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Week 2 IxD History: Interaction Design before Computers

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Slides from History of Interaction Design course at SVA.

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Week 2 IxD History: Interaction Design before Computers

  1. HISTORY OF INTERACTION DESIGN Week 2: Interaction Design Before Computers
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flintstone_knife.jpg http://www.scottishmist.com/assets/farming/Wooden-Plough.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Porcelaine_chinoise_Guimet_241101.jpg http://img.alibaba.com/photo/11567636/Damascus_Steel_Hunting_Knife.jpg 2
  3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/69528240@N00/2247143425/ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Gutenberg_bible.jpg http://i.pbase.com/g6/04/778304/2/85973401.nfl0zPyi.jpg http://www.casualdeckandpatio.com/utility/images/products/rom/2311.jpg 3
  4. http://www.uvm.edu/landscape/dating/automobiles/1900s_automobiles_files/image003.jpg http://gunbyphotoarchive.com/biplane.jpg 4 http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2449/3797319200_a615b3f7de.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Mule-jenny.jpg
  5. http://koti.mbnet.fi/~oju/retro/KayproIIopened.jpg http://cdn-viper.demandvideo.com/media/ 5 http://images.amazon.com/images/P/B00083YK3M.01._SCLZZZZZZZ_.jpg http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040607_6_remotes.jpg
  6. FIT THE PERSON TO THE MACHINE FIT THE MACHINE TO THE PERSON 6
  7. EARLY INFORMATION PROCESSING
  8. An undetected error in a logarithmic table is like a sunken rock at sea yet undiscovered, upon which it is impossible to say what wrecks may have taken place. —Sir John Herschel (1842) First published table of Logarithms by John Napier, 1614 http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/images/dan/napier_logtable.jpg 8
  9. TABLES Cambridge Elementary Mathematical Tables http://blogofsorts.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/scan0004-1.jpg 9
  10. CHARLES BABBAGE “ (1791–1871) As soon as an Analytical Engine exists, it will necessarily guide the future course of the science. Whenever any result is sought by its aid, the question will then arise — by what course of calculation can these results be arrived at by the machine in the shortest time? —Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, ch. 8 “Of the Analytical Engine” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CharlesBabbage.jpg 10
  11. JACQUARD LOOM (1801) http://researchlospixeleros.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/jacquard-loom51.jpg 11
  12. THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1822) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/45/Difference_engine.JPG 12
  13. A B C D E Calculating 1 1 the cube of 7 a number 2 8 12 19 6 by the 3 27 18 method of 37 6 differences 4 64 24 61 6 5 125 30 91 6 6 216 36 6 7 13
  14. THE ANALYTICAL ENGINE (1833) web.arch.usyd.edu.au/~sriz8189/computing7.html 14
  15. “ ADA LOVELACE (1815–1852) The Analytical Engine weaves algebraic patterns, just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves. Many persons who are not conversant with mathematical studies imagine that because the business of [the Engine] is to give its results in numerical notation, the nature of its processes must consequently be arithmetical and numerical, rather than algebraical and analytical. This is an error. The engine can arrange and combine its numerical quantities exactly as if they were letters or any other general symbols; and in fact it might bring out its results in algebraical notation, were provisions made accordingly. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Ada_Lovelace.jpg 15
  16. (1880) THE CENSUS 16 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b0/1880_census_Hollerith.gif
  17. HERMAN HOLLERITH (1860 – 1929) http://www.census.gov/history/img/Hollerith.jpg http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/1890-card.gif 17
  18. HOLLERITH CENSUS TABULATOR (1890) http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/census-tabulator.html 18
  19. http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/census- tabulator.html 19
  20. http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/images/4506VV2015.jpg 20
  21. http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV9002.html 21
  22. THOMAS J. WATSON “ (1874 – 1956) Good design is good business. Design must reflect the practical and aesthetic in business but above all... good design must primarily serve people. 22
  23. 1925 1933 http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ 1949 1964 23
  24. “ One place where IBM did succeed was in keeping viable the basic input medium of the punched card, and with that the basic flow of data through a customer’s installation. The same card, encoded the same way and using a keypunch little changed since the 1930s, served IBMs computers through the 1960s and beyond. The sequential processing and file structure, implicit in punched card operations, also survived in the form of batch processing common to most mainframe computer centers of the 1960s. —Ceruzzi, A History of Modern Computing 24
  25. THE HUMAN FACTOR
  26. F.W. TAYLOR “ (1856 – 1915) Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. http://explorepahistory.com/images/ExplorePAHistory-a0j8p9-a_349.jpg 26
  27. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=bd5182b00cffc073 27
  28. http://www.usapropaganda.com/propaganda-world-war-ii-desktops/propaganda-world-war-ii-desktops.htm 28
  29. “ Because this was total war, involving great masses of men and women, it was no longer possible to adopt the Tayloristic principle of selecting a few specialized individuals to match a pre-existing job. The physical characteristics of the equipment now had to be designed to take advantage of human capabilities and avoid the negative effects of human limitations. Obviously such a sea change in philosophy did not occur over night. —David Meister, The History of Human Factors and Ergonomics 29
  30. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY (1940s) 30
  31. WORLD WAR II COMPUTING
  32. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER (1930s) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KayMcNultyAlyseSnyderSisStumpDifferentialAnalyzer.jpg 32
  33. “ VANNEVAR BUSH (1890 – 1974) Vannevar Bush is a great name for playing six degrees of separation. Turn back the clock on any aspect of information technology — from the birth of Silicon Valley and the marriage of science and the military to the advent of the World Wide Web — and you find his footprints. As historian Michael Sherry says, "To understand the world of Bill Gates and Bill Clinton, start with understanding Vannevar Bush. —G. Pascal Zachary, The Godfather 33
  34. ANALOG DIGITAL 34
  35. 35
  36. 36
  37. MECHANICAL ELECTRONIC 37
  38. ENIGMA MACHINE 38
  39. COLLOSSUS (1940) 39
  40. “ ALAN TURING (1912 – 1954) I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. —Mind, vol. 59, #236 (1950) http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/graphics/photos%20of%20Turing/photoindex.htm 40
  41. “ Numerical integration is where you take the path of a bullet from the time it leaves the muzzle of the gun until it reaches the ground. It is a very complex equation; it has about fifteen multiplications and a square root and I don’t know what else. You have to find out where the bullet is every 10th of a second from the time it leaves the muzzle of the gun, and you have to take into account all the things that are going to affect the path of the bullet. —Kathleen McNulty 41
  42. ENIAC (1946) http://mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/SlideShow/slides/computer/eniac.html 42
  43. ENIAC (1946) http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/eniac4.png 43
  44. “ The principle flaw was ENIAC’s inability to hold easily altered instructions in its memory. Every time the machine needed reprogramming, operators had to run around the room turning dials, throwing switches, replugging cables, and rolling function tables about. It was realized that this whole method of programming was a clumsy method, and archaic… but it did not matter with firing tables, which permitted the same program to run for weeks. —Joel Shurkin, Engines of the Mind 44
  45. VON NEUMANN ARCHITECTURE (1945) 45
  46. JOHN VON NEUMANN “ (1903 – 1957) It would appear that we have reached the limits of what it is possible to achieve with computer technology, although one should be careful with such statements, as they tend to sound pretty silly in 5 years. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JohnvonNeumann-LosAlamos.gif 46
  47. NEXT WEEK Computing Technology in the Workplace _The First Business Computers _Man-Computer Symbiosis _The Cognitive and the Physical _The Command Line PAPERS DUE

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