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Group 1 nature_and_purpose_of_curriculum

  1. 1. GROUP 1 Unit 1: Nature and Purpose of Curriculum
  2. 2. Objectives and Goals • To define the word “curriculum” • To know the purpose of curriculum • To know the concepts of curriculum • The Traditional Concepts of Curriculum • The Emerging Concepts of Curriculum
  3. 3. Curriculum “Curere” “Racecourse”
  4. 4. Goals CURRICULUM
  5. 5. Curriculum is the crux of the whole education process, without curriculum we cannot conceive any educational endeavor.
  6. 6. Teacher Guide Curriculum Path
  7. 7. Curriculum is the total structure of the ideas and activities.
  8. 8. Curriculum Lesson Academic content
  9. 9. •The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. •Curriculum typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students; the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the tests, assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning.
  10. 10. “All educational ideas must find expression in curricula before we can tell whether they are day dreams or contributions to practice. Many educational ideas are not found wanting because they cannot be found at all.” -Stenhouse (1980)
  11. 11. •“Curriculum is tool in the hand of the artist (teacher) to mold his material in accordance with his ideas in the school - Cunningham
  12. 12. Three Level Planned Curriculum Enacted Curriculum Experience Curriculum
  13. 13. Planned Curriculum Goals and Objective Curriculum Authority
  14. 14. Enacted Curriculum Profesional Judgements Implemented and Evaluated
  15. 15. Experience Curriculum Actually Happens Noted by Smith and Lovat (2003), lived experience defies complete description either before or after it happens – it is individual, ongoing and unpredictable
  16. 16. CURRICULUM Important Element of Education Aims of Education,Life and Society Reflected in the Curriculum
  17. 17. The curriculum aims to ensure that all children and young people in an Area develop the knowledge, skills and attributes they will need if they are to flourish in life, learning and work, now and in the future, and to appreciate their place in the world.
  18. 18. Curriculum as
  20. 20. DEFINITION: •Its second name was ‘course of studies’. The term was considered to be a program related to various subjects only. •It is a body of subject or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. Sources: http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/education/444-a-lecture-on- traditional-and-modern-concept-of-curriculum
  21. 21. Structure of Traditional Curriculum •Learners are passive absorbers of information and authority. •Teachers are sources of information and authority. •Learning is linear, with factual accumulation and skill mastery. •Knowledge is absorbed through lectures, worksheets, and texts.
  22. 22. Modes of Teaching •Teacher-centered classroom •Chalk and talk methods •More emphasis on examination and results rather than understanding the concepts •Lack of collaboration
  23. 23. Example of Traditional Curriculum •Basic Education Curriculum (Philippines)
  24. 24. Basic Education Curriculum 1. The Department of Education is implementing this school opening the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). 2. It is the product of 16 years of study conducted under the various DepEd secretaries (Lourdes Quisumbing, Isidro Cariño, and Bro. Andrew Gonzalez). Starting 1995, intensive consultations were held with various stakeholders – the schools, parents, students, business, trade and industry, NGOs and the people in the Education Department who administer the education system on ground level. 3. Almost immediately after assuming the post, the undersigned continued the consultations starting March 2001. The DepEd people consulted included experts, public and private school teachers, the 16 regional directors, 145 superintendents, at least 20,000 principals, and representative teachers of the different subject areas in different and year levels. 4. The Philippine Commission on Educational Reforms (PCER), created on Dec. 7, 1998 through Executive Order No. 46, recommended the adoption of the restructured BEC and its implementation starting 2002.
  25. 25. Basic Education Curriculum 5. The BEC focuses on the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, science and patriotism. Values is integral to all the subject areas. Students can then be ready for lifelong learning. It seeks to cure the inability of students who cannot read with comprehension at grade 3 and worse, at grade 6. 6. The BEC decongests the overcrowded curriculum. 7. Integrative and interactive teaching-learning approaches are stressed. These are characterized by group learning and sharing of knowledge and experiences between teachers, between teachers and students and among students. For instance, under the old curriculum, English teachers prepared lesson plans for English and values teachers prepared for values education. Under the BEC, the English and Values Education teachers work together on their lesson plans. 8. High school math shifts from the spiral system which introduced all math subjects in every level to the linear, sequential approach where only Elementary Algebra is taught in 1styear, Intermediate Algebra in the 2nd year and Geometry in 3rd year.
  26. 26. Basic Education Curriculum 9. From only 1,418 participants when the training started in March 2002, some 491,000 public and private school teachers have been trained as of May 20. Another 1,500 teacher trainers were trained on HS math and they led the school- based trainings of Math teachers. 10. Textbooks for the revised curriculum, worth some P1.4 billion, have been delivered, or are in the process of being distributed, to the different schools nationwide. Although the budget allocated textbook funds only for Grades 1 to IV and for 1st and 2nd year high school, the DepEd will be able to provide textbooks for Grade 1 to IV and for 1st to 3rdyear high school. This resulted from the substantial savings that DepEd was able to effect through its transparent approach in procuring school supplies and equipment. 11. Many lesson plans to be used by the teachers have been prepared and produced. From 3 to 15 of June, there were additional training and preparation of lesson plans. Each H.S. math teacher will get lesson plans.
  27. 27. Basic Education Curriculum 12. All 16 regional directors have submitted the names of teachers trained, the teachers feedback after each training session, the training designs used by the regions, the training kit given to the teachers and the weekly monitoring reports on the number of teachers trained. 13. The adoption of the BEC is optional for private schools. Although more than 50% of private schools have joined. 14. No teachers were lose his/her job. In fact, DepEd has hired 15,000 more teachers. 15. The NETRC, the BEE and BSE, with the assistance of NEAP, will conduct a quarterly evaluation of the revised curriculum. School principals and supervisors were continuously monitor its implementation in their respective schools and divisions.
  28. 28. Basic Education Curriculum 16. Curriculum development is a dynamic process, and thus the restructured curriculum will continue to develop. Through school year 2002-2003, the BEC implementation will be monitored, improved and fine-tuned. Selected prototype lesson plans will be distributed. 17. The BEC has received broad-based support from top educators and other authorities. Public school teachers, principals, superintendents and the regional directors have manifested support for the BEC. The whole DepEd will help implement the BEC. 18. For information and compliance. RAUL S. ROCO Secretary
  29. 29. Traditonal Curriculum •Teacher-centered classroom •Chalk and talk methods •More emphasis on examination and results rather than understanding the concepts •Lack of collaboration Mode of Teaching
  30. 30. Emerging Concepts of Curriculum
  31. 31. Understanding emergent curriculum in practice • curriculum that develops from exploring what is relevant, interesting and personally meaningful to children. • ‘As caring adults, we make choices for children that reflect our values; at the same time we keep our plans open-ended and responsive to children.’
  32. 32. Key features of emergent curriculum 1. Emergent curriculum is not a linear process. • An emergent curriculum is constantly evolving in response to children’s changing needs and interests, parental and community interests and concerns, and teachers’ priorities.
  33. 33. Key features of emergent curriculum 2. Emergent curriculum is cyclical. • As teachers get to know children and their families they observe children’s learning, discuss and share ideas with colleagues and families, interact with children and continue to monitor learning progress and document learning.
  34. 34. Key features of emergent curriculum 3. Emergent curriculum is flexible and responsive. • Teachers plan flexibly with children, as curriculum is constantly evolving in response to children’s interests, building on children’s strengths, needs and interests.
  35. 35. Key features of emergent curriculum 4. Emergent curriculum is collaborative. • Emergent curriculum provides opportunities for adults and children to contribute to decisionmaking processes.
  36. 36. Key features of emergent curriculum 5. Emergent curriculum makes children’s learning and teacher’s thinking visible. • Teachers document learning with children, colleagues and parents. • They engage partners in discussion and reflection about their learning experiences and document learning through a range of tools to make the learning process visible.
  37. 37. Source: • https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ qklg_pd_mod3_exa1_emerg_curric.pdf
  38. 38. WHAT IS K TO 12 PROGRAM? • The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
  39. 39. Why are we now implementing 13 years of basic education? • The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries worldwide with a 10-year pre-university cycle (Angola and Djibouti are the other two). • A 13-year program is found to be the best period for learning under basic education. It is also the recognized standard for students and professionals globally.
  40. 40. What has been done to get ready for K to 12? Are we really ready for K to 12? • SY 2011-2012: Universal Kindergarten implementation begins • SY 2012-2013: Enhanced curriculum for Grades 1-7 implemented • 2013: K to 12 enacted into Law • 2014: Curriculum for Grades 11-12 finished
  41. 41. Source: • http://www.gov.ph/k-12/
  42. 42. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum • to a progressivist , a listing of school, subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list of courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. • These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. • curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual.
  43. 43. John Dewey’s definition of experience and education • He believed that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements. • Thought is not derived from action but tested by application.
  44. 44. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as: • “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers”.
  45. 45. Smith, Stanley, and Shores • “curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.”
  46. 46. Marsh and Wills • “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students.”
  47. 47. Ralph Tyler Model; Four Basic Principles a) What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? b) What educational experience can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? c) How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? d) How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
  48. 48. Source: • http://www.khayma.com/muhannad/Dr%20A mer%20lectures/curiculum%20lectures%20en/ curriculum%20concepts%20nature%20and%2 0purposes.pdf