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The Beginning of Philosophy

  1. Prepared by: Jorjie U. Nepangue, LPT BSEd-MAPEH MAEd-Physical Education A PowerPoint Presentation
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  3. Report Outline • Etymological Background of Philosophy • Definition of Philosophy • The Beginning of Philosophy • The Stages of Development Greek Philosophy (Classic Civilization) Modern Philosophy (Modern Civilization) Contemporary Philosophy
  4. • Etymology Definition The term ‘Philosophy' is coined from the Greek words ‘Phylos’ meaning ‘to love’ and ‘Sophie’ meaning ‘Wisdom’. Thus, in its etymological sense, Philosophy accounts for the ‘love of wisdom’.
  5. • Formal Definition Is defined as ‘certa sciertia per ultima causas’ which means certain knowledge through ultimate causes— acquired by the use of human reason alone.
  6. • Popular Definition Can be regarded as private wisdom giving the reason the ability to look things on a positive note. Hence, this gives man the opportunity to be optimistic especially in times of misfortune.
  7. • Technical Definition The science of science. It does not only unify all sciences but also criticizes and defends the conclusion of other science.
  8. The Beginning of Philosophy • The historical beginning of philosophy came through four successive civilization: Indian, Classic or Greek, Christian and Modern • Western philosophy started when Thales of Miletus and his students like Anaximander and Anaximenes begun their inquiry into the nature of things.
  9. • The story of philosophy would start from its birthplace from Classic civilization, that is, 6th century BC in the ancient Greek city of Miletus the western shore of Iona in Asia Minor. Why not the Western civilization? Why it began here and not in another place? • The first philosopher are called either Milesians or Ionians.
  10. Think Science and PHILOSOPHY Curiosity Leisure Prosperous Existing of People Development of Industry, Trade and Commerce Miletus: A Wealthy Greek City
  11. The Stages of Development • In the beginning, the search for causes and principles of things was made more by imagination than reason. • The Greek philosophy began with a pre- historic period known as the Age of Universal Animism and the Age of Anthropomorphism.
  12. The Stages of Development • Greek Philosophy (Classic Civilization) • Modern Philosophy (Modern Civilization) • Contemporary Philosophy
  13. GREEK PHILOSOPHY (CLASSIC CIVILIZATION) The Greek philosophy consisted of the following periods:  Naturalistic  Metaphysical  Ethical  Religious
  14. Naturalistic Period • Paid attention to cosmological problem: What is the first principle which determines the origin and end of things? • Philosophy of Nature • Thales of Miletus known as the first Greek philosopher
  15. Metaphysical Period • The thinkers were interested in morality and justice • It is the most important period in the entire field of philosophy, with the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle forming a body of thought.
  16. Ethical Period • To find “a way of life worthy of a philosopher”- a consequence like the loss of freedom and the destruction caused by war. • Humans opposed evils by either appealing to reason, by appealing to the senses, or by discarding both reason and the senses.
  17. Religious Period (Christian Civilization) • It attempts to resolve the problem of human. • Christianity appeared, not as a philosophy, but as a revealed religion given by Jesus Christ. • Three sub-periods  Period of Evangelization  Patristic Period  Scholasticism  St. Thomas Aquinas
  18. MODERN PHILOSOPHY (MODERN CIVILIZATION) • Begun with Descartes in France or with Francis Bacon in England. It rose in order to reject and oppose ancient philosophy and scholastic medieval philosophy.  Rationalism  Empiricism  Illuminism  Idealism  Positivism
  19. Rationalism • Knowledge is acquired by reason without resort of experience. • Taught that reason is the only source of knowledge, thus it denied feelings.
  20. Empiricism • Sense experience was the primary source of knowledge • John Locke was its founder
  21. Illuminism/Enlightenment • Oppose all past ages • It aimed to re-establish the entire order of human life in the “light of reason”
  22. Idealism • “Nothing can be known outside the mind of a thinking being” –George Berkeley’ the idealism major philosopher.
  23. Positivism • Maintained that the data of sense experience were the only object and the supreme criterion of human knowledge. Abstract ideas were mere opinions. • Auguste Comte
  24. CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY  Pragmatism  Existentialism
  25. Pragmatism • William James • Value of a concept is not absolute but relative to its utility (or use) in practice. Hence, what is useful is valuable.
  26. Existentialism • A philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings and essence of their own lives. • Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are considered as the Father of Existentialism