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  1. Food Hygiene & Food Adulteration Presenter:Dr Priyanka Katkade
  2. Food Hygiene
  3. Food hygiene Food is a potential source of infection and is liable to contamination by microorganisms, at any point during its journey from the producer to the consumer). The primary aim of food hygiene is to prevent food poisoning and other food-borne illnesses.
  4. Milk Hygiene Infections primary to man that can be transmitted through milk 1.Typhoid 2.Shigellosis 3. Cholera 4.Enteropathogenic Escherichiacoli (EEC) 5.Non-diarrhoeal diseases a) Streptococcal infections) Staphylococcal food poisoning (c) Diphtheria Tuberculosie) Enteroviruse f)Viral hepatitis
  5. Pasteurisation of milk Holder (Vat) method: In this process, milk is kept at 63-66 deg C for at least 30 minutes, and then quickly cooled to 5 deg C, Vat method is recommended for small and rural communities. In larger cities, it is going out of use. (2) HTST method: Also known as "High Temperature and Short Time Method". Milk is rapidly heated to a temperature of nearly 72 deg C, is held at that temperature for not less than 15 seconds, and is then rapidly cooled to 4 deg C. This is now the most widely used method. Very large quantities of milk per hour can be pasteurized by this method. (3) UHT Method: Also known as "ultra-high temperature method." Milk is rapidly heated usually in 2 stages (the second stage usually being under pressure) to 125 deg C for a few seconds only. It is then rapidly cooled and bottled
  6. Test of pasteurized milk Phosphatase test: This test is widely used to check the efficiency of pasteurization. The test is based on the fact that raw milk contains an enzyme called phosphatase which is destroyed on heating at a temperature which corresponds closely with the standard time and temperature required for pasteurization. At 60 deg C for 30 minutes phosphatase is completely destroyed. Consequently, the test is used to detect inadequate pasteurization or the addition of raw milk.
  7. 2) Standard plate count The bacteriological quality of pasteurized milk is determined by the standard plate count. Most countries in the West enforce a limit of 30.000 bacterial count per ml of pasteurized milk. 3) Coliform count : Coliform organisms are usually completely destroyed by pasteurization, and therefore, their presence in pasteurized milk is an indication either of improper pasteurization or post-pasteurization contamination. The standard in most countries is that coliforms be absent in 1 ml of milk..
  8. Meat Hygiene The term "meat" includes various tissues of animal origin. The diseases which may be transmitted by eating unwholesome meat are: (1) TAPEWORM INFESTATIONS: Taenia solium, T. saginata, Trichinella spiralis and Fasciola hepatica. (2) BACTERIAL INFECTIONS :anthrax,actinomycosis, tuberculosis and food poisoning.
  9. Food Adulteration
  10. Adulteration of food It consists of concealing the quality, putting up decomposed foods for a large number of practices, e.g., mixing, substitution, toxicants. Adulteration results in two disadvantages for the sale, misbranding or giving false labels and addition of toxicants
  11. 1)Neurolathyrism: 1.1: Lathyrus Sativus Flower. 1.2: Kesari dal(seeds of Lathyrus bb sativus) Diseases caused by food adulteration:
  12. It is a crippling disease of the nervous system characterized by gradually developing spastic paralysis of lower limbs. Mostly occur in adults. • Toxin: BOAA (Beta oxalyl amino alanine) • Adulterant: Khesari Dal (Lathyrus Sativus)
  13. 2)Epidemic dropsy : 2.1:Argemona Mexicana. 2.2:Seeds of Argemona
  14. Clinical manifestations: non-inflammatory, bilateral swelling of legs, often associated with diarrhoea, Dyspnea, cardiac failure and death. May occur at all ages. Toxin: Sanguinarine • Adulterant: Argemone Mexicana (oil)
  15. Endemic Ascites 3.1:Crotolaria Jhunjhunia 3.2:Seeds of Crotolaria
  16. Clinical manifestations : Ascites and Jaundice. Toxin: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Hepatotoxins) Adulterant: Crotalaria Seeds (Jhunjhunia)
  17. Prevention of Food Adulteration Enacted by the Indian Parliament in 1954, with the objective of ensuring pure and wholesome food to the consumers and to protect them from fraudulent and deceptive trade practices, the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act was amended in 1964, 1976 and lately in 1986 to make the Act more stringent.
  18. A minimum imprisonment of 6 months with a minimum fine of Rs.1,000 is envisaged under the Act for cases of proven adulteration, whereas for the cases of adulteration which may render the food injurious to cause death or such harm which may amount to grievous hurt (within the meaning of section 320 of I.P.C.) the punishment may go upto life imprisonment and a fine which shall not be less than Rs.5,000. With the amendment in 1986, the consumer and the voluntary organizations have been empowered under the Act to take samples of food.
  19. Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 was enacted with the objective to consolidate the laws relating to food and for laying down science based standards for articles of food as well as to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) was established in the year 2008 (174). FSS Act 2006 is being implemented by all states/UT governments (174).
  20. Food standards (a) CODEX ALIMENTARIUS: The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the principal organ of the joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards Programme formulates food standards for international market. The food standards in India are based on the standards of the codex alimentarius. (b) PFA STANDARDS Under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (1954) standards have been established which are revised from time to time by the "Central Committee for Food Standards". The purpose of the PFA standards is to obtain a minimum level of quality of foodstuffs attainable under Indian conditions.
  21. (c) THE AGMARK STANDARDS: These standards are set by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection of the Government of India. The Agmark gives the consumer an assurance of quality in accordance with the standards laid down. (d) BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS: The ISI mark on any article of food is a guarantee of good quality in accordance with the standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards for that commodity. The Agmark and ISI standards are not mandatory; they are purely voluntary. They express degrees of excellence above PFA standards.
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