Food is a potential source of infection and is liable to
contamination by microorganisms, at any point during
its journey from the producer to the consumer). The
primary aim of food hygiene is to prevent food
poisoning and other food-borne illnesses.
Infections primary to man that can be transmitted
1.Typhoid 2.Shigellosis 3. Cholera 4.Enteropathogenic
Escherichiacoli (EEC) 5.Non-diarrhoeal diseases
a) Streptococcal infections) Staphylococcal food
poisoning (c) Diphtheria Tuberculosie) Enteroviruse
Pasteurisation of milk
Holder (Vat) method: In this process, milk is kept at 63-66 deg C for at least 30
minutes, and then quickly cooled to 5 deg C, Vat method is recommended for small
and rural communities. In larger cities, it is going out of use. (2) HTST method: Also
known as "High Temperature and Short Time Method". Milk is rapidly heated to a
temperature of nearly 72 deg C, is held at that temperature for not less than 15
seconds, and is then rapidly cooled to 4 deg C. This is now the most widely used
method. Very large quantities of milk per hour can be pasteurized by this method.
(3) UHT Method: Also known as "ultra-high temperature method." Milk is rapidly
heated usually in 2 stages (the second stage usually being under pressure) to 125
deg C for a few seconds only. It is then rapidly cooled and bottled
Test of pasteurized milk
Phosphatase test: This test is widely used to check the efficiency
of pasteurization. The test is based on the fact that raw milk
contains an enzyme called phosphatase which is destroyed on
heating at a temperature which corresponds closely with the
standard time and temperature required for pasteurization. At 60
deg C for 30 minutes phosphatase is completely destroyed.
Consequently, the test is used to detect inadequate
pasteurization or the addition of raw milk.
2) Standard plate count The bacteriological quality of pasteurized milk is
determined by the standard plate count. Most countries in the West enforce
a limit of 30.000 bacterial count per ml of pasteurized milk.
3) Coliform count : Coliform organisms are usually completely destroyed by
pasteurization, and therefore, their presence in pasteurized milk is an
indication either of improper pasteurization or post-pasteurization
contamination. The standard in most countries is that coliforms be absent in
1 ml of milk..
The term "meat" includes various tissues of animal origin. The diseases
which may be transmitted by eating unwholesome meat are:
(1) TAPEWORM INFESTATIONS: Taenia solium, T. saginata, Trichinella
spiralis and Fasciola hepatica. (2) BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
:anthrax,actinomycosis, tuberculosis and food poisoning.
Adulteration of food
It consists of concealing the quality, putting up decomposed
foods for a large number of practices, e.g., mixing,
substitution, toxicants. Adulteration results in two
disadvantages for the sale, misbranding or giving false labels
and addition of toxicants
It is a crippling disease of the nervous system characterized
by gradually developing spastic paralysis of lower limbs.
Mostly occur in adults.
• Toxin: BOAA (Beta oxalyl amino alanine)
• Adulterant: Khesari Dal (Lathyrus Sativus)
Clinical manifestations: non-inflammatory, bilateral swelling
of legs, often associated with diarrhoea, Dyspnea, cardiac
failure and death. May occur at all ages.
• Adulterant: Argemone Mexicana (oil)
Prevention of Food Adulteration
Enacted by the Indian Parliament in 1954, with the objective
of ensuring pure and wholesome food to the consumers
and to protect them from fraudulent and deceptive trade
practices, the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act
was amended in 1964, 1976 and lately in 1986 to make the
Act more stringent.
A minimum imprisonment of 6 months with a minimum fine
of Rs.1,000 is envisaged under the Act for cases of proven
adulteration, whereas for the cases of adulteration which
may render the food injurious to cause death or such harm
which may amount to grievous hurt (within the meaning of
section 320 of I.P.C.) the punishment may go upto life
imprisonment and a fine which shall not be less than
Rs.5,000. With the amendment in 1986, the consumer and
the voluntary organizations have been empowered under
the Act to take samples of food.
Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 was enacted with the
objective to consolidate the laws relating to food and for laying
down science based standards for articles of food as well as to
regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import
to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human
consumption and for matters connected therewith or incidental
thereto. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
(FSSAI) was established in the year 2008 (174). FSS Act 2006 is
being implemented by all states/UT governments (174).
(a) CODEX ALIMENTARIUS: The Codex Alimentarius Commission,
which is the principal organ of the joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards
Programme formulates food standards for international market. The
food standards in India are based on the standards of the codex
alimentarius. (b) PFA STANDARDS Under the Prevention of Food
Adulteration Act (1954) standards have been established which are
revised from time to time by the "Central Committee for Food
Standards". The purpose of the PFA standards is to obtain a minimum
level of quality of foodstuffs attainable under Indian conditions.
(c) THE AGMARK STANDARDS: These standards are set by the
Directorate of Marketing and Inspection of the Government of
India. The Agmark gives the consumer an assurance of quality
in accordance with the standards laid down. (d) BUREAU OF
INDIAN STANDARDS: The ISI mark on any article of food is a
guarantee of good quality in accordance with the standards
prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards for that
commodity. The Agmark and ISI standards are not mandatory;
they are purely voluntary. They express degrees of excellence
above PFA standards.