Evolution of 1GEvolution of 1G
The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT
(Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) in 1979.
Within five years, the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and
became the first nationwide 1G network.
History of 1G
1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k Modem
(56kbit/s),meaning actual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.
What is 1g
1G refers to the first-generation of Wireless telephone technology, mobile
telecommunications. It uses digital signalling to connect the radio towers
(which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system
Evolution of 2GEvolution of 2G
What is 2g
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular
telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now
part of Elisa Oyi) in 1991.It enablesthe various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as
text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages).
technologies2G technologies can be divided into TDMA(GSM)-based and CDMA-based standards depending on
the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are
GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used in almost all countries on all six inhabited
continents. Today accounts for over 80% of all subscribers around the world.
CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts of
Asia. Today accounts for about 17% of all subscribers globally. Over a dozen CDMA operators have
migrated to GSM including operators in Mexico, India, Australia and South Korea
Advancement of 2GAdvancement of 2G
2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-
switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain
• The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as
email and World Wide Web access
GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced
Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier
(IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data
Evolution of 3GEvolution of 3G
What is 3g
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and
mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-
2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Application services include wide-
area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile
environment. Its basic feature of 3G Technology is fast data transfer rates.
11 December 2008, India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data
services by Government owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd MTNL in Delhi and later in
Mumbai. MTNL becomes the first 3G Mobile service provider in India. After MTNL, another
state operator Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL) launched 3G services on 22 Feb 2009 in
Chennai and later launched 3G as Nationwide. The auction of 3G wireless spectrum was
announced in April 2010 and 3G Spectrum allocated to all private operators on 1 September 2010.
Entrance of 3g in
Advancement of 3GAdvancement of 3G
These radio technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS
(direct spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code), IMT-SC (single
carrier). FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code
3GTechnologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. The aim of the 3G
(Third Generation Technology) is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment.
There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, WiMax and CDMA
2000.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital
technology, because it can operate with older devices.
EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in
2003.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more.
UMTS is a complex network and allows for covering radio access, core network
•WiMax is a 3G Technology and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access.
It is a wireless technology. It transmits variety of wireless signals. It can be operated on the multi
point and point modes. it is portable technology
Evolution of 4GEvolution of 4G
In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards.
It is a successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband
Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other
mobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming
services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.
What is 4g
Requirement set by International Telecommunications
Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R)
• Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to
approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access.
• Dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.
• Scalable channel bandwidth 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.
• Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink
(meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth).
• System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor
• Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.
• Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.
Advancement of 4GAdvancement of 4G
Yet to launch 4G in
In India the reliance industries will start offering 4G services probably in the summer of this year.
Sources within the RIL, headed by Mukesh Ambani, revealed to The Economic Times that it plans
to provide 4G connectivity to 700 cities by June of this year, which will definitely be a big step
toward its developing India.RIL will be touting speeds of up to 50–100 Mbps on its network.
Taking this into account, low costs and high speed are the main avenues through which it will rise
in the market, with its speed being 7 times that of 3G.It is also planning to launch low-cost data
cards and Android-powered tablets to counter the price-sensitive market of India
4G applications are set to evolve in a multiplatform
environment. 4G apps will be available across various wireless
technologies like LTE, Wi-Fi, etc., and also in devices like cell
phones, laptops, e-readers, digital cameras, printers
Diverse uses of 4G