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  2. Introduction The discussion of political science remains incomplete unless the political theory is properly discussed. In the discussion of political theory, there are many questions that arise in your mind.
  3. Every time you start to study political science, the first thing you need to know about and understand is political theory. And in order to understand the political theory, you have to face many problems.
  4. Political Theory theory shape our thought process towards society from where we belong to. That is why as a student of political science we should study political theory. because it helps-
  5. • To explain what is going on around us. • To understand our rights and duties. • To decide what should be or not should be. • To solve ethical problems. • To understand political development and political crisis in the world.
  6. So it became necessary to clearly understand the concept of political theory. Once we understand the meaning of political theory and what its functions are, then it will be easy for us to figure out why should we study political theory in detail.
  7. What is Theory? The first term is a theory that you need to know; otherwise you will not understand anything of political theory. The English word ‘Theory’ comes from the Greek word ‘Theoria’ which means “a looking at, viewing, beholding”. In a sense of ancient Greek the theory is to gain knowledge of a particular phenomenon through thoughtfulness and intellectual insight. In general, the theory implies an analytical framework.
  8. But proponents of empiricism think that knowledge, which is based on some predetermined self-reflection and make a conclusion based on that, cannot be called as theory. According to them theory refers to Determines the inter- relationship between the various information obtained from the experience and presents it in a coherent and meaningful way. But the problem is that if the theory is based on only information by experiences then how we define the concept of Freedom, Equality, and Justice, and so on.
  9. So in general you can say that theory is a systematic study for systematic knowledge about a particular phenomenon based on abstract ideas, rational character, generality, and non- speculation in nature. The prime goal of the theory is to find out the human achievable truth.
  10. What is Political? Now you have to understand what politics is. Political mainly refers to power or authority. It also refers to influence, control, and use of physical force or threat. In Newspaper, we see a variety of issues related to the rape, racism, gender equality, political party, March against the government. Now the question is, are these political issues? Yes these issues are political because of all these issues related to power. And all these are linked to the government institutions.
  11. So it can be said that political refers to the power to take decisions by the government institutions about common life or society. Here political refers to power with (a government institution) and power to (common people and society). But is it not 100 percent true. Rajeev Bhargava in his book (Political Theory: An Introduction) explain political very accurately. He has used an example of women’s organization protesting against the exclusion or unequal treatment of women.
  12. So far as political has meant that the Woman Organization has never belonged to the political. Because the Woman Organization is not part of the government organization. But protest by women’s group is political. Their act is political. Women have long struggled against some social practice. Unequal treatment over them means the use of power over them by men or any social practices. Exercise of power in any type linked to the political and it refers to power over also.
  13. Political Theory The main point of this article is political theory. You have already got the meaning of Theory and Political and now you will learn what it means when these two words sit together. If theory refers to the systematic study for systematic knowledge about a particular phenomenon or issues then, political theory is the systematic study for systematic knowledge about political phenomena or issues.
  14. Again, it can be said that political theory is a theory that deals with political matters. Political theory is related to the science and philosophy of political affairs. A British political scientist David Held nicely defines political theory as “a network of concept and generalizations about political life involving ideas, assumptions and statements about the nature, purpose and key features of government, state and society and about the political capabilities of human beings”.
  15. Definition of Political Theory  POLITICAL THEORY is the study of politics, concepts, and the historical record of political thought.
  16. Objective in the Study of Political Theory Political Theory helps us better understand the concepts that have shaped our politics, including freedom, equality, individuality, democracy and justice. Importantly, Political Theory is the part of Political Science that explores what a better political world would look like and how we can create it.
  17. According to David Held, political theory is a 'network of concepts and generalizations about political life involving ideas, assumptions and statements about the nature, purpose and key features of government, state and society, and about the political capabilities of human beings'
  18. political theory is 'a series of concepts and concepts all about political life that incorporate ideas, assumptions and statements about the state, purpose and essential aspects of government, state and society, and human political power.
  19. Political theory is the study of how we ought to organize the forces that shape our lives. ... This course will therefore consider the whats, whys, and hows of the economy, culture, ecology, race, gender, spirituality, education, and most everything else that forms our social and political experience.
  20. Political theory is the study of political ideas and values like justice, power and democracy that we use to describe, understand and assess political practices and institutions.
  21. Father of Political Theory Some have identified Plato (428/427– 348/347 bce), whose ideal of a stable republic still yields insights and metaphors, as the first political scientist, though most consider Aristotle (384–322 bce), who introduced empirical observation into the study of politics, to be the discipline's true founder.
  22. Plato believes that conflicting interests of different parts of society can be harmonized. ... The best, rational and righteous, political order, which he proposes, leads to a harmonious unity of society and allows each of its parts to flourish, but not at the expense of others.
  23. Political Theory - a theory having to do with the political relationships among men specifically : one concerned with the organization and basis of government political theories are generated by social frictions — A. S. Kaufman.
  24. Political theory reflects upon political phenomenon, processes and institutions and on actual political behaviour by subjecting it to philosophical or ethical criterion. ... The theories are the results of thoughts and research of many scholars and exponents of political science.
  25. Political Theory According to Aristotle The aim of the Politics, Aristotle says, is to investigate, on the basis of the constitutions collected, what makes for good government and what makes for bad government and to identify the factors favourable or unfavourable to the preservation of a constitution.
  26. Traditional vs. Modern The traditional approaches are mostly legal, institutional, historical, descriptive in nature, while the modern approach is scientific, rational and analytical. ... They compare the functions performed by different institutions.
  27. Modern Political Theory critically examines the contemporary state of political theory, making an assessment of the achievement and limitations of the 'Behavioural Revolution' in its totality, and reviews objectively the major paradigms and conceptual frameworks adopted by the discipline.
  28. Theory vs. Ideology In simple terms, ideology can be identified as a way of thinking or a set of ideas that people uphold in a society. Theories, on the other hand, are a generalized thinking or a conclusion of something that is a result of an analysis.
  29. Functions of Political Theory Political theory helps to understand what is actually happening surrounding us and throughout the world as well. Political theory tells you how you do collect data from those political events and how to study it systematically. When women organizations protest against the government, there are definitely some reasons behind those protests. Political theory gives us theoretical/conceptual frameworks to explain the reasons for those protests. When we study women protest, the maximum time we use the conceptual frameworks like equality, empowerment, rights, justice, and so on.
  30. Political theory always tells us that the political events surrounding us are good or bad, right or wrong for all of us. The prime goal of political theory is to find out the truth from our society. The political theory also gives the criterion of how good and how bad that truth is.
  31. It helps us to understand about good order society and what makes society perfect. If anything wrong is happening related to politics then what will is the best solution also given by political theory.
  32. Philosophy, Social Science and Political Theory 1 The current state of political theory 2 Language 3 Liberalism 4 The decline of Marxism and the rise of communitarianism
  33. Law and Social Control 1 Law and social philosophy 2 Natural law 3 Law as command 4 Legal realism 5 Legal systems as systems of rules 6 Principles, rules and the law 7 Law and society 8 The rule of law
  34. The State 1 The state in political philosophy 2 Analysis of the state 3 The economic theory of the state 4 The organic theory of the state 5 Anarchism
  35. Authority and Power 1 Authority, power and coercion 2 The nature of authority 3 Some problems with power 4 Social theories of power
  36. Political Principles 1 Political principles and political philosophy 2 Logical positivism and emotivism 3 Universalisability and ethical pluralism 4 Contractarianism 5 Utilitarianism 6 Individualism 7 Marxism and collectivism 8 Feminism
  37. Justice 1 The problem of justice 2 The meaning of justice 3 Procedural justice 4 Social justice 5 Rawls's theory of justice
  38. Equality 1 The equality principle 2 Human nature and equality 3 Equality of opportunity 4 Equality, markets and resources 5 Equality, the family and feminism
  39. Liberty 1 Liberty in political philosophy 2 The meaning of liberty 3 Negative and positive liberty 4 Liberty as autonomy 5 John Stuart Mill and the value of liberty 6 Law, morality and paternalism
  40. Human Rights 1 Rights in political theory 2 Analysis of rights 3 Critics of rights 4 Human rights, economic and social rights and welfare
  41. The Public Interest and Democracy 1 The public interest 2 Democracy 3 Procedural democracy and the public interest 4 The radical critique of liberal democracy