will run on backup power supplies. I don’t quite agree that
  6. 6. those are the best solutions, I think they are outdated and there are some new innovative technologies that are better suited in this day and age. Innovative Technologies There are three technologies that could take care of the needs of UNICEF, being fairly low cost, physically robust, have 24/7 uptime, highly reliable and give personnel the ability to communicate locally and globally back to headquarters:  Google Project Loon – Balloon-Powered Internet for Everyone  The Serval Project  DeLorme InReach/Serval Combo Google Project Loon – Balloon-Powered Internet for Everyone Google Project Loon is an technology currently being tested by Google where balloons float in the stratosphere, higher than airplanes and terrestrial weather. The balloons rise and fall in a layer of wind and vary in direction of travel. Google is partnering with “[t]elecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum we’ve enabled people to connect to the balloon network directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices.” ("Project Loon". n.d.). Google has already met with officials from Japan who were interested in the project for providing internet service if their infrastructure were to be damaged again due to another typhoon. (D'Onfro, 2015). This is something that will address needs in many situations. The loss of an infrastructure, like a cellular tower, will occur in earthquakes, hurricanes, fires and many other man-made and natural disasters and will affect UNICEF personnel as well as emergency personnel and local survivors where communication is vital. Having the Internet available so
  7. 7. mobile phones can be accessible is an absolute requirement for communication. As mentioned in an article by Ben Popper from The Verge (Popper. 2015) "If there is a hurricane or a typhoon that knocks out power or internet connectivity to people on the ground, the balloons provide very exciting ways to allow people to have immediate connectivity.As long as they have a battery powered phone in their pocket, people will be able to instantly get access to the balloon network." This is exactly what is needed in a disaster situation, an immediate way for people to be connected when there is no power or connectivity on the ground. The fact that last year Loon switched from Wi-Fi to LTE make them “floating cell towers in the sky” (Popper. 2015). This is exactly what UNICEF needs in a disaster situation. The need for reliability, 24/7 uptime, and communication make the Loon balloons a great innovation. There are a couple things to keep in mind though when thinking about this innovation:  When will it be commercially available?  What about airspace regulations? Governmental airspace? The Serval Project The Serval project is an open source communications project founded by Dr. Paul Gardner- Stephen in response to the Haiti earthquake. He wanted to find a way to bring mobile communication to the area after the disaster and realized that after infrastructures were destroyed and electricity was out mobile phones were useless. He thought about the fact that mobile phones already have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS and there must be a way to get them to communicate to each other without the cellular infrastructure in place. (Gardner-Stephen. 2011). According to the Server Projects developer site wiki (Bettison. 2013):
  8. 8. “The Serval Project aims to bring infrastructure-free mobile communication to people in need, such as during crisis and disastersituations when vulnerable infrastructure like phone cell towers and mains electricity are cut off. In practice, this means finding ways to make mobile handsets (like smart-phones) communicate without mobile cell towers, repeaters, Wi-Fi hot spots,orcables.” The Serval Project can address the need of a lack of communication, a lack of infrastructure, a lack of 24/7 uptime and reliability by implementing their mesh mobile telephony system. It is compatible with existing mobile telephones and can be integrated without changing hardware designs or cost. Users can use their existing phone numbers and calls can be relayed for distant calls. The network would be based solely on the use of the mobile phone without the cellular tower which is exactly what is needed in this case. (Brophy-Williams et al., 2013). Serval does have two potential issues that could pose problems:  It will require installation of the app on all the phones in the network and this will require some sophistication with technology  Without the Mesh Extender, the range is only 100 meters DeLorme inReach+Serval Project Combo The DeLorme inReach is a satellite device that is powered by Iridium which is the farthest reaching commercial satellite constellation. The Iridium satellite is the only network that can span the entire globe and therefore offer 100% coverage anywhere in the entire world. Now that is what we call reliability! ("You don’t want to be playing hide-and-seek with your signal out there." n.d.). The inReach allows users to send and receive messages (SMS) from anywhere in the world to any phone number, email address or to another inReach device. You can also post to social media which is vital when it comes to disaster situations (Google Person Finder,
  9. 9. Twitter, Facebook). inReach is also compatible with a mobile phone so the user can access topographic maps, NOAA charts for weather, etc. The World Disasters Report discussed this quite nicely (Brophy-Williams et al., 2013. p117): “This collaboration between the New Zealand Red Cross, DeLorme and Serval has created a communications systemwith many benefits from the complementary capabilities of the three technologies, including the smarts and sensors ofthe smartphone; the global reach of Iridium; resilient communications due to path diversity and the store and forward mechanism; the value for money of commercial off-the- shelf components; and a familiar interface that can be used before, during and after the disaster.” At this point there is no need for a cellular infrastructure, as discussed above with the Serval project. The app will need to be installed on the mobile phone, the phone will then link to the outside world via text over satellite and with local phones that are also running the app by Wi-Fi mesh. This is a reliable, robust, simple method of communication that is independent on an infrastructure most likely destroyed after a disaster. It will facilitate communication not only locally for UNICEF workers but globally back to headquarters. Using the inReach device vs a satellite phone saves an abundance of cost. The satellite phone service costs from $50-$300 a month plus $1.00 to $2.00 per minute of usage depending on the plan (numerous sources). This is just not a feasible option. By combining the inReach device for text/email/social media and Serval for mobile to mobile calls we have eliminated voice calls using a true satellite phone. The DeLorme/Serval combination project also has a few potentials issues that can pose problems:  The requirement of expensive hardware by each individual  The requirement of a monthly subscription plan
  10. 10.  Like the Serval only project, the need to install the application on every phone in the network, therefore the need to have some kind of sophistication with technology TechnologyAssessment Google Loon Cost  Google Loon will cost approximately $10,000 per balloon and that is after they have partnered with cellular providers to lease out balloons that can pass over areas that need coverage. This is no small cost.  No end user cost as of yet, Google Loon is still being tested and developed. It has only been launched in few countries. Implementation  Balloons launch from the ground and reach altitudes above planes and the weather.  The balloons can last over 100 days but then need to be lowered to a safe zone so they can be recollected and parts reused.  Balloons are equipped with parachutes in case they cannot be lowered safely.  The balloons are powered by solar panels during the day and a rechargeable battery at night. Benefits  Google Loon will provide 24/7 secure (encrypted) internet/mobile access with a 4G/LTE signal where there is a balloon within an 80km range.
  11. 11. Stakeholder Effect  UNICEF personnel locally o Local personnel can now rely on a mobile network to communicate with other local personnel as well as emergency personnel, victims, and global personnel  UNICEF personnel globally o Global personnel at headquarters will receive up to date information from local personnel which will assist in supply efforts  Emergency personnel o Emergency personnel can rely on a reliable mobile network to communicate with humanitarian efforts, medical teams, government agencies, and global efforts.  Local victims/survivors o Local victims/survivors can now have a mobile network to find family, shelter, friends and any other resources otherwise not available without communication.  Global family o Global survivors/family can communicate reliably with local victims/survivors using any means necessary as mobile networks will be “up” in the local area. The Serval Project Cost  Software is free and open source to anyone with an Android phone  Mesh Extender which is vital to extend the the network 10x-100x in range seeks $300,000. It will make it possible to extend phones over much larger distances which is vital (Simonite. 2013).
  12. 12. Implementation  Download and install the Serval app from the Google Play store  Currently root access is required  Use the Mesh Extender (a pocketsize device currently in development) to extend the Wi- Fi network 10x-100x range  Mobile phones are necessary so those without would need donations Benefits  Mobile to mobile voice and text usage without a cellular tower/infrastructure.  Potential negative is that without the Mesh Extender the range is only about 100 meters Stakeholder Effect  UNICEF personnel locally o Local personnel can now rely on a mobile to mobile network to communicate with other local personnel as well as emergency personnel and victims  UNICEF personnel globally o Global personnel are still unable to communicate to local personnel  Emergency personnel o Emergency personnel can rely on a mobile to mobile network to communicate with humanitarian efforts and local medical teams.  Local victims/survivors o Local victims/survivors can now have a mobile to mobile network to find family, shelter, friends and any other resources otherwise not available without communication.  Global family
  13. 13. o Global survivors/family are still unable to communicate reliably with local victims as the range is not good enough DeLorme inReach+Serval Project Combo Cost  The inReach satellite device will cost approximately $299-$529 per unit depending on features and accessories. ("The inReach Series of Satellite Communicators" n.d.)  There is also a monthly subscription cost ranging from $12-$80 also depending on features. ("We have plans for you: Annual & Freedom" n.d.)  As discussed above, the Serval software is free and open source to anyone with an Android phone though the Serval Mesh Extender which is vital to extend the the network 10x-100x in range seeks $300,000. It will make it possible to extend phones over much larger distances which is vital (Simonite. 2013). Implementation  The inReach is a simple handheld satellite device that just needs to be powered on, connected to an online account with the MEID and activated outside after choosing a subscription plan.  As discussed above, the Serval app needs to be downloaded and install the Serval app from the Google Play store  Currently root access is required  Use the Mesh Extender (a pocketsize device currently in development) to extend the Wi- Fi network 10x-100x range
  14. 14.  Mobile phones need to be donated to if not available in certain locations because of funding Benefits  Mobile to mobile voice and text usage without a cellular tower/infrastructure.  Entire world text/email/social network access via inReach or mobile phone without cellular tower/infrastructure Stakeholder Effect  UNICEF personnel locally o Local personnel can now rely on a mobile to mobile network to communicate with other local personnel as well as emergency personnel, victims, and global personnel (via text/email/social media)  UNICEF personnel globally o Global personnel at headquarters will receive up to date information from local personnel which will assist in supply efforts via text/email/social media.  Emergency personnel o Emergency personnel can rely on a reliable mobile network to communicate with humanitarian efforts, medical teams, government agencies, and global efforts.  Local victims/survivors o Local victims/survivors can now have a mobile network to find family, shelter, friends and any other resources otherwise not available without communication.  Global family o Global survivors/family can communicate reliably with local victims/survivors using email/text/social media.
  15. 15. Selection After a careful analysis of Google Loon, the Serval Project and Serval+InReach it seems that in the long run after analyzing budgets, weather/infrastructure, distance, ease of use and reliability that Google Loon would be the best choice for UNICEF personnel to get 24/7 reliable communication locally and globally at a without the need for an infrastructure already in place. The issues with the Serval project alone is that it will require the installation of an application, some knowledge of technology and without the use of the Mesh Extender the distance the phones can communicate is only 100 meters. When adding the Mesh Extender, the range will extend by 10x-100x though this will add cost and will not cover the globe. When adding inReach+Serval, some of the issues discussed above have diminished, for example, the range issues are no longer a problem as inReach covers the globe via the Iridium network though this adds a huge cost. Each inReach device that will be required to be held by personnel will add approximately $300-$500 not including the monthly subscription fee. This will add up very quickly when large amounts of personnel are needed. Google Loon, though definitely not inexpensive when thinking that just one balloon costs $100,000, over the long run the end user does not need to install anything, carry anything extra besides their normal mobile phone, or change their way of life. The mobile network will remain up 24/7 whether the there is a cellular infrastructure in the area or not as Google Loon will provide the “floating cell towers in the sky” (Popper. 2015). Google is well known for being extremely reliable, spending countless hours and money on testing and improving systems. They have already tested in New Zealand, California and Brazil with plans to test in Indonesia and the entire United States this coming year (Oreskovic. 2015). They have successfully launched balloons that can stay in the air for over 6 months and can provide connectivity to the ground to
  16. 16. about an area 80km in diameter using LTE ("Project Loon" n.d.). Mobile phones using Google Loon will still need the following to be fully effective as a mobile phone with no power is useless:  Solar power to keep phones power on  Wind power when solar power is ineffective  Backup power Given the ease of use to the user, the reliability, large range, and robustness it is clear that Google Loon would be the best technology to fit the needs and challenges of UNICEF during humanitarian efforts. The below chart is a rating of technologies and challenges: Google Loon Serval Serval+inReach Limited budgets 2 4 1 Distance 5 2 4 Weather/Infrastructure Damage 5 5 5 Ease of use 5 3 3 *1-5 – Least beneficial to Most Ideal Timing “Instead of dreaming up entirely new markets, most entrepreneurs would be better off finding out what the users’ pain points are, what problems they are actually trying to solve, and what gains are they seeking.” (Jha, 2014). Google is a prime example of solving the worlds problems. From the amazing algorithms of the Google search engine to Gmail and Google Drive, Google has become the number one leader in innovation. They were not the first to develop the search engine/browser but they certainly took what AltaVista and Lycos could not
  17. 17. and made it the number one search engine/browser of today. “I think that connectivity will become a human right,” said says Nicholas Negroponte, a professor at MIT’s Media Lab and founder of the One Laptop Per Child Project (Simonite, 2015). Google and Project Loon are planning to make the internet available on a global scale and with this not only will everyone in the world have internet access but during emergencies and disaster situations humanitarian efforts such as with UNICEF will have communication locally and globally. Google Loon started two years ago and has conducted successful trials in Brazil, Australia and New Zealand (Ali, 2015). Loon is a pioneer in this field as they are in many fields. Google is known for pioneering developments like Google Earth, Google Street View, Google Goggles, the Nexus, and Project Glass. Not all of these launched into amazing technologies that we use today but many did like Google Earth and Street View. Google Glass and Goggles were a flop. Being a first adopter has some disadvantages. Schilling notes that 47% of pioneers in the market fail (Schilling M., 2012 p.91). She continues to mention that the first movers bear the bulk of R&D and have to pay to “develop suppliers and distribution channels.” Coming into the market later is quite helpful as research has been completed, the consumer is already knowledgeable about the product, and mistakes have been made and can now be avoided. The Loon project is still in its research and development phase. They have had trial launches in Brazil, Australia and New Zealand and are still working on increasing the amount of time the balloon will stay in the air, cost, governmental regulations and much more. The Loon project has yet to go into a Beta phase yet and is still definitely in R&D. Before UNICEF can work on a collaboration with Google and the Loon project there will need to be more trials done, governmental regulations taken care of and a reduction in cost as well as engineering matters resolved.
  18. 18. The Google Loon project does not need to rely on consumers learning about the internet, consumers are already knowledgeable and rearing to have the internet wherever they go. Loon though, and other suppliers like Facebook and their stratospheric drones are entering a new market when it comes to supplying internet access globally. There are concerns about international law and the FCC, air space, radio spectrums and communication for satellite orbits (Simonite, 2015). These are things that have never needed to be discussed when it came to internet access as no one ever had balloons like Loon enter the atmosphere. As Tom Simonite states “[d]ocuments filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission show that both companies are pushing for international law to be modified to make it easier to use aircraft around 20 kilometers above the earth, in the stratosphere, to provide Internet access.” The internet and the need for ultimate connectivity is now. Everyone needs access to the internet as Negroponte mentioned earlier “[e]nsuring that everyone gets that right requires the Internet to be operated similar to public roads, and provided by governments, he said” (Simonite, 2015). 4.6 billion people, 68% of the planet, live without internet access. (A Human Right, 2016). This is a huge number and it needs to change fast. With Google Loon it can, if the technology is adopted now. Internet access across the globe, according to A Human Right brings economic opportunity, democracy, education, healthcare and disaster relief to everyone. UNICEF needs Google Loon to aid in their humanitarian efforts during these emergency and disaster relief efforts. Communication is absolutely vital and without internet access there is no mobile access and communication. Lives are lost, resources are wasted, safety is jeopardized and so much more. Loss of life cannot wait and Google Loon has already been tested in three locations as mentioned earlier with Indonesia being the next launch. It is time to launch in all developing
  19. 19. countries where UNICEF provides the most efforts and disasters, lower incomes, no internet access and high poverty levels are most prevalent. Timelines Google Loon already has some early adopters in three locations testing the balloon powered internet, though they will need that early majority group to make Loon available for everyone once they are in a mature stage of the technology life cycle. UNICEF can be in the early majority group when it comes to collaborating with Google though UNICEF cannot afford to take risks, experiment or focus on technology alone. The early adopter will be the one doing the trials in this group. As trials come to completion and Loon is available to the public UNICEF can then collaborate with Google regarding costs, deployment, implementation and a plan for Loon and their humanitarian efforts. The risks will be will lower, support will be available, UNICEF will then have seen a proven application of Loon in the early adopter group and it will be a good time to implement. There are three different implementation timelines that will be discussed:  Alpha phase implementation (see Appendix 1) o Implement during the Google Loon alpha phase o Establish financial agreements and firm commitments o Be active in beta phase which is coming after southern hemisphere is completely deployed (including testing, deployment (go live), on going maintenance/support)  Beta phase implementation (see Appendix 2) o Implement during Google Loon beta phase o Adopt prototype site during beta
  20. 20. o Roll out to more sites after beta phase is complete (including testing, deployment (go live), on going maintenance/support) o Establish firm commitments and financial agreements  Public phase implementation (see Appendix 3) o Implement when Google Loon is announced formally (including testing, deployment (go live), ongoing maintenance/support o Check every six months for public release o Accelerate plan (to beta) if major disaster requires instant access to communications – will require discussions There three phases above go from a high risk to a low risk. Being able to roll out now would be “nice” yet high risk as Loon is still in a research and development phase and trials are still going on. There have already been tests in New Zealand, New Mexico, Chile, and Sri Lanka so UNICEF can establish during this alpha phase though at a higher risk since this is still in a development phase (Ali Z. 2015). The next option will be for UNICEF to collaborate with Google during their beta phase. “The team behind the Project Loon has plans to launch more than 300 balloons throughout 2016. As soon as the balloons cover the complete southern hemisphere, the team will begin signing up interested users for entering the beta project” (Ali Z. 2015). This will be a safer option for UNICEF as much of the R&D will be complete yet beta is still a testing phase and UNICEF can be a beta tester. UNICEF can establish a prototype site after a site evaluation and after the beta phase is complete than more sites can be rolled out to. UNICEF will need to collaborate with Google regarding costs, commitments and timing during this time. The third option which is the least risky is to implement only after Google Loon has
  21. 21. been publically launched. This is probably the best option for UNICEF as Google has a history of “ditching projects” like Google Glass, Google Answers, Google Buzz, Google Wave and many more (Clifton, J. 2012). UNICEF needs to be able to collaborate with a company for a communications network that will be very stable and if Google will possibly ditch the project then they will need to go to their second choice so by waiting until they have fully launched this will eliminate the risk of Google dumping the project. If there is a major disaster where communication is vital, then UNICEF and collaborate with Google and get into the beta or possibly alpha phase. If that is not necessary than UNICEF can check frequently, six months, for updates on a public launch at the same time they are in negotiations with Google. Variables There are numerous variables that will affect the implementation of Google Loon with UNICEF. As discussed earlier there is a much higher risk involved collaborating with Google while they are still in this alpha phase which is why it is recommended that the collaboration with Google be after they publically launch Loon. Google is still very much in an R&D phase right now. For example, “[t]he early models last only a few days; the goal for commercial viability was to have them floating for three months. Today we are excited to announce most of our balloons stay up for as long as six months," (Popper, B. 2015). This could easily change to a much longer period of time as Google continues to test and develop the balloons during their alpha stage. The next issue or variable to take into account is the amount of time it takes to create a new balloon as many balloons are needed to cover an expansive area. “With balloons you’re only four to five months away from having a fresh balloon," Cassidy explains. "New technologies come, new compression algorithms, the electronics can be updated, so you have a pretty fresh fleet in the air at any time." (Popper, B. 2015). Google does have a manufacturing plant that is able to now
  22. 22. expediently build new balloons though this again needs to be developed further before Google can publically deploy Loon. As Madrigal says in his article “they’ll need to do it fast and cheaply” (Madrigal, 2015). Cost is a huge factor and UNICEF will be inclined to wait until costs decrease and Google can manufacture the balloons fast and cheaply as Madrigal states. Google has had to test for weak spots, leaks, performance, and much more. All of this will be improved in both alpha and beta stages as the Google Loon project continues to be researched and developed further. By entering into collaboration with Google prior to public launch there is a chance that issues will still arise and UNICEF will need to be aware of this. Given this, it is a better option to commit after a public launch. Of course Google Loon will always be dealing with weather issues though given the balloons in the stratosphere so should not have to deal with weather issues. They are monitored by Google’s Mission Control though so this variable should not change as our stratosphere will remain the same over alpha, beta or a public release. The biggest variable is “the very mechanics of Project Loon highlight serious legal, diplomatic, and government tensions” (Butler, 2013). Google Loon balloons will eventually fly over multiple countries and continents to cover the globe. There are many regulations and governmental issues that will become, and have become, of great concern. Not all countries are in good terms, licenses need to be obtained, agencies need to agree and legal issues need to be addressed. A few other issues are mentioned below in a Bloomberg article: “Since Loon will use radios, it will have to use spectrum, which is tightly regulated by the world’s governments. It can’t just use any old spectrumeither. It will have to convince hundreds of different regulators to agree on a unified band or ride over an existing one—such as the unlicensed airwaves used for Wi-Fi. But the scope and range of Google’s Loon network will likely require dedicated airwaves. Just
  23. 23. imagine a Wi-Fi network blasting down at high power from the heavens.If your wireless router is using the same airwaves, it will be drowned out.” Google is clearly aware of all the above variables and have forged ahead with this project with full force. UNICEF will still need to consider all variables when deciding on implementing which is why deploying after a public launch would be best suited and much lower risk. Google Loon is still in a very early phase of development even though they have had trials in four locations. This year they plan to launch more than 300 balloons which should give a nice base for covering the southern hemisphere and continuing into a beta phase (Ali, Z. (2015). At that time, it will be prime for UNICEF to collaborate and join in the public launch. Implementation Plan The focus of implementing Google Loon with UNICEF needs to focus away from the Loon development and implementation process and more on UNICEF itself. As discussed earlier there are three possible timelines that UNICEF can use to implement Loon – Alpha, Beta and the public launch. UNICEF has one main goal in mind and that is to provide communication both locally and globally during emergency and disaster situations in countries where communication infrastructures are not as developed. While Loon will help provide countries with little or no internet access all the time, UNICEF is focusing communication during these disaster situations when it is the most vital. The implementation plan that is suggested for UNICEF is the public phase implementation shown below (detailed tasks/dates in Appendix 3). The plan will include the following at a very high level (see Appendix 3 for details):
  24. 24. 1. Form Project Team 2. Research and Analysis 3. Collaboration Discussions 4. Discuss Plans for Public Installation a. Site Assessment b. Deploy/Go-Live c. QA/Test 5. Documentation 6. Training 7. Maintenance/Follow-up Communication/Current Processes The goal of implementing Google Loon is to provide UNICEF with 24/7 uptime voice and data service during emergency and disaster situations in remote areas where infrastructure does not support these services. Implementing Google Loon as a communication method for data and voice should not affect current methods in use currently by UNICEF. Whether UNICEF is using a local provider for their voice or data access or more likely, has no service, the process will still be the same when it comes to making the transition to Loon. We must remember that Google Loon is the one handling the R&D process and UNICEF is merely collaborating and implementing what Google has developed. While Google may be developing balloons, systems, and other partnerships, UNICEF needs to simply “use” what Google has developed just as an end user uses Verizon or AT&T to make a call on their cell phone. Just as a user may change phone providers from AT&T to Verizon, when UNICEF changes their communication method to Google Loon there may be some downtime so information to personnel needs to be communicated through various methods. Since UNICEF has personnel across the globe communication will be imperative and have to occur through not only face to face meetings but video conference, email, chat and other forms where virtual teams can communicate. A PR team may be needed to get printed material to certain areas in advance where the voice and data service is unavailable, hence the need for Google Loon. It will be
  25. 25. necessary to communicate the upcoming changes well in advance and then as the time gets closer to the switch to Loon as well as right before the launch occurs so personnel will be aware of the changes and there are no surprises. Change is always difficult uneasy as Lotich discusses so it is important that a few steps are taken to make sure everyone is on board when it comes to implementing change (Lotich, 2014):  Make sure management is on board  Be sure that there is a real “case for change”  Get employees involved (UNICEF personnel)  Communicate the change (as discussed earlier)  Communicate about implementation and roll out and have a timeline  Follow-up after implementation  Remove barriers If the above steps can be followed during and after the implementation than most, as not everyone can be pleased, UNICEF personnel that will go through this change will be communicated to effectively and know exactly what is happening. Stakeholders Communication needs to go beyond just UNICEF personnel as there are many stakeholders involved in this project. Google is clearly in charge of the development of the Loon project though they are working in conjunction with multiple partners to get this project launched. A small working list of stakeholders are as follows:  Google o R&D, QA, Management, Licensing, Networking, Mission Control, Compliance
  26. 26.  UNICEF o Management, Administration, Global Relief Personnel (all encompassing), IT  Telecom Providers o Management, IT, Network, Compliance  Licensing/Compliance Boards/Regulators o FCC, NSA, the “government” The basic needs of the stakeholders above differ dependent on their role in the current project. It can be as basic as a relief worker at UNICEF simply need internet access to as complicated as a governmental body concerned about security issues with Loon. The needs of the above stakeholders are as follows:  Google  R&D – vision, purpose, timeline, roadmap, proper development tools, good management and corporate culture, communication  QA – timely dev builds, roadmap, timeline, communication, proper management and good corporate culture, proper tools, documentation  Management – effective leadership and managers (project, dev, QA, other teams), finances, roadmap, communication with partners  Licensing – effective communication with 3rd parties and upper management, stable release, documentation, timeline, roadmap  Networking/Mission Control – communication with development, stable build, communication with telecom providers, effective management, timeline, roadmap, documentation  Compliance – communication with 3rd parties (gov’t agencies, regulators, telecom providers), effective management, timeline, roadmap
  27. 27.  UNICEF  Management – provide relief personnel the ability to communicate via voice/data globally and locally, communication with 3rd parties (Google), effective leaders, admin, project managers and staff, timeline, roadmap  Administration – communication with management, relief personnel, training; documentation, financial/accounting information, human resources related details (for cell phones, computers, etc), timeline, roadmap  Relief Personnel – 24/7 uptime voice/data communication locally and globally, training, documentation  IT – communication with telecom providers, Google Networking team, UNICEF management  Telecom Providers  Management – effective communication with leaders, managers, 3rd parties/partners (Google, compliance/licensing), timeline, roadmap,  IT/Networking team – communication with Google networking team, telecom network team, project management; timeline, roadmap, stable release  Compliance – communication with Google compliance, management  Licensing/Compliance Boards/Regulators  FCC – analyze Google application to use millimeter wave frequencies, communicate with Google management/networking,  NSA – confirmation that Loon balloons will not cause espionage/spying issues
  28. 28.  The “government” – clarification regarding if the balloon is an unmanned aircraft (UAS), does it fit under the FAA definition, are new regulations necessary, airspace regulations analyzed, communication with 3rd parties/partners and Google Many of the needs mentioned from the stakeholders above are quite similar, it is a matter of having a timeline and roadmap in place, effective communication in place between all appropriate parties and in the end having a release of the software that can be used. To meet these needs it will be vital that project managers have timelines set at the beginning of the project start and communication is ongoing throughout the process from implementation through go-live and follow-up. Communication will need to be done via live meetings, email, video conferencing, chat and any other means necessary to ensure that all audiences are “in the loop” regardless of location. Ethical Compliance UNICEF and Google have their own code of ethics and code of conduct that they follow in each organization as well as any third party partners. There are some basic guidelines that are listed on sans.org that are good guidelines to following during this implementation process, not to supersede the code of ethics or code of conduct already in place by UNICEF, Google or third parties but to be used in addition to during the implementation process. The following guidelines (using the sans.org ethics template) should be followed to ensure that ethical standards are met and followed during implementation and use of Google Loon by UNICEF (Sans.org, 2016):
  29. 29. 1. In any business practice, honesty and integrity must be top priority for executives including having an open door policy and not disclosing any conflicts of interests 2. Employees must be treated fairly, have mutual respect, promote a team environment and avoid the intent and appearance of unethical or compromising practices. 3. Employees will help to increase customer and partner satisfaction by providing quality product s and timely response to inquiries 4. The organization will reinforce the importance of the integrity message and the tone will start at the top. Every employee, manager, director needs consistently maintain an ethical stance and support ethical behavior. 5. The organization will avoid the intent and appearance of unethical or compromising practice in relationships, actions and communications. 6. Unauthorized use of company trade secrets & marketing, operational, personnel, financial, source code, & technical information integral to the success of the organization will not be tolerated. 7. The organization will not permit impropriety at any time and we will act ethically and responsibly in accordance with laws. There are numerous ethical issues that come into play from Google’s standpoint. “The idea of some high-flying device such as an unmanned balloon with powerful imaging technology on board: There's no legal restriction that keep them from doing that” (Butler, 2013). If ethical guidelines are not followed as described the issue above, for example, could have huge implications, not only because of possible spying issues and infringing on basic human rights but also security concerns, to be discussed later. Now UNICEF as we are aware is a children’s
  30. 30. organization so there are concerns about child safety, child pornography, human trafficking and such that need to be taken into consideration. LegalCompliance There are a lot of legal implications when it comes to implementing Google Loon. UNICEF does not need to deal with these issues as this is something that only Google will have to take care of but it is worth talking about as UNICEF will need to make sure that their partners (Google and third parties) are responsible for their actions. There are three specific entities that are worth mentioning in order to make this transition and implementation smooth: United Nations, host countries, and Google. United Nations (UN) The UN is the the responsible party for all decisions essentially made by UNICEF. The following are legal issues that need to be taken into account in order to make the implementation of Loon go smoothly:  Terms and Agreements  Budget Approvals  Agreements as to what sites get deployed  Agreements as to the order in what sites get deployed Host Countries There are going to numerous host countries (tbd) that will be chosen during the implementation process where Loon will be deployed. These countries have their own legal issues that need to be determined, they are as follows:
  31. 31.  Each country will need its own separate agreement  Will there be financial assistance? Agreements based on assistance  Who will get to use the service?  Government/Regulatory issues in each country (airspace, telecom, internet restriction, etc)  When can the country “pull the plug” if they so choose to drop the Loon service? Google Google’s legal issues are specific more to UNICEF/Google as partners, they are as follows:  Terms and Agreements for the Loon service  Price protection (contract)  Hardware vendors?  Hardware Maintenance There are clearly going to be issues that will need to be addressed by Google when it comes to flying over countries. “The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the arm of the UN that helps draft regulations and Internet-related treaties, has not fully addressed the issue of broadband Internet beamed down from a mobile stratospheric network” (Butler, 2013). This issue is a big concern that will need to be dealt with by Google and in turn UNICEF but it only addresses the aspect of internet being “beamed down”, it does not address the physical balloon flying in international airspace. Butler discusses this nicely:
  32. 32. “Countries who abide by the ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization] use their standards to decide if an aircraft will be allowed into airspace. If it is threatening or sub-standard in terms of safety or environmental impact, the country can fall back on the ICAO's rules to not allow that aircraft's presence in its airspace. This means there's a lot more PR work ahead for Project Loon if it's going to play by the UN's rules.” Airspace is another concern as discussed above which is going to be different in every host country. Google is going to have to “play by the rules” as mentioned above if it wants to fly balloons in host countries. The legal concerns in these nations are going to have to be dealt with one by one. Sovereign nations are going to be even more difficult when it comes to airspace so terms are going to agreed upon up front. UNICEF will need to be responsible for ensuring that Google has “played nicely” according to all regulations, treaties and laws. One of the issues that needs to be cleared up, which again is not a UNICEF issue but an issue that Google needs to deal with is what the balloon is actually classified as. “Unmanned free balloons are regulated by Title 14 Part 101 of the U.S. federal code” and “only defined as ‘lighter-than-air aircraft’ using buoyancy instead of an engine, as long as they operate safely and above 60,000 feet” (Butler, 2013). In contrast, “[unmanned aircraft system] as set forth in the 2012 FAA Modernization and Reform Act, refers to an unmanned aircraft and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft)” (Butler, 2013). There has to be rules, laws and regulations surrounding the use of these balloons for privacy and security reasons. The FAA and other governing bodies need to determine exactly what the Loon balloons are and then need to enact laws as to what they can and cannot do from the government to the private persons’ safety, security and private concerns. UNICEF certainly, as discussed, has their own concerns regarding child safety as do the general public. UNICEF will need to ensure privacy while the government, in contrast, will need to
  33. 33. ensure security. As discussed with security concerns, when privacy is gained security is lost and when security is gained, privacy is lost. There is a fine line. Security [P]rivacy gains diminish security while security gains come mainly at the expense of privacy losses” (Bagby, n.d.). This is something we see in our daily lives and as mentioned above, is a legal and ethical issue as well that without a fine line can cause huge issues. Though UNICEF is not involved in making sure Loon itself is secure, they can take their own measure to make sure their own data is secure. According to Raymon Ray, there are a few steps that can be followed (Ray, n.d.): 1. Conduct a security audit 2. Make sure employees are aware in the role they play in the security 3. Use strong and multiple passwords 4. Encrypt data 5. Back up data 6. Have security policies 7. Protect your mobile workforce There are other things that UNICEF that can follow during and after implementation. They will need to enact the following in brief (Privacyrights.org, 2015): 1. Organizational policies 2. Privacy policies/principles 3. Data and network security 4. Records retention policies
  34. 34. 5. Wireless communication policies 6. Policies for personal identifiers 7. Email/VM policies The implementation of Google Loon for UNICEF has many security concerns, not only for UNICEF itself but for the host countries that it is being deployed in. In India, there are concerns “that the balloons may interfere with flight paths should thus be monitored by Air Traffic Control (ATC), the home ministry has expressed fears of external surveillance through them. The defence ministry is concerned about the balloons floating over military establishments and coming in the way of military aircraft.” (Agarwal, 2015). This is just one concern and a valid one that surely will come up in other countries, not just India. Now, the Loon balloons fly well above commercial aircrafts so interference with flight paths really should be non-issue though the fear is certainly valid and Google will need to address this. This is not something UNICEF needs to be concerned with as this is strictly a Google security issue though it does need to be dealt with as in order to implement Loon in UNICEF host countries these security (and legal) aspects have to be resolved. Google may be circumventing or possibly hiding some confidential/secret applications to numerous governmental agencies as there are so many security concerns, see below: FAA Google has apparently not gotten safety approval from the FAA. Cleland discusses some of the ramifications of this below (Cleland, 2015):  A balloon getting “ingested in a jet engine or wrapped around a propeller” of a plane
  35. 35.  Hacked for the purposes of dropping the balloons on top of the most congested airspace and potentially threatening to bring down multiple aircrafts  Interference in any way with U.S. military, U.S. law enforcement, or first-responder training exercises  Coordination with foreign air traffic control authorities so they can take appropriate precautions for this increase in aviation safety risk from above EPA There are then environment concerns, as Cleland points out, which are of course ethical but seem to fit well into security concerns. “’[T]housands’ of largely-uncontrollable, four-story-high, disposable, non-biodegradable, polyethylene plastic balloons would be circumnavigating much of the world eventually, and thus would operate and sometimes come down over the 71% part of the earth’s surface that is water” (Cleland, 2015). There have been huge concerns about the animals in the water and on the beaches and there is no need to add to this, the concern about having massive balloons dropping into the oceans creating a much larger environmental issue. Google does aim to bring the balloons down into unpopulated areas, they are tracked by GPS and their location is noted. If there is an unplanned landing the balloons do have parachutes and the recovery team will go to recovery though there is still of course a chance that if there is a landing in water that isn’t planned or a populated area that animals can get hurt. Again, as discussed numerous times, this is not a UNICEF concern, this is a Google concern that is simply worth mentioning. Department of Defense/NSA Cleland mentions that “Russia and China are not likely to welcome Google high-altitude balloons or drones flying over their airspace and military facilities” and he continues to state that
  36. 36. the balloons fly at “military reconnaissance altitude” which many countries are certainly not going to approve of given planes being shot down. (Cleland, 2015). Spying is a huge concern. These balloons have cameras and are connected to the internet, obviously, so there are big security issues surrounding the fact that there are thousands, potentially, of balloons circumnavigating the globe taking photos of anything and getting into the wrong hands. Now Google states that “[d]ata is automatically encrypted while transiting the balloon network. Upon commercial launch, we will integrate with the core networks of partners so data transmitted will have the same levels of encryption and authentication as those networks” (Google.com, 2016). Again, these are not concerns of UNICEF but worth discussing as they are indirectly going to affect UNICEF since they are deploying Loon in these host countries where applicable law needs to be followed. Conclusion UNICEF has a challenge that needs to be addressed which will in turn save lives. From costly mesh networked phones to balloons deployed in the stratosphere they all have unique challenges and advantages. Google Loon has far more advantages than disadvantages and the end result for UNICEF will be life saving measures with the communication, voice and data, being robust, reliable and up 24/7. Though there are ethical, legal and security concerns that Google will need to address and are being currently addressed, once taken care of, UNICEF will have plans in place that will save lives and this will has no monetary value. Implementing Google Loon will benefit not only UNICEF but the victims, survivors and many other people in host countries Loon is deployed.
  37. 37. Appendices Appendix 1 Alpha Phase Timeline Appendix 2 Beta Phase Timeline
  38. 38. Appendix 3 Pubic Phase Timeline
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