Spatial Variability of Free-Fluid Porosity in the
Middle Bakken Reservoir: Applying Traditional Mapping
Techniques to Nucl...
• Kodiak Oil & Gas Corp.
• North Dakota Industrial Commission Oil & Gas
Website (www.dmr.nd.gov/oilgas/)
Acknowledgements
• Overview of the Play (2000 – 2012)
• Limitations of Conventional Porosity Logs
• Conventional Porosity Maps (old mapping...
History of the U.S. Bakken Play: 2000 - 2011
Limitations of Conventional Porosity Logs
• Conventional Porosity values are dependent upon
pre-existing knowledge of the ...
Middle Bakken Thickness
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKEN FORMATION
T...
Middle Bakken Thickness
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKEN FORMATION
T...
Middle Bakken Average Bulk Density
N
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKE...
Middle Bakken Average Bulk Density
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKEN ...
Middle Bakken Average Density Porosity
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAK...
Middle Bakken Average Density Porosity
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAK...
Middle Bakken Density Porosity x Feet
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKK...
Middle Bakken Density Porosity x Feet
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKK...
Tall Bear Prospect Area
Tall Bear 16-15-16H
BAKKEN FORMATION
STRUCTURE
Contour Interval = 25 ft
Tall Bear 16-15-16H
BAKKEN FORMATION
STRUCTURE
Contour Interval = 25 ft
Tall Bear Type Log
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
HOME ...
Results:
- Middle Bakken produces oil, albeit at low
volumes with high water cuts => very, very
low perm rocks (partially ...
• Porosity values are independent of
lithology
• Total Porosity is subdivided into porosity
types (i.e., clay-bound porosi...
T2 Distribution - Main output of NMR Logging
T2 0.3ms 3.0ms 33ms 3000ms
Three basic porosity bins
give an indication of th...
Porosity = 20%
Permeability = 7.5 md
Porosity = 19.5%
Permeability = 279 md
T2 time
k = 279 md
Signal
distribution
Increas...
Bakken NMR Logs: Inside The Play
1%
Porosity
10% Porosity 0%
Bakken NMR Logs: East Of The Play
1%
Porosity
10% Porosity 0%
Middle Bakken Thickness
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKEN FORMATION
T...
Middle Bakken Thickness
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
BAKKEN FORMATION
T...
Middle Bakken Average Free-Fluid Porosity
N
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resi...
Middle Bakken Average Free-Fluid Porosity
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
...
Middle Bakken Free-Fluid Porosity x Feet
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
B...
Middle Bakken Free-Fluid Porosity x Feet
Lodgepole Fm
Upper Bakken
Lower Bakken
Three
Forks
Fm
Middle
Bakken
PorGR Resis
B...
Conclusions
• Permeable porosity networks in Middle Bakken
reservoir vary both vertically and laterally.
• Conventional po...
Questions?
Many Thanks for Your Time
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Payne and Hook - RMS AAPG 2012 - FINAL

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Payne and Hook - RMS AAPG 2012 - FINAL

  1. 1. Spatial Variability of Free-Fluid Porosity in the Middle Bakken Reservoir: Applying Traditional Mapping Techniques to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Data Jon Payne1 & Peter Hook2 1 Kodiak Oil & Gas, 1625 Broadway Suite 250, Denver CO 80202 jpayne@kodiakog.com 2 Schlumberger Oilfield Services, 1675 Broadway Suite 900, Denver CO 80202 phook@slb.com
  2. 2. • Kodiak Oil & Gas Corp. • North Dakota Industrial Commission Oil & Gas Website (www.dmr.nd.gov/oilgas/) Acknowledgements
  3. 3. • Overview of the Play (2000 – 2012) • Limitations of Conventional Porosity Logs • Conventional Porosity Maps (old mapping methods with old logs) • Tall Bear 16-15-16H Well Review • Benefits of NMR logs • Free-Fluid Porosity Maps (old mapping methods with new logs) • Summary Outline
  4. 4. History of the U.S. Bakken Play: 2000 - 2011
  5. 5. Limitations of Conventional Porosity Logs • Conventional Porosity values are dependent upon pre-existing knowledge of the reservoir’s lithology and/or mineralogy(core analyses, cuttings, ect.) • Total Porosity(TP) can be obtained, but is not readily subdivided into porosity types (i.e., clay- bound porosity, capillary-bound porosity, and free-fluid porosity) • Conventional Porosity values are not indicative of reservoir permeability, and are not spatially coincident with commercial production in Bakken & Three Forks reservoir rocks
  6. 6. Middle Bakken Thickness Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  7. 7. Middle Bakken Thickness Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  8. 8. Middle Bakken Average Bulk Density N Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D.
  9. 9. Middle Bakken Average Bulk Density Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  10. 10. Middle Bakken Average Density Porosity Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  11. 11. Middle Bakken Average Density Porosity Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  12. 12. Middle Bakken Density Porosity x Feet Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  13. 13. Middle Bakken Density Porosity x Feet Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  14. 14. Tall Bear Prospect Area Tall Bear 16-15-16H BAKKEN FORMATION STRUCTURE Contour Interval = 25 ft
  15. 15. Tall Bear 16-15-16H BAKKEN FORMATION STRUCTURE Contour Interval = 25 ft Tall Bear Type Log Upper Bakken Lower Bakken HOME PETROLEUM CORP DANKS C.A. 1-15 Section 15, T147N-R91W Dunn County, North Dakota Middle BakkenBAKKEN Formation THREE FORKS Formation LODGEPOLE Formation PorGR Resis EUR ≈ 15,000 BO
  16. 16. Results: - Middle Bakken produces oil, albeit at low volumes with high water cuts => very, very low perm rocks (partially charged with oil?) - If completed & placed on production, wells may be marginal to non-commercial in this part of the basin, given current oil prices… - Existing porosity maps (from conventional logs) are not useful for Middle Bakken play prediction Tall Bear 16-15-16H: Our biggest disappointment…yet
  17. 17. • Porosity values are independent of lithology • Total Porosity is subdivided into porosity types (i.e., clay-bound porosity, capillary- bound porosity, and free-fluid porosity) • Provides multiple, separate estimates of permeability Benefits of NMR Logs
  18. 18. T2 Distribution - Main output of NMR Logging T2 0.3ms 3.0ms 33ms 3000ms Three basic porosity bins give an indication of the types of porosity present CMFF (%) CMRP_3MS (%) TCMR (%) T2 Distribution 0.3ms 3000ms30% Porosity Capillary Bound Porosity Small Pore Porosity Free Fluid Porosity (Producible Fluids) Total Porosity  Area under distribution Porosity Definitions and Field Presentation P. Hook, Schlumberger, personal communication, 2012
  19. 19. Porosity = 20% Permeability = 7.5 md Porosity = 19.5% Permeability = 279 md T2 time k = 279 md Signal distribution Increasing relaxation time T2 time k = 7.5 md Signal distribution Increasing relaxation time Pore Size Distribution & Permeability P. Hook, Schlumberger, personal communication, 2012 Lower Free Fluid Porosity Values Higher Free Fluid Porosity Values
  20. 20. Bakken NMR Logs: Inside The Play 1% Porosity 10% Porosity 0%
  21. 21. Bakken NMR Logs: East Of The Play 1% Porosity 10% Porosity 0%
  22. 22. Middle Bakken Thickness Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  23. 23. Middle Bakken Thickness Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  24. 24. Middle Bakken Average Free-Fluid Porosity N Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D.
  25. 25. Middle Bakken Average Free-Fluid Porosity Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  26. 26. Middle Bakken Free-Fluid Porosity x Feet Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  27. 27. Middle Bakken Free-Fluid Porosity x Feet Lodgepole Fm Upper Bakken Lower Bakken Three Forks Fm Middle Bakken PorGR Resis BAKKEN FORMATION TYPE LOG NOVUS OPERATING COMPANY L.P. ANN 1 Well Section 36, 152N-100W McKenzie Co., N.D. N
  28. 28. Conclusions • Permeable porosity networks in Middle Bakken reservoir vary both vertically and laterally. • Conventional porosity tools do not always allow us to identify the presence of reservoir quality rocks. • NMR logs allow characterization of permeable porosity systems which influence well productivity. • Regional mapping of free-fluid porosity constitutes a reliable means of identifying areas of high-grade reservoir rocks.
  29. 29. Questions? Many Thanks for Your Time

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