4. Engineered wood
• Engineered wood is a product that is manufactured to
appear like wood, using different materials such as
shredded wood fibres, sawdust, adhesives and various
chemicals. The product can then be cut and sawed like
• Engineered wood, meaning man-made wood, is designed
and tested to be strong, durable and moisture resistant.
Certain products are manufactured using waterproof
adhesives, especially for outdoor use.
5. Comparison between Solid & Engineered Wood
Point of Difference Solid Wood Engineered Wood
Manufacture Solid wood slabs from trees
A composite material formed by
binding strands, particles, fibres
or veneers or thin wood boards
together with adhesives
Sourced from Maple, Teak,
Oak, Redwood, Mahogany etc
MDF, Particle Board, Plywood
are various types
Durability Lasts for decades
Not as durable as solid wood.
The surface is thin and can get
chipped or delaminated if
Does not stand up well to
Engineered wood is more
moisture-resistant than solid
wood. It does not warp or
change dimensions very easily
when exposed to moisture.
6. Comparison between Solid & Engineered Wood
Point of Difference Solid Wood Engineered Wood
Ranges from very hard to soft
natural woods vary as found in
HDF is hard and dense, while
MDF is medium-hard.
Particleboard is soft and not
Solid wood can be sanded and
refinished any number of times.
Engineered wood can be
sanded and refinished lightly
only once or twice as the upper
layer is thin.
Expensive as it is real wood
Not eco-friendly, as forests
need to be cut to get solid
wood and trees are not easily
Environmentally sustainable as
it is created using wood
products and derivatives.
However, some of the
chemicals used as binders
7. Popular Types of Engineered Wood
1. Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
Made of wood veneers that are compressed together with resins and
glues, LVL is a high density engineered wood product used in
framing. LVL is very strong, but has only one strength axis, because
its veneers are stacked with the grain running in the same direction.
This means you can only load LVL in one direction.
2. Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL)
Made of small strips of wood—strands—that are placed in a dense,
angled pattern, LSL is a high quality engineered wood product that
can be an even higher density and stronger than LVL. It is composed
of about 95% wood fiber and 5% resin. LSL is very resistant to
weight and torsion because of the angled pattern in which the wood
strips are placed. LSL is also expensive—it’s about 3x the cost of
8. 3. Plywood
• This sheet is manufactured from thin layers of wood veneer that are
glued together. Plywood are made by binding resin and wood fiber
sheets to form a composite material whose “cross graining” property
provides dimensional stability and makes the strength of the panel
consistent in all directions. A plywood sheet has two face veneers, so
“AB” that means it is A-quality on one side and B on the other.
• A: This is the highest quality plywood with a smooth surface free of
knots and repairs.
• B: This grade is largely free of knots, though some tight ones (under 1
inch) are acceptable.
• C: C grade plywood may include knots up to 1.5 inches and knotholes
under 1 inch.
• D: The lowest grade can have knots and knotholes up to 2.5 inches. In
general, any defects have not been repaired with D grade plywood.
• X: An X is used to indicate exterior plywoods. A grade of CDX would
mean a plywood is C grade on one veneer, D on the other, and designed
for outdoor use.
Popular Types of Engineered Wood
9. 4. Oriented strand board (OSB)
This type of sheet good is formed by combining wood strands or
flakes with adhesives and then compressing them. It is
manufactured in wide mats and is good for load-bearing
applications such as flooring and roof decking. All OSB isn’t
created equal—some is sanded, and moisture resistant while
other boards are not.
5. Medium density fibreboard (MDF):
MDF is made by breaking down hardwood and softwood pieces
into fibers, which are combined with wax and resin binders, and
formed into panels by applying high temperatures and pressure.
It is usually more dense than plywood, and is more dense than
oriented strand board, but just like OSB, there are grades that can
withstand water and weather and other grades that cannot.
Popular Types of Engineered Wood
10. Popular Types of Engineered Wood
6. Composite board
This engineered wood term includes MDF and oriented strand
board. It refers to a wood engineered with both plastic content
and wood fiber that has been extruded and heated. It is easy to
install, cost-effective, and good for incorporating into
sustainable design, since it can be made of recycled material
using fewer trees.
7. Cross-laminated timber (CLT)
This wood panel product is made from gluing together layers
of solid sawn lumber. It is strengthened by layering each board
perpendicular to the next and glued on the wide faces of each
board. The thicknesses of the panels can easily be increased,
which makes it a design-flexible material. It can be a good
insulator, since it’s made of multiple layers of wood.
11. Advantages and Disadvantages of
engineered wood over solid wood
• Engineered wood is sustainable, because it allows you to achieve (or exceed) the same density
and strength of old growth timber, but with lumber made from young trees. It also reduces
waste, because it uses all parts of the tree—even defects or pieces leftover from cutting
• Engineered wood can be stronger than dimensional lumber because of its high density and
layers of grain running in different directions.
• Engineered beams come in almost any size—you can get bigger members because they’re
created by composite, rather than having to be cut from single trees.
• Some engineered wood can resist warping and splitting more than dimensional lumber.
• Engineered wood is often less aesthetically pleasing than real wood, because of the visible
wood strips (rather than the clean, natural look of solid timbers). One exception to this is
architectural-grade glulam (Glued laminated timber).
• Engineered wood—especially LSL—can be much more expensive than dimensional lumber.
13. Artificial Stone
• Artificial stone, also known as cast stone is produced from
cement, sand, and natural aggregates such as crushed stone
with desired surface finish. Sometimes, suitable pigments
may also be added to obtain certain color. But the addition
of coloring pigments should not exceed 15% by volume.
The proportion of cement and aggregates in artificial stone
• These are not commonly used in ordinary building
construction because of the heavy cost.
• Artificial stone or cast stone will be used for construction
when cost effective and durable natural stone cannot be
14. Manufacturing of Artificial Stone
• The procedure of manufacturing artificial stone is as follows:
• The natural stone is crushed into size less than 6 mm and then stone dust is removed.
• A mixture of 11/2 parts of stone of size 3 mm to 6 mm, 11/2 parts of stones of size less than 3 mm and 1
part of cement by volume is prepared.
• To impart colour to the stone, colouring pigments are added to the dry mix. Its proportion should not
exceed 15% of cement by weight.
• Water is then added to the dry mix to obtain a mixture of workable consistency.
• The wet mixture is then pressed into moulds (steel or wood), cured and then seasoned for a suitable time.
• The polishing is done if required.
• To produce the colour of light shade, white cement may be used in place of ordinary cement.
• It is usual into the manufacture of cast stone that the facing or skin of cast stone is 25 to 38 mm in
thickness and consists of the above-mentioned mix, while the remaining thickness of the stone slab
consists of cheaper material (such as the lean mix of gravel and Cement or lean Cement concrete).
15. Types of Artificial Stones
• Cement Concrete Blocks:
• These are made from a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and water. They may be cast-insitu or cast-in-moulds
• Artificial paving slabs and stones composed of cement concrete
and sometimes treated with sodium silicate solution also come
under this class.
• Cast in situ is used in the construction of piers and cast in the
mould is used for steps, window sills, etc.
• Ransome’s patent stone:
• It is created by mixing dry sand with silica and a small portion of
powdered stone or chalk.
• It can be dressed and carved like natural stone.
• The stone has a compressive strength of 3.2 KN/m2 and weighs
19.2 KN/ m3).
• Its cost is greater than that of natural stone.
• It is used in Nawab’s Palace at Murshidabad, and Bombay Post
16. Types of Artificial Stones
• Artificial Marble:
It is constructed from Portland gypsum cement and sand using
either precast or cast in situ technique. For precast production
technique, the casted artificial marble will be stripped from the
mould after three days and then treated with liquid fluorite of
magnesia solution at the age of five days. After that, the stone is
washed and wrapped with paper for 24 hours and treated again with
the same solution, and it will be polished at the final stage at the
age of 30days.
It is made by mixing marble chips with white cement and some
pigments. It is either laid in situ or pre-cast. It is used for
bathrooms, residential buildings, temples etc.
17. Types of Artificial Stones
• Mosaic Tiles:
• The pre-cast concrete tiles with marble chips at the top surface are
known as mosaic tiles. They are available in different shades and are
• Reconstructed Stone: This stone is made from the debris of limestone
quarries by crushing them into the grit, mixing it with lime made from
Dolomite, heating in a closed retort up to 980ﾟC to drive off CO2, slaking
the powdery residue of CaO and MgO, mixing with water, and
consolidating under great pressure into blocks.
• It is then dried and CO2 is admitted till the carbonization of hydrate of
lime blocks is complete. Such stones are used where high durability is
required. It is also used in dust resistant stone surfaces.
18. Advantages of Artificial Stones
• More durable than the natural stone.
• Can be easily cast and seasoned at the site of work with great promptness and hence avoids the expenses of
dressing and transportation.
• Can be easily cast into any desired shape and can be easily and economically moulded to a required ornamental
• Artificial stone can be made in a single piece and subsequently the trouble of getting massive blocks of stones for
lintels, beams, etc., may be avoided.
• It is comparatively easy to carve artificial stone; it can be worked before becoming hard.
• The artificial stones which are carefully cast, are free from defects that are likely to be present in natural stones.
• In the artificial stones, cavities can be kept (to carry pipes, electric wires, etc.)
• Their strength may be regulated by definitely proportionating the elements by using metallic reinforcements.
• Equally exact in resisting deterioration and disintegration triggered by various atmospheric agencies, (e.g. rain,
• There is no need to take precaution concerning the natural bed of stones since the natural bed is absent in artificial
Alabaster is a mineral that has been used for centuries in art and
architecture due to its unique qualities and aesthetic appeal. It is a form
of gypsum, a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate.
The name “alabaster” is derived from the Greek word “alabastros,”
which refers to a vessel used to hold perfumes or ointments.
One of the most notable characteristics of alabaster is its translucent or
semi-translucent nature, allowing light to pass through it. This property
gives alabaster a warm, soft glow when it is carved into sculptures,
decorative objects, or architectural elements.
Alabaster can be found in various colors, including white, cream, beige,
gray, pink, and even rare hues such as green or black. The color
variations are caused by impurities and trace elements present in the
Alabaster is also utilized in architectural applications, such as wall
panels, lighting fixtures, and translucent windows, where its ability to
diffuse and transmit light adds a touch of elegance and beauty to interior
21. Uses and Applications
• Sculpture and Artwork: Alabaster can intricate details and delicate expressions. Alabaster sculptures
and artwork range from small figurines and decorative objects to large statues and reliefs.
• Architecture and Interior Design: It is used in the creation of decorative wall panels, ornamental
screens, and translucent windows. Alabaster can provide a warm and diffused glow when used in
lighting fixtures and lamps, adding a touch of elegance to interior spaces.
• Religious and Ritual Objects: Alabaster is used for altarpieces, religious sculptures, and vessels for
religious ceremonies. Its translucent quality enhances the spiritual atmosphere and can create a sense of
• Decorative Objects: Alabaster’s natural beauty and soft glow make it a sought-after material for
creating visually appealing and luxurious décor items like vases, bowls, candle holders, and chess sets.
• Jewelry and Accessories: Alabaster can be shaped into beads, pendants, and other jewelry
components. Its soft and delicate appearance lends itself well to creating unique and elegant pieces of
jewelry. Alabaster accessories such as buttons, brooches, and decorative inlays are also common.
• Restorations and Replicas: Alabaster is used in the restoration and replication of historical artworks
and architectural elements. It allows for the recreation of intricate details and textures, ensuring that the
integrity and aesthetics of the original piece are preserved.
• Cosmetics and Personal Care: Alabaster has been historically used in cosmetics and personal care
products. Its finely ground form, known as alabaster powder, has been used as a gentle exfoliant and a
component of face masks and beauty treatments.
22. Characteristics and Properties of Alabaster
1. Translucency: It has a translucent or semi-translucent nature, allowing light to pass through it. This property
gives alabaster a soft, warm glow, enhancing its visual appeal when used in sculptures or decorative objects.
2. Color Variations: Alabaster occurs in a range of colors, viz. white, cream, beige, gray, pink, green or black.
The color variations are caused by impurities. The most prized/ commonly used alabaster is the white variety.
3. Softness: Alabaster is a relatively soft mineral compared to other stones. It has a hardness of around 2 on the
Mohs scale, which means it can be easily carved and shaped.
4. Fine Texture: Alabaster has a fine and uniform texture, giving it a smooth and tactile quality. This texture
contributes to the elegance and refinement of alabaster artworks.
5. Workability: Due to its softness, alabaster is highly workable. It can be easily carved, sculpted, turned on a
lathe, or shaped with hand tools.
6. Durability: While alabaster is relatively soft, it still has reasonable durability when handled and displayed
properly. Careful handling and appropriate display conditions are necessary to maintain its integrity over time.
7. Lightness: Alabaster is a lightweight material, making it suitable for various applications where weight is a
consideration. It is easier to transport, handle, and incorporate into architectural designs.
8. Sound Absorption: Alabaster exhibits good sound-absorbing properties, which make it useful in applications
where acoustic control is desired. It can help reduce echoes and improve sound quality in interior spaces.
9. Fire Resistance: Alabaster is inherently fire-resistant due to its high content of gypsum. It does not burn or
release toxic fumes when exposed to flames, making it a safer material for certain applications.
23. Physical Properties of Alabaster:
• Hardness: Alabaster has a relatively low hardness of around 2 on the Mohs scale. It is softer than most other
stones used in sculpture and can be easily scratched or damaged.
• Density: The density of alabaster ranges from approximately 2.2 to 2.3 grams per cubic centimeter, making it
a relatively lightweight material.
• Texture: Alabaster has a fine and uniform texture, often described as smooth and silky to the touch.
• Porosity: Alabaster is a porous material, which means it has tiny open spaces or pores within its structure.
This porosity can affect its absorption of liquids and susceptibility to staining.
• Cleavage: Alabaster exhibits perfect cleavage, which means it can be easily split or cleaved along flat planes.
This property contributes to its workability and allows for the creation of thin and delicate sculptures.
24. Chemical Properties of Alabaster:
• Composition: Alabaster is primarily composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O), also known as
gypsum. This chemical composition gives alabaster its characteristic properties.
• Solubility: Alabaster is slightly soluble in water. When exposed to water or moisture, it can gradually
dissolve and erode over time, particularly in environments with high humidity or excessive moisture.
• Reaction to Acid: Alabaster exhibits a weak reaction to acids. It can be etched or damaged by acidic
substances, such as vinegar or lemon juice. Caution should be exercised when cleaning or handling alabaster
to avoid contact with acidic materials.
• Stability: Alabaster is generally stable under normal conditions. However, it can be susceptible to
environmental factors such as high humidity, temperature fluctuations, and exposure to chemicals, which may
impact its long-term stability and integrity.
25. Types of Alabaster
• 1. Calcite Alabaster
• Calcite alabaster is usually a little hard than gypsum, and it was used in Egypt and the Middle East, but it is
still in use.
• It is found in the walls of caverns, limestone, or stalagmite deposit from the floor.
• 2. Gypsum Alabaster
• Gypsum alabaster was used in Medieval Europe in the past and in modern times, too, and it is softer than
• 3. Black Alabaster
• Black Alabaster is rare and is found usually in three places in the world: China, Italy, and the United States. It
is a rare mineral, and its origin is gypsum-based.
26. Difference Between Marble and Alabaster
There are many differences between marble and alabaster.
• Alabaster refers to two types of calcium. In old times, calcite alabaster was widely used in Egypt,
but in modern times, gypsum alabaster has taken its place of it while marble has the presence of
impurities that change its color and is made up of metamorphic rocks.
• Marble can be heavily polished as compared to alabaster.
• Alabaster rock usually comes in white color, but the pale brown and reddish colors also exist while
marble comes in pink, green, black, white, and gray colors.
• Alabaster rock is more translucent than marble.
• Marble word is derived from the Greek marmaron while Alabaster word is taken from old French
28. Translucent Concrete
• Translucent concrete is based on the concept of
‘Nano Optics,’ where optical fibers act as slits to
transmit light from one side of the surface to another.
• These optical fibers are spread evenly through the
concrete and are visible on both sides of the block.
While patterns form on one side of the surface, they
appear as shadowy outlines through the concrete.
• Transparent concrete is similar to ordinary concrete
because the strength of both concrete is the same.
• The actual concept of translucent concrete was
introduced by Hungarian architect, Aron Losonczi in
29. Materials Used In Transparent Concrete
• Transparent concrete is manufactured by using a combination of fiber optics and ne concrete. These
fibers turn into concrete-like other aggregates. These optical fibers can pass light from natural and
artificial sources into spaces covered by translucent concrete panels.
• Cement:As the optical fiber is only responsible for the transmission of light, there is no special
cement required. So, ordinary Portland cement is utilized for the construction of transparent concrete.
• Sand: The sand should be always free from any types of impurities such as vegetation, large stones,
etc. and should pass through 1.18 mm sieve.
• Water: The water to be utilized must be of drinking water quality, free from any types of impurities
• Optical fibers: Optical fibers in the range of 4 to 5% by volume are utilized for transparent
concrete. The thickness of the optical fibers can be varied between 2 µm and 2 mm to look right on
the particular demand of light transmission.
30. Manufacturing of Translucent Concrete
• Translucent concrete is made by combining fine concrete and optical fibers.
• Optical fibers conduct light from external sources even at an angle of incidence of greater than 60.
• There are 3 layers in the optical fibers – the buffer coating, cladding, and the core, and light is
transmitted through the core.
• The process of manufacturing translucent concrete is similar to that of traditional concrete; the only
difference lies in the introduction of 4% - 5% optical fibers, based on volume.
• The process includes adding a layer of fibers to the mold alternatively, on top of concrete
at intervals of 2mm to 5mm. The thinner the layer is, the more light it allows to pass through.
• Translucent concrete does not contain coarse aggregates as they damage the fiber strands.
• Fast setting cement is preferred when preparing the concrete mix; craft clay is also added as a base
for the optical fibers to set in the concrete.
• As translucent concrete is a form of pre-cast concrete, the material is cut into blocks or panels,
polished, and sent for use.
31. Application of Translucent concrete
• Compared to traditional concrete, the use of light transmitting concrete is not as widespread.
However, it has been used in a number of fine architectural monuments and buildings as a façade
• Translucent concrete blocks are suitable for floorings and pavements, and are also used in
staircases and desks.
• Other than that, translucent concrete is used in partition walls, doors, panels, etc., and adds to the
beauty of the interior by illuminating the area during day time. In addition to lighting up dark
places or windowless areas like basements, it is used to construct sidewalks and speed bumps that
illuminate at night and provide increased safety for pedestrians and roadside traffic.
• For Eg: “European Gate,” built in 2004 as a monument to celebrate Hungary joining the European
Union; Stuttgart City Library in Germany. Designed by Yi Architects, the structure is popular
around the world for its cube-shape and translucent roof
32. Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Translucent Concrete are:
• Fewer light bulbs are needed.
• It has very good architectural properties for giving a good aesthetical view to the building.
• It passes the light through it.
• It saves a lot of electricity.
• it is fully environmentally friendly because of its light-transmitting characteristics, so energy
consumption can be decreased.
Disadvantages of Translucent Concrete are
• The casting of transparent concrete blocks is hard for workers so a special skilled person is needed.
• The concrete is very costly due to use of the optical fibers.
• It affects privacy.
34. Introduction to Sensing tile
• A sensing floor is a floor with embedded sensors. Depending on their construction, these floors are
either monobloc (e.g. structures made of a single frame, carpets) or modular (e.g. tiled floors, floors
made of stripes of sensors).The first sensing floor prototypes were developed in the 1990s, mainly
for human gait analysis.
• Such floors are usually used as a source of sensing information for an ambient intelligence.
Depending on the type of sensors employed, sensing floors can measure load (pressure), proximity
(to detect, track, and recognize humans), as well as the magnetic field (for detecting metallic
objects like robots using magnetometers).
• Sensing floors have a variety of usages: Step analysis for human identification, Mapping of the
environment for autonomous robots Controller for interactive applications (as a MIDI music
instrument, a games controller, dance movement analysis, etc.)
• More than 30 distinct sensing floor prototypes have been developed between 1990 and
2015. Notable examples of sensing floors have been developed by Oracle, MIT, and Inria. As of
2015, few sensing floors are available as commercial products.
35. The system behind
• The system behind is a large area capacitive sensor floor,
installable beneath any kind of flooring – invisible and discreet.
Persons walking across the floor trigger signals which are sent
wirelessly to a transceiver. This system can calculate the number
of persons on the floor, their direction and speed as well as
detect falls. SensFloor offers a variety of applications in health
care, Ambient Assisted Living, home automation, security and
• The Floor Sensor-based approach relies on the use of a specially
equipped floor able to record pressure variations. The
preprocessing algorithms, working generally on linear signals,
have a very little impact in terms of calculational costs.
• A floor detector is referred to as a pressure sensor or footprint
which is placed on the ground. Floor detector generates pressure
signals and records the signal values when someone walks on
Floor equipped with pressure sensors.
Floor equipped with Electric sensors.
36. Working of Sensing tiles
The Floor Becomes a Touch Screen
• The SensFloor is a 3mm thick underlay, similar to an impact sound
• Capacitive sensors in the SensFloor detect persons and conductive
• Proximity sensing – no pressure necessary, therefore high mechanical
• Presence detection even without movement
• Installable beneath any kind of flooring, even parquet or tiles
• Data transmission by radio to a SensFloor receiver in the same room
• Receiver calculates the movements
• Transmission of activity data to any end device
• Interfaces: HDMI, Ethernet, WLAN, USB, Bluetooth, floating relay
37. Uses and Applications
• Counting of persons, identify their
direction and speed
• Distinction between walking and lying
• Heatmaps for presence and distribution
• Presence-controlled light and air
• Fall and activity alarm, localization of
39. Introduction to Electrified wood
• Through experimenting and innovation, industrial
designers TRANS/ALPIN have created a new
composite material made of pre-formed wooden
elements with metal layers so that electrical elements,
i.e., lamps, can be plugged directly into the wood
without any cables.
• Electrified wood is a built-up composite, comprised
by plywood pressed with two integrated conducting
layers which allow adding electrical conduct.
• 12V power is fed to the metal layers via one
connector, permits one to easily plug in different
applications (plug and play). The elements like lamps,
spotlights, fans etc. can be connected via another. NO
41. Introduction to Self Healing Concrete
• Self healing concrete is a special type of concrete that can repair its
own cracks by the production of any kind of material. Self healing
concrete is also named Bio-Concrete.
• Self-healing concrete is composed of three products. The healing
agent is made in a 95% calcium lactate ratio to a 5% ratio of
bacterial spores that are encapsulated within 2 to 4 mm wide clay
pellets with separate nitrogen, phosphorous, and a nutrient.
• Self-healing of cracks in concrete will help to a longer life of
concrete structures and will make the material more durable but
also more sustainable.
• Bacillus megaterium bacteria were used in concrete and results
show a 24 percent improvement in compressive strength.
• The deposition of calcium carbonate in concrete by Bacillus
sphaericus increases the durability of concrete.
42. Bacteria for self healing concrete
• The bacteria from the Bacillus family is considered for self-healing in concrete. The following
are those bacteria:
• a. Bacillus Pastuerin
• b. Bacillus Sphearicus
• c. Bacillus Pseudormu
• d. Bacillus Subtilia
43. Materials used for self healing concrete
• Ordinary Portland Cement
• Crushed aggregate of size 20 mm
• Calcium lactate (0.8%)
• Bacillus Subtilis (0.8%)
44. Application of Self-healing Concrete
• Tunnel lining
• Walls of the building
• Highway bridges
• Concrete floors
• Structural Basement
• Marines Structures
45. Advantages of Self-healing Concrete
• Small Cracks in a Structure are weak because water seeps in to degrade the concrete and corrode
the steel reinforcement, which leads to structural failure.
• It provides longer life to the structures.
• No need for periodical maintenance.
• Improvement in compressive strength of concrete.
• Reduction in permeability of reinforced concrete
• Better resistance toward freeze-thaw attack reduction
46. Disadvantages of Self-healing Concrete
• Self-healing Concrete cost price is almost 2 times than that of normal concrete
• Growth bacteria can be affected by various environmental conditions.
• The clay pallets mixed in concrete mostly cover 20 % volume of concrete and This may result in
a shear zone or fault zone in the concrete
49. Need for Using Advanced Tech to Maintain Air
• Adequate ventilation: Installing an efficient ventilation system ensures that outside air is conditioned well
before mixing with indoor air. The mixture is what gets distributed throughout the building.
• Control contaminants: The most common pollutants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds
are released as gases. Sources of VOCs include cleaning agents, surfaces, coatings, air fresheners, disinfectants,
etc. Other sources include polluted underground water and formaldehyde gas from a new carpet.
• Carbon monoxide from furnaces, boilers, generators, and automobile exhaust cause chest pains, fatigue, and
impaired vision and can also be fatal. Particulate matter contaminants are also a huge concern when inhaled, as
they affects the heart and lungs. They can be generated from construction works or burning fossil fuel emissions
coming in through HVAC systems. Indoors, particulate matter often arises from cigarette smoking, fireplaces, etc.
• Smart technologies keeps the space contaminant-free. As a result, one gets a more comfortable indoor space
while protecting workers and family from health problems. The objective of using smart technologies is to
improve comfort, health, and the highest standard of satisfaction for the indoor environment. The technology
monitors critical environmental indexes and acts swiftly to mitigate possible dangers.
50. Advanced Technologies used to maintain air
• INDOOR AIR QUALITY SENSORS: Smart thermostats already
make use of remote sensors that detect the temperature and whether or
not you are occupying a room. The sensors are placed on a wall or
ceiling in your home, and they increase ventilation when they sense
unhealthy indoor air pollution levels.
• UV-C AIR PURIFIERS: A UV-C light filter can be connected to your
home’s HVAC system. It sanitizes the air before the air handler blows
it into your living spaces. It uses a wavelength that kills bacteria and
viruses. It also inactivates mold spores, pollen and proteins in pet
dander. These air purifiers should be paired with high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filters that capture dust, smoke and other
particulates from your home’s air.
51. Advanced Technologies used to maintain air
• Smart AC systems: These systems use Wi-Fi technology and Internet to give
users seamless control of their indoor air quality. The systems are mountable on
walls or windows for efficiency and remotely operated via a mobile device such
as a tablet, smart phone, or compute
• Smart sensors: Smart sensors can help greatly improve indoor air quality. These
sensors give alerts whenever airborne pollutant levels are high. This allows
property managers and homeowners to act swiftly to prevent adverse health
problems. The sensor sends an alert to your mobile device or sounds an alarm,
alerting you to open the windows to allow fresh air inside to eliminate the
• Home Automation Systems: Home automation systems can detect indoor
humidity levels. High indoor humidity levels contribute to mold growth and the
release of mold spores, which are common indoor air pollutants. By making
automatic adjustments to the home’s humidity, a home automation system
increases comfort and indoor air quality. They can turn on or off the HVAC fan,
attic fan or an air purifier.
53. Importance of Visual Communication
• Conveying information: Visuals have a powerful ability to convey complex ideas and information
quickly and effectively. They can distil intricate concepts into easily understandable visuals,
making communication more efficient and engaging.
• Engaging audiences: Visuals can captivate and engage audiences, fostering emotional connections
and leaving a lasting impression. They can evoke emotions, tell stories, and create memorable
experiences. Visual communication degree teaches how to engage audiences through visuals.
• Enhancing comprehension: Visual communication aids in comprehension and retention of
information. Studies have shown that visuals improve learning outcomes, increase information
recall, and facilitate a better understanding of complex topics.
• Cross-cultural communication: Visuals transcend language barriers and can communicate across
cultures. They have the potential to convey universal messages and bridge gaps in understanding
between diverse audiences.