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Unit 3 thinking

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Unit 3 thinking

  1. 1. Thinking By Johny Joseph
  2. 2. • It is one of the most important aspects of one’s cognitive behaviour. • It involves number of psychological activities such as recollection, imagination, perception etc. • It is not a simple process.
  3. 3. The definition of thinking: •Thinking is mental activity in its cognitive aspect or mental activity with regard to psychological objects. (Ross) • thinking is a problem solving process in which we use ideas or symbols in place of overt activity. (Gilmer)
  4. 4. Nature of Thinking • It is essentially a cognitive activity. • It is always goal directed. • It is a problem solving behaviour. • It is related to inner cognitive behaviour. • There is mental exploration instead of motor exploration. • Thinking is symbolic; it cannot be observed but results can be seen.
  5. 5. Types of Thinking • Perceptual or Concrete thinking. • Conceptual or Abstract thinking. • Convergent thinking. • Divergent thinking. • Reflective thinking. • Creative thinking. • Critical Thinking. • Non directed/ associated thinking.
  6. 6. Perceptual or Concrete Thinking • It is the simplest form of thinking. • The basis of this thinking is a perception. • This type of thinking is also called as concrete thinking as it is carried out over the perception of actual or concrete objects and events.
  7. 7. Conceptual or Abstract thinking • It does not require the perception of actual objects or events. • It is a type of thinking where we make use of concepts and ideas. • This type of thinking is regarded as superior to perceptual thinking as it leads to discovery and inventions. • Abstract: existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or concrete existence.
  8. 8. Convergent Thinking • It is a closed single point thinking. • This follows the principle of convergence where the sun rays can be made to converge to a single point using a lens. • This type of thinking is involved in situations which require the production of only one correct solution or answer for a problem. Eg. Answering MCQs.
  9. 9. Divergent Thinking • It is a open point thinking. • It promotes making multiple solutions for a problem. • It is a broad scanning operation enabling the individual to make multiple possible solutions. • This is used for creativity and inventions.
  10. 10. Reflective Thinking • It is higher for of thinking. • It aims at solving complex problems rather than simple ones. • It requires re organisation of all the relevant experiences and finding new ways of reacting to a situation or removing an obstacle. • There is an insightful cognitive approach in reflective thinking. • It considers logic into account where relevant facts are arranged in logical manner before reaching to conclusion. • It requires time but results are better.
  11. 11. Creative Thinking • This is aimed to create something new. • It is in search of new relationship and associations to describe and interpret the nature of the things, events, and situations. • It helps in creativity and discovery/invention. • A creative thinker is always influenced by Versatile idea, originality, flexibility, divergent thinking, self confidence and persistence, vision and build relationship.
  12. 12. Critical Thinking • A type of thing that helps a person to step aside from his own personal belief, prejudices, and opinions to sort out the facts and discover the truth, even at the cost of his basic belief system. • Higher cognitive process which requires proper interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference and explanation. • It helps in meeting challenging problem of life and profession.
  13. 13. Levels of Thinking
  14. 14. Gathering knowledge (Level I) • It consists of acquiring basic pieces of information. Asking children to identify and describe objects encourages thinking on this level. • At this level thinking is found to operate at a very concrete level of knowledge. • Knowing about something, being able to recall from memory specific facts and figures.
  15. 15. Comprehending and confirming (Level II) • It involves looking at the meaning of the knowledge that has been gathered and drawing conclusions from it. • Understand the literal meaning of that something which falls in the boundary wall of knowing. • We conform the ideas by comparing or contrasting in own methodologies.
  16. 16. Applying (Level III) • It entails using what has been learned in new situations. • Asking children to consider a newly learned fact as they make something can foster this level of thinking. • It includes demonstration of a knowledge. • Making attempt to try and understand the learned knowledge in different similar situations.
  17. 17. Analyzing (Level IV) • It involves thinking about a whole in terms of its various parts. Breaking something into parts, using logics, cause and effect relationship, comparing and contrasting, recognizing pattern. • As a result classification, categorization, and discrimination occurs. • You can encourage this level of thinking by asking children what materials could be used for a particular classroom project.
  18. 18. SynthesizingSynthesizing (Level V)(Level V) • It consists of putting parts together to form a whole. • We often observe ideas put together to shape something new, propose plans, suggesting solutions, and create new information. • It includes the formation of theories and tests them. • Asking children how to use an array of materials to create something, for example, invites thinking on this level.
  19. 19. EvaluatingEvaluating (Level VI)(Level VI) • Highest level of thinking. • It entails making comparisons and judgments. • It is the ability of evaluation and judgements about a particular idea, its application and suitability. • A person at this level defend his work effectively. • You can encourage this level of thinking by asking children which of the materials they used worked the best.
  20. 20. Development of Thinking Piaget's theory of cognitive development •It is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence and thinking. •It was first created by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. •The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it. •To Piaget, cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience. •He believed that children construct an understanding of the world around them, experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment, then adjust their ideas accordingly.
  21. 21. Development of Thinking Through a series of stages, Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: •Sensory-motor (from birth to two years) •Preoperational (about 2 to 7 years) •Concrete operational (about 7 to 11 years) •formal operational period (about 11 to 15 years).
  22. 22. Sensory-motor (from birth to two years) • In this stage, infants progressively construct knowledge and understanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as vision and hearing) with physical interactions with objects (such as grasping, sucking, and stepping). • Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform within it. • They progress from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage. • They can think about aspects of the environment, even though these may be outside the reach of the child's senses.
  23. 23. Sensory-motor (from birth to two years) • In this stage, according to Piaget, the development of object permanence is one of the most important accomplishments. • Object permanence is a child's understanding that objects continue to exist even though he or she cannot see or hear them. Hide and seek is a good test for that. By the end of the sensory motor period, children develop a permanent sense of self and object.
  24. 24. Pre Operational Stage • Piaget's second stage, the pre-operational stage, starts when the child begins to learn to speak at age two and lasts up until the age of seven. • Children's increase in playing and pretending takes place in this stage. However, the child still has trouble seeing things from different points of view. • The children's play is mainly categorized by symbolic play and manipulating symbols. Such play is demonstrated by the idea of checkers being snacks, pieces of paper being plates, and a box being a table. • The child, however, is still not able to perform operations, which are tasks that the child can do mentally, rather than physically.
  25. 25. Pre Operational Stage • Thinking in this stage is still egocentric, meaning the child has difficulty seeing the viewpoint of others. The Pre-operational Stage is split into two sub stages: • The Pre conceptual stage: identify objects by different name and classify them as mummy, pappa, Chichu etc. It may not be exact figures. They consider all big animal as one category as they are big. They are unable to distinguish between living and non living objects. • The intuitive Phase: The intuitive thought sub stage is when children tend to propose the questions of "why?" and "how come?" This stage is when children want the knowledge of knowing everything.
  26. 26. The following developmental stages according to Piaget:
  27. 27. Concrete Operational Stage • It is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. • They start solving problems in a more logical fashion. • Abstract, hypothetical thinking is not yet developed in the child, and children can only solve problems that apply to concrete events or objects. • At this stage, the children undergo a transition where the child learns rules such as conservation. • Piaget determined that children are able to incorporate Inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves drawing inferences from observations in order to make a generalization. In contrast, children struggle with deductive reasoning, which involves using a generalized principle in order to try to predict the outcome of an event.
  28. 28. Concrete Operational Stage • Children in this stage commonly experience difficulties with figuring out logic in their heads. For example, a child will understand that "A is more than B" and "B is more than C". However, when asked "is A more than C?", the child might not be able to logically figure the question out in his or her head. • Loss of Egocentrism. Egocentrism is the inability to consider or understand a perspective other than one's own. It is the phase where the thought and morality of the child is completely self focused. • During this stage, the child acquires the ability to view things from another individual's perspective, even if they think that perspective is incorrect.
  29. 29. (2) The following developmental stages according to Piaget:
  30. 30. Formal Operational Stage • The final stage is known as the formal operational stage (adolescence and into adulthood, roughly ages 11 to approximately 15-20): • Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. This form of thought includes "assumptions that have no necessary relation to reality." • At this point, the person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. • Piaget stated that "hypothetico-deductive reasoning" becomes important during the formal operational stage. It is often required in science and mathematics.
  31. 31. Formal Operational Stage • Abstract thought emerges during the formal operational stage. Children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, and begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. • Metacognition, the capacity for "thinking about thinking" that allows adolescents and adults to reason about their thought processes and monitor them. • Problem-solving is demonstrated when children use trial-and-error to solve problems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges.
  32. 32. (5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html The following developmental stages according to Piaget:
  33. 33. Communication & Language: In Thinking. • Thinking is the main thing that distinguishes between humans and animals. • Humans may think because human whereas animals do not have the language. • Animal language is an instinct that does not need to be studied and taught, while human language is the result of culture that must be learned and taught. • With language, humans can give names to everything, whether visible or invisible. All objects, jobs, and others abstract, is named. • That way, everything that has ever observed and experienced can be saved, be responses and experiences, then processed (think) into insights.
  34. 34. Communication & Language: In Thinking. • Communication provides a network for mutual exchange or sharing of ideas, beliefs and thoughts. • It may be verbal (words and language) or nonverbal (facial expression, eye movements, tone of voice, body language) or any other form of communication. • The thinking can be processed and expressed only with the help of language and communication. • Language paves proper social interaction. • Language helps in comprehension. • Reading makes a full man and writing makes an exact man: Proverb.
  35. 35. Alteration in Thinking. • The direction of ones thinking in a proper and desirable way is many times altered on account of one or other factors affecting the thought process. • The alterations may be classified as a. Irrational thinking: Having no rational, reason or cause underlying such thinking. b. Illogical thinking: having no logics. c. Improper thinking: No fruitful result and no desirable communication output. d. Non directed/aimless thinking: thinking without aim such as day dreaming, fantasy, delusions, free associations.
  36. 36. • Day dreaming, fantasy, delusions, free associations all fall in the category of withdrawal behaviour that helps an individual to escape from the demands of the real world. • the first three are not much harmful though there is positive and negative consequences but delusions are abnormality. • Delusion are persistent false thoughts which is irrational to the physical, social and psychological aspects of the person.
  37. 37. Reasons for Alteration in Thinking. • One may flow in the current of the emotions like, fear, anger, distress, love, affection, etc which could not be fulfilled. • Thinking also may be paralyzed through suggestions and advice from elders, peers (high expectation.) • Superstitions (Hanging lemon and 7 green chilies, If a black cat crosses your path, it's a bad omen, Breaking mirror brings bad luck, Twitching of the eye is inauspicious, Removing evil eye (Nazar Utaarna), Adding one rupee to a gift sum)and irrational cultural norms/traditions. • Increased self centeredness. • Improper defense mechanisms.
  38. 38. Reasons for Alteration in Thinking. • Defence mechanisms are helpful and healthy if used in a proper manner. • However, if misused or overused, the same defence mechanisms may also be unhealthy. • Maladaptive use of defence mechanisms can occur in a variety of cases, for example when they become automatic and prevent individuals from realizing their true feelings and thoughts.