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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory of 1964

Overview of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
https://agile-mercurial.com/2019/07/08/vrooms-expectancy-theory-of-motivation/
https://agile-mercurial.com/

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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

  1. 1. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
  2. 2. Expectancy Theory • Proposed byVictor Vroom in 1964 • Focuses on the thought process behind motivation • How does the work help the employee meet their own goals?
  3. 3. Four Assumptions • People choose jobs based on their needs and past experiences • Behavior/Actions (work effort) is dictated by conscious choices • What motivates people is different for each individual • People will work to optimize their personal benefits when given options
  4. 4. EMPLOYEES NEED TO SEE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR WORK AND THE ATTAINMENT OF THEIR PERSONAL GOALS
  5. 5. EFFORT AND EXPECTANCY Are the goals attainable?
  6. 6. Effort and Expectancy • Expectancy is the assessment of the work needed to complete a job or task • The probability of 0 means the employee does not believe the effort will lead to an acceptable outcome • A probability of 1 means that the employee believes that an acceptable outcome is almost certain to be met and the employee sees a relationship between their level of effort and their personal goals
  7. 7. PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUMENTALITY Will high performance lead to the reward?
  8. 8. Performance and Instrumentality • Instrumentality is where the employee makes estimates about how much their task performance relates to receiving the reward • The employee should be able to see a relationship between how well they perform and the personal rewards they receive in order to increase their motivation • If an employee perceives that a relationship between their performance always exists, the probability of it existing on new tasks is nearly certain and would be a 1
  9. 9. REWARD AND VALENCE Is the reward in line with my goals?
  10. 10. Reward and Valence • Valence is how much an employee prefers certain rewards over other rewards • The employee may consider multiple rewards and choose the one that most meets their personal goals • Valence can be shown on a scale that ranges from -1 to 1; with a 0-level valence being indifferent to the award
  11. 11. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY EQUATION Is the employee motivated?
  12. 12. Motivational Level • Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence – M = E x I xV • Using the probabilities for expectancy, instrumentality, and valence, you can calculate how motivated employees are
  13. 13. Source: Luneneburg, F.C. (2011) ExpectancyTheory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations. Retrieved From http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal %20Volumes/Luneneburg,%20Fred%20C%20Expectan cy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJ MBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf Joshua Render Vroom’s ExpectancyTheory: https://agile-mercurial.com/2019/07/08/vrooms-expectancy-theory-of-motivation/ https://agile-mercurial.com/ https://twentyfirstcenturyworkforce.com/

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