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UX Lesson 2: User Research

A Practical guide to user research

UX Lesson 2: User Research

  1. 1. by Joan Lumanauw | July, 2015 Session2: USER RESEARCH
  2. 2. Women groups in Ethiopian tribe
  3. 3. “We tend to project our own rationalisations and beliefs onto the actions and beliefs of others” Don Norman - The Design of Everyday Things
  4. 4. “Your responsibility is to step out of your own perspective, to really exercise empathy and completely immerse yourselves in the point of view, and the psychological state, of the person your hoping to design a solution for” YOU ARE NOT THE USER
  5. 5. Why do we need user research? Customer insights Function Priority Usability Understand what problems customers wants solved Analyze how important these problems are to customers What products and features we can develop to solve these problems
  6. 6. We do research to ensure that we are solving a problem that actually exists in people’s lives. In short,
  7. 7. If you and your clients don’t know, You should do some user research. Rule of thumb What do we and our client already know? What do you need to know to start design? Is it mission critical user experience?
  8. 8. How do we start? Now that we know what it means to know your users,
  9. 9. User Research Needs Goals Motivations Actions Demographics Age Gender Income Background
  10. 10. The path of user research
  11. 11. What do we need to know to understand our users? Why Who What Where When How
  12. 12. Why are the users coming to us? Goals? Needs? Triggers? Who is our user? Business or consumers? Demographics? Background Knowledge? When are they visiting? Time of day? In an emergency? Daily/monthly? Relaxed at home or working hours? What are their habits? How are they visiting? Mobile or Desktop? Tablet? Over the phone? In person? Are they social? (this is dependant on your product) General Assembly: User Persona Module
  13. 13. How do we get all that information? Now that we know what to research,
  14. 14. A few methods we can use.. Surveys Interview Focus Group Gather large number of responses quickly+ Get quantitative feedback quickly+ Hard to get in- depth responses- Learn about problems but not why they occur - One on one discussions+ Can gather in-depth targeted information+ Flexible, can explore tangent or unexpected area + Time-consuming to organise, run and analyze - Get qualitative feedback quickly+ Alpha participants might sway general opinions - Time-consuming to organise, run and analyze - Insights on behaviour in a social context+ General Assembly: User Persona Module
  15. 15. • What do we know? • What do we want to find out? • Who are we talking to? • Where will this take place? • How long do we have? • What will the outcomes be? Planning Stage User Interviews
  16. 16. Recruiting Participants User Interviews Are these potential users…. Or your Facebook friends?
  17. 17. Asking The Right Questions User Interviews 1. Never ask intentions, only behaviour 2. Ask about specific instances, not generalisations 3. Keep them talking 4. Never ask leading questions How many times a month do you go to the gym?x How many times this month did you go to the gym? Tell me about the last time you went to the gym Do you usually go to the gym in the morning?x Do you mean to say…x Tell me more.. What do you mean General Assembly: User Persona Module
  18. 18. Recording & Capturing User Interviews Record interviews if possible • Always ask permission • Explain why and that it’s for private use • Take notes but remain focussed on participant Straight after interview • Write down the 3 most important insights • When reviewing recording/notes, write out each interesting point on individual post it General Assembly: User Persona Module
  19. 19. Analyzing User Research User Interviews Surveys Focus Group Interviews Identify Trends Form consensus Create a logical grouping of the information and trends that emerge
  20. 20. User Interviews Exercise 2.1 Time: 20 Minutes Case: you’ve been commissioned to redesign the Mirum Intranet services. • Prepare a list of questions/topics that you want to research. • In pairs, take turns interviewing each other. Be prepared to share your results.
  21. 21. User Personas The output of our research should be
  22. 22. User Personas Personas are an example of a person within your target audience. Personas should represent a major user group for your website The purpose of personas is to create reliable and realistic representations of our key audience segments for reference. These representations should be based on qualitative and some quantitative user research. Effective personas: What is
  23. 23. Effective Personas should be • Describe real people with backgrounds, goals, and values • Express the major needs and expectations of your user groups • A realistic representations of our key audience segments. • Aid in uncovering universal features and functionality Personas should be based research. Either qualitative or quantitative Most importantly,
  24. 24. Personas are not Based only on marketing data or the opinions of company stakeholders, whether they’d ever met a real user or not, fictional personas poisoned the pool and will impart an inaccurate understanding of users and provide a false sense of security and solidify assumptions.
  25. 25. Sample Personas Young Urban Individual Chandra Young Family Carol & Family Middle-aged Couple Johan & Emi Family Caretaker Ellyse
  26. 26. New Family Meet Carol & Family Age: Occupation: Location: Status:30 Stay-at Home Mom Jakarta Married Carol is a dedicated mother of 2 kids. She spends her days taking care of her children and her husband. She’s constantly worrying about the well-being of her children and their future. One of her biggest concern is the health of her family. She takes the full responsibility in making sure her family is healthy and happy. Goals • Carol wants to be ready when her child is sick. • She wants value for money and reputable doctors for her family healthcare. Fears • That she chooses the wrong hospital/doctors when her child is sick. • That her family cannot afford the bills associated with medical care What she wants to know Where she looks for info How she access websites Home On the Go Primary Secondary • If the hospital have a good reputation. • If the doctors are experienced and comes recommended. • Value for money. • The available treatment and facilities. • The kind of regular medical care her kids needs • Healthcare plans • Other mothers • Hospital website • Friends & family members
  27. 27. Johan and Emi is an established middle class couple living in Surabaya. Daniel has recently been diagnosed with cancer and needs immediate care. However, Emi trust international hospitals better, especially Singapore. She’s the one who takes care of his treatment needs and does research. Age: Occupation: Location: Status:57/54 Business Owner Surabaya Married Middle-Aged Couple Meet Johan & Emi Goals • Emi wants to give Johan his best chance at beating cancer. • She wants to know he’s getting the best doctors available to them. Fears • That Indonesia has less qualified doctors than Singapore does. • That the national medical standard is not up to par. What they need to know Where they look for info How they access websites SecondaryPrimary • That Siloam can give them the same/better standard of treatment that international hospitals do. • That Siloam is up to par with international hospitals in terms of facilities, technology and care quality. • That Siloam is the best options for Johan’s health. • Google search • Reputable Singapore hospitals • Friends & Family Home On the Go
  28. 28. Ellyse is a successful business exec. She loves her mother very much and feels that she owes everything to her. Ellyse’s mother is getting old and her health is deteriorating. Her mother is very passive and always blames her health to her old age. Ellyse is extremely concern so play’s the role of her mother’s main caretaker. Age: Occupation: Location: Status:35 Business Executive Jakarta Married Family Caretaker Meet Ellyse Goals • Ellyse wants to do everything she can to ensure her mother’s health • Ellyse wants be alert about any symptoms her mother is experiencing. Fears • That she is not getting the best medical treatment available. • That her visit will be less than comfortable. What she wants to know Where she looks for info How she access websites At work On the go Home Primary Secondary • Symptoms and main health concerns for older people • Quality doctors to maintain her mother’s health. • The hospital reputations when it comes to comfort and quality • The hospitals services and convenience that will give her the best medical care available when her mother needs it. • Google search • Reputable hospitals websites • Friends & Family
  29. 29. Chandra is 27 years old. He has just entered a phase in his life where he is living completely independently from his parents. He never had to think about his personal medical care before, let alone choosing hospitals. He is often confused about all the things he needs to know about medical care. Goals • Chandra wants to be independent. He wants to know that he can take care of himself when he gets sick. Age: Occupation: Location: Status:27 Advertising Creative Jakarta Single Young Urban Individual Meet Chandra Fears • Can’t finance his medical care and has to burden his parents • Doesn’t know what to expect from a hospital visit. What he wants to know Where he looks for info How he access websites At work On the go Home Primary Secondary • What kind of doctors he needs to see for his symptoms. • The estimated cost of his visit. • When is the best time to go (availability) • The kind of regular medical care people needs (check-ups and routines) • Healthcare plans • Google search • Hospital website • Friends & Parents
  30. 30. Sample Scenario I know nothing about Siloam (Exploration) Doing: Researching symptoms and possible conditions and treatment. Thinking: I am unsure but I think my husband might have a heart condition. Feeling: I hope it’s nothing serious but I want to be sure. User Scenarios Putting your personas in context Scenarios help put your personas in a real life situation where they come across your product, with a specific needs & goals, in a specific mindset.
  31. 31. Why do we need Personas? Why can’t we just list down functions and features we need?
  32. 32. To gain perspective Why We Use Personas We do not see things as they are. We see things as WE are.
  33. 33. As a medium to relate to your users Why We Use Personas When a designer creates a persona, they are crafting the lens through which they will see the world. From this vantage point, when a designer makes a decision, they do so having internalized the persona’s goals, needs and wants.
  34. 34. It creates empathy Why We Use Personas Empathy [ˈɛmpəθɪ] : The power of understanding and imaginatively entering into another person’s feelings
  35. 35. It brings the focus back to the user Why We Use Personas Personas help us to define who the software is being created for and who not to focus on. Having a clear target is important. For projects with more than one user type, a list of personas will help you to prioritize which users are more important than others.
  36. 36. Enables us to make better design & strategic decisions Which ultimately
  37. 37. User Personas in UCD Process Speaking of design process,
  38. 38. Discover Define Design Validate Develop Stakeholder Interview Business Requirement User Research User Personas Creative Ideation Idea User Journey Experience Mapping Usability Testing Validated Prototype Production Graphic Design Code Launch Requirement Gathering UX Design Sitemap & Prototype User Flow When To Use Personas User-Centered Design Process
  39. 39. Idea User Journey Validated Prototype Graphic Design Code Sitemap & Prototype User Flow Discover Define Design Validate Develop User Personas When To Use Personas Research & Discovery Phase CREATE PERSONAS DURING THE RESEARCH PHASE TO HELP IDENTIFY AND EMPATHISE WITH USERS Business Requirement General Assembly: User Persona Module
  40. 40. Idea User Journey Validated Prototype Graphic Design Code Sitemap & Prototype User Flow Discover Define Design Validate Develop User Personas When To Use Personas Ideation & Definition DURING IDEATION AND DEFINITION USE PERSONAS TO QUALIFY IDEAS Business Requirement General Assembly: User Persona Module
  41. 41. Idea User Journey Validated Prototype Graphic Design Code Sitemap & Prototype User Flow Discover Define Design Validate Develop User Personas When To Use Personas Testing & Validation IN TEST AND PROTOTYPE THEY FORM A BASIS FOR RECRUITMENT Business Requirement General Assembly: User Persona Module
  42. 42. “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
  43. 43. User Personas Exercise 2.2 Time: 20 Minutes From the information gathered in the interview exercises, create a persona that includes background, needs, pain points and goals of the interviewee.
  44. 44. MIRUM AGENCY 2014 ANY QUESTIONS? Thank you

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