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Immunomodulatory plant

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medicinal plant
immunomodulation

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Immunomodulatory plant

  1. 1. Introduction to medicinal plants. Medicinal plant Melia azedarach L. Immunomodulation and immunomodulators In- vitro & in-vivo tests for evaluation of immunomodulators MTT assay Thesis work plan
  2. 2.  India has a wealth of medicinal plants most of which have been traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani & Sidhaa.  There are about 6000-7000 medicinal plant species(NMPB)in India, with concentrated spots in the region of Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman & Nicobar Island.  India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called the botanical garden of the world.  25% of modern pharmaceutical drugs contain plant ingredients.
  3. 3. herbals are relatively inexpensive need for alternative treatments for drug- resistant pathogens expanding contact and growing respect for foreign cultures, including alternative systems of medicine High commercial value of medicinal plants.
  4. 4. phenolics 45% alkaloids 18% terpenoids & steroids 27% others 10%
  5. 5. Ref:International journal of herbal medicine
  6. 6. Common name:chinaberry, White cedar, bakain, syringa, ghora neem, umbrella tree etc.  native to Southeast Asia and northern Australia  deciduous tree growing to 50 ft. in height and 2 ft. in diameter.  Plant Parts Used : Leaf, flower, root, young branches, fruit and bark.
  7. 7. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Sapindales Family: Meliaceae Genus: Melia Species: azedarac
  8. 8. Medicinal activity Targeted organism or disease Extracts Basic Reference Larvicidal & anti- oviposition Pediculus humanus capitis Leaf & Fruit Carolina et al, 2008, , Carolina et al. 2004, Cori a et al 2008, Pediculicidal & Ovicidal Pediculus humanus capitis Fruit Caprinella et al, 2003-2007 Antifeedant Pseudaletia unipunctata Trachiaplusia ni Spodoptera eridania Seed Seed Fruit Akhtar et al 2008 Carpinella et al., 2002
  9. 9. Medicinal activity Targeted organism or disease Extracts Basic Reference Rodenticidal Albino rat Seed Leaves Roop et al 2005, Keshri et al 2003, Keshri et al, 2004 Fungicidal Aspergillus flavus Diaporthe phseolorum Schlertina sclertiorum Seed Carpinella et al, 1999-2003-2005 Antibacterial Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexeneri Staphyloccocus aureus Bacillus subtilis Leaf Abdul Viqar et al., 2008 Anti helminthal Haemonchus contortus Seed, Leaf Maciel, et al, 2006
  10. 10. Medicinal activity Targeted organism or disease Extracts Basic Reference Antiviral Foot and mouth Disease Herpes simplex,(VSV) , (HSV)(VSV), (HSV1) Ocular Herpes simplex Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Wachsman et al., 2008 Wachsman et al., 1982 Alche, L. et al. 2002 Pifarri, et al. 2002 Antiprotozoal Trichomonas vaginalis Seed, Leaf Lee et al., 2007 Anti hatchability Erias vitella Seed Gajmer et al, 2001
  11. 11.  Immunomodulation is the the alteration of immune response which may increase or decrease the immune responsiveness.  The immune response is how our body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful
  12. 12.  An immunomodulators may be defined as a substance, biological of synthetic, which can stimulate, suppress or modulate any of the components of the immune system including both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response  2 types of immunomodulator 1. immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. 2. An immunosuppressant is any agent that weakens the immune system.
  13. 13. 1) In vitro a) lymphocyte proliferation assay Quantitates the response of T cells to a variety of stimuli including mitogens, alloantigens and specific recall antigens. b) Jerne’s plaque assay an assay that enumerates individual antibody-forming cells
  14. 14. c) IL-1 and TNF – alfa production by macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides d) quantitation of the expression of cell activation markers on cell surface viz. CD25,CD69,CD86 by fluorescent activated cell sorting(FACS). e) augmentation or inhibition of NK cell activity in absense or presense of IFN- gama.
  15. 15. IN- VIVO: a) estimation of specific antibody profile and titer to specific response. b) Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response to specific antigen c) spleen foci (colony formation) assay for immunostimulant activity
  16. 16. d) Induction/progression of autoimmune disease in experimental animal models for immunosuppresant activity. e) Prevention of allograft or xenograft rejection. f) Evaluation in rodent malaria and japanese encephalitis virus models for immunostimulant activity.
  17. 17.  MTT assay is a laboratory test and a standard colorimetric assay (an assay which measures changes in color) for measuring cellular proliferation (cell growth).  It can also be used to determine cytotoxicity of potential medicinal agents and other toxic materials.  Yellow MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) is reduced to purple formazan in the mitochondria of living cells.   A solubilization solution (usually either dimethyl sulfoxide, an acidified ethanol solution, or a solution of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate in dilute hydrochloric acid) is added to dissolve the insoluble purple formazan product into a colored solution.
  18. 18. Fig: A microtiter plate after an MTT assay increasing amount of cells resulted in increased purple color
  19. 19. Establishment of chicken lymphocyte cell line culture In – vitro test for evaluation of immunomodulator Expression analysis of cell cytokines
  20. 20. Making of aqueous/methanol extract from M. azedarach leaf. chicken lymphocyte cell line culture determination of max. non cytotoxic dose of leaf extract by MTT assay
  21. 21. performing lymphocyte proliferation assay at max. non cytotoxic dose expression analysis of cell cytokines (IL-2,IL-6)
  22. 22. • Scientific validation of this plant as an immunomodulator.
  • AbayomiOguntoye

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    May. 20, 2018
  • SharadThorve

    May. 11, 2018
  • RxSureshChudasama

    Apr. 22, 2017
  • sahil9001

    May. 11, 2016

medicinal plant immunomodulation

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