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Immune and Endocrine Systems

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glands and hormones

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Immune and Endocrine Systems

  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Lymphatic & Endocrine Systems
  2. 2. Bonus: What is the “mucus elevator” and how does it work? - Mucus membranes that line the airways of the respiratory system have cells with cilia (hairs that wave) that push mucus up and out toward the nose where it can be sneezed out along with the germs it has trapped. In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Week 22 Review Quiz 1. What are alveoli? • Very thin and tiny air sacks in the lungs 1. How does oxygen travel through the body ? • Attached to red blood cells within the circulatory system (veins & arteries). 1. True or False? Speech (vocal sounds) are made by the vibrating epiglottis and uvula as air flows across these tissues. • False (vocal cords in the larynx are the tissues that vibrate to made sounds) 1. Name at least three negative affects of smoking on the human body. • Causes emphysema, cancer, asthma, high blood pressure, and heart disease • Weakens the immune system, wrinkles skin, stains teeth, causes bad breath • Nicotine addiction, depression, and may lead to other drug abuse 1. Explain the path a molecule of oxygen travels to get from the air to a brain cell. • Nasal cavity – pharynx – larynx – trachea – bronchi/bronchioles – alveolus – capillary – pulmonary vein – heart (L atrium - L ventricle) – aorta – arteries – capillary – brain
  3. 3. The Lymphatic System • A system of drainage vessels and organs that helps the body fight infection – A major part of the immune system – Also keeps body tissue fluid levels in balance
  4. 4. What Is Lymph? • Lymph is a clear, watery fluid that comes from plasma which has seeped into the spaces between cells near capillaries • Lymph contains: – Water – Protein & fat molecules – Salts (electrolytes) – White blood cells • Lymph comes from blood plasma which has “leaked” out of capillaries
  5. 5. • Some plasma seeps out of capillaries to the spaces between cells (called interstitial fluid) • This fluid is collected into lymph vessels and taken to nodes where the lymph is “cleaned” by immune cells
  6. 6. Lymph Edema • If the lymphatic system is not working properly, excess interstitial fluid can remain uncollected, causing severe swelling.
  7. 7. Lymph Nodes • Lymph is transported to small nodes where immune cells attack pathogens and respond to infection. – Skeletal muscles squeeze lymph through vessels – Nodes concentrated in neck, groin, under arms, & in abdomen
  8. 8. Screening Lymph Nodes • Lymph nodes can be biopsied (surgically removed and inspected) to determine if cancer may have spread to other parts of the body.
  9. 9. Lymph Node
  10. 10. Immune Cells • White Blood Cells form a major part of your body’s defense against disease and infection.
  11. 11. Week 23 Activity Infectivitis Outbreak 1. The overall benefits of vaccinations that most children receive in the U.S. far outweigh the risks. 2. As long as a disease is rare, I should avoid or postpone getting vaccinated because of the risks involved. 3. Although there are some risks, I should be vaccinated, because if not, I put the health of others at risk. 4. While all 50 states have school immunization laws requiring children to receive vaccinations, parents should have sole decision-making power about whether or not to immunize their children, with no external regulations. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  12. 12. Endocrine System • Glands – Pituitary (master gland) – Hypothalamus – Thyroid/Parathyroid – Thymus (more active in children) – Adrenal – Gonads (ovaries, testes) • Make & release hormones – chemical messengers – travel through bloodstream – cause changes all over the body
  13. 13. Hormones - what are they? • Made from: – Proteins (amino acids) – Lipids (steroids, fatty acids) • Usually affect organs & tissues far away from where they are produced • Closely connected to the CNS (central nervous system) • Some hormones regulate the release of other hormones • Examples of hormones: – Growth Hormone (pituitary/hypothalamus) – Melatonin (pineal) – Epinephrine/Adrenaline (adrenal glands) – Insulin (pancreas - islets of Langerhans) – Testosterone (testes)
  14. 14. • Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland • Pituitary = “master gland”
  15. 15. What Do Hormones Do? Hormones maintain homeostasis in the body. They start, stop, maintain and regulate: • physical growth & metabolism • release of other hormones • “fight or flight” response, stress, & “rest or digest” • puberty & production of eggs or sperm • blood sugar levels & release of digestive enzymes • sleep, immune responses • pregnancy, labor & milk production
  16. 16. Week 23 Activity Endocrine Excitement 1. Do NOT look at your puzzle piece until instructed. 2. Spread evenly throughout the room, then freeze. 3. Now check your puzzle piece to discover your role: • RECEPTORs must stay frozen in place. • HORMONEs may move about the room to find their match. 4. Once a match is made, you must perform the action written on the connected puzzle pieces. • When a GLAND secretes a HORMONE, it travels throughout the body through blood vessels. • Only TARGET CELLS that have a RECEPTOR for a specific hormone will be activated when the hormone & receptor fit together. • What examples can you think of where a certain object will only fit into or together with a perfectly matched shape? • The ENDOCRINE SYSTEM is a method of communication between the brain and many different body parts. • Why not just use lightning-fast nerves to relay messages? Some signals need to reach every cell, like insulin which instructs cells to take in glucose. If nerves had to relay this message, there would need to be an individual pathway between the brain and every single cell in your body.
  17. 17. Human Body Systems • Can you name each system and the organs that work together to carry out a specific function?