Biochemistry Introduction

14 Nov 2016

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Biochemistry Introduction

  1.  Bio-chemistry is the study of chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms . it includes the study of chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules.  SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF BIO- CHEMISTRY IN NURSING  A review of the application of biochemistry in nursing needs to mention of many therapeutic agents whose existence was first demonstrated on lab experiments e.g hormone insulin , all the vitamins and many other products of therapeutic significant .
  2.  If an infants is always vomiting after giving milk ,she or he probably has galactose intolerance.  If an infant is born with jaundice, her or his liver is not fully funtional .  When colour of infants urine turns dark ,probably he/she suffers from an amino acid metabolic disorder.  Anemic children ,older,elder,or geriatric persons can be explained biochemistry,e.g intake of Fe, hemolytic disorder (G6PD defiency or pyruate kinase deficiency) or a chronic renal disease.  Many such condition thus,can be explained on the basis of bio-chemistry.
  3.  Cell is the structural and funtional unit of all living organism.bacteria are unicellular (consist of single cell),human beings are multicellular (may have upto 10 cells.  Each cell take nutrients and converts energy.a cell also carried out specialized funtions and reproduces and stores its own set of instructions for carrying out these activities.  There are two types of cells called prokaryote and eukaryote cells.procaryote cells are usually independent while eukaryote cells are found in multicellular organisms.
  4.  The simplest form and the first type of cells to evolve are prokaryote cells. Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that do not developed or differentiate into multicellular forms .some bacteria grow in filaments or masses of cells but each cell in the colony is identical and capable of independent existence. they may adjacent to one another because they do not separate after cell division though there is no continuity or communication between them.  Besides lack of nuclear membrane, a prokaryote cell also lacks intracellular organelles. Prokaryotic cells have three architectural region that includes appendages called flagella and vili, cell envelope or cell wall consisting of a capsule and a cytoplasmic region.
  5.  Enclosing a cell, there is cell envelope ,which generally consists of a cell wall, covering a plasma membrane .some bacteria have a further covering layer, called capsule.  A cell wall consists of peptidoglycans in bacteria and act as a barrier against the external forces .it prevent the cell from expanding and bursting insides the cell is cytoplasmic region that contains cell genome (DNA), ribosomes and various other inclusion.  Prokaryotes carry chromosomal DNA elements called plasmids, it function such as antibiotics resistance.
  6.  Eukaryote cells include fungi, animal cells, plant cells as well as some unicellular organisms. it 10 times larger than a prokaryotic cell and can be as much as 1000 times more in volume.  Composition and functions  Human body contains different organs such as the heart, lung and kidneys each one of which performs different funtions.EC also have aset of intracellular components called sub cellular organelles some of it surrounded by a protective membrane. Composition and functions of organelles are described below:
  7.  Plasma membrane The outer lining of a eukaryotic cell is called plasma membrane. this serves to separate and protect cell from its surrounding environment. it is made up of a double layer of proteins and lipids.  Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton is a complex and dynamic component that acts to organise and maintain cell shape, anchor organells in their place, helps during endocytosis (uptake of material by the cell) and moves intracellular organelles of the cell during the processes of growth and motility. There are a number of proteins associated with cytoskeleton.
  8.  Cytoplasm Inside the cell there is a large fluid –filled space called cytoplasm. It is like soup within which all the cell organelles .cytoplasm is also a home for contains several salts and is an excellent conductor of electricity ,creating environment for the mechanics of the cell.  Nucleus Nucleus ,also called cells information centre, is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell.
  9.  It houses cells chromosomes and is a place where almost all the DNA replication and RNA synthesis occur. Nucleus is spheroidal in shape and is separated from cytoplasm by a membrane called nuclear envelope.  Eukaryotic genetic material is more complex and is divided into discrete units called genes. human genetic material is made up of two distinct components called nuclrar genome and mitochondrial genome.
  10.  Ribosome Ribosome is a large complex composed of many molecules, including RNA and proteins. these are responsible for the processing of genetic instruction carried by mRNA. the process of converting mRNA codon into the sequence of amino acids that make up a protein is called translation. some of the ribosome float free in the cytoplasm, called free ribosome while others are bound to endoplasmic reticulum.
  11.  Mitochondria and chloroplasts These are power generator and self-replicating organelles. they occur in various numbers, shapes and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Both the organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space. they have many folding, filling their inner space. they have two functionally distinct membrane systems, inward folds are called cristae.  Chloroplast are similar to mitochondria but are found in plants where they convert light energy (from the sun) into ATP through the process called photosynthesis.
  12.  Endoplasmic recticulam and golgi apparatus ER is the transport network for molecules. It is present in two forms called rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) . Proteins that are to be exported out of the cell are passes to the Golgi apparatus, also called golgi bodies or Golgi complex .  Lysosomes and peroxisomes They are also referred as garbage disposal system of the cell.both are spherical ,bound by a single membrane and are rich in digestive enzymes for degrading proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides that work as low pH. an important function of lysosome is to digest foreign bacteria that invade the cell.
  13.  They also help in recycling of receptor proteins and other membrane components , help in repair of the damage to plasma membrane.  Peroxisomes function to get the body of toxic substances such as hydrogen peroxide or other metabolites, and contain enzyme for enzyme utilization. higher number of peroxisomes can be found in liver where toxic by-products are known to accumulate. it resemble lysosomes.peroxisomes are self-replicating whereas lysosomes are formed in Golgi complex.
  14.  Centrosome  Centrosome called cytoskeleton organizer, produce microtubules of a cell, which is the key component of cytoskeleton .cetrosomes are composed of two centrioles. a single centrosome is present in animal cells. it found in some fungi and algae.  Vacuoles  Vacuoles store food and waste products. some vacuoles also store water and are described as liquid –filled spaces. they are surrounded by a membrane.
  15.  Cells because of their small size cannot been seen by a naked eye, but can be observed with the aid of instrument called “Microscope”.  It provides a magnified image of a tiny objects.  Microscope gives a wide range of magnification, they are of 2 types. 1. Simple Microscope 2. Compound Microscope
  16.  Cell membrane  It refers to the outer covering of the cell and is found in all living cells. it is a highly viscous structure.  Fluid-mosaic model of cell membrane  Biological membranes have such a structure where some proteins span a lipid bilayer while others are partially immersed. this is called Fluid-mosaic model as a membrane consists of mosaic of proteins and lipids.
  17.  A simple microscope works like a biconvex lens.  Compound microscope employs two separate lens system for greater magnification.  There are two types of compound microscope referred as optical or light microscope and electron microscope.  Optical Microscope uses optical lens and light wave for magnification. It magnifies about 1000 to 1500 times.
  18.  Electron Microscope – In electron microscope a magnification of 10000 to 50000 can be obtained and objects as smallest 1 – 2 microns can be photographed.
  19.  1.cell membrane may be associated with several enzymes e.g. Phospholipase are used as markers of cell membrane.  2. Membranes also contain specific receptors for external stimuli such as hormones. after a hormone binds to its receptor, it generates signals and regulates intracellular activities.  3.carbohydrates components of glycoproteins in a membrane act as recognition sites for several substance such as antibodies.  4. A membrane also acts as a barrier thereby loss of useful substances while permitting entry of nutrients, thus it is important in transport of substances.
  20.  Tight junctions are specialized sites of contact that block solutes from diffusing between the cells in an epithelium.  A simple epithelium like the lining of the intestine or the lungs is composed of a layer of cells that adhere tightly to one another to form a thin cellular sheet.  Solutes cannot diffuse freely through this layer because of the specialized contacts referred to as called tight junctions.  Tight junction strands are composed of proteins called occludin and claudins.
  21.  Tight junction serves as a barrier to the free diffusion of water and solutes from the extra-cellular compartment to the other side.  some tight junctions are permeable to specific ions or solutes, to which other tight junctions are impermeale.  TJ are also present between the endothelial cells that line walls of the capillaries. it form blood brain barrier, which prevent substance from passing from the bloodstream into the brain. small ions and water may not penetrate BBB.
  22.  Cytoskeleton is a system of protein fibbers that pervades cytoplasm. It is composed of three distinct types of fibrous structures called microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments.  Functions:  provides structural support that determines shape of the cell .  functions as an internal frame work which is responsible for the positioning of various organelles within the cell.  functions as a force –generating apparatus that moves cells from one place to another e.g .locomotion of sperm, white blood cells.
  23.  MICROTUBULES :  Microtubules are stiff ,hollow and tubular structures that are assembled from protein tubulin .these are arranged in longitudinal rows and are called proto- filaments.  They help in determining shape of the cell and maintaining the position of the membranous organelles such as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Complex.
  24. Intermediate Filaments They are strong rope like fibbers, Depending on the cell type they are composed of a variety of different globular proteins sub units. Examples: Keratin filaments, Neuro filaments. Microfilaments They are composed of a double helical polymer of the protein actin, which is one of the major proteins of the muscle cells. They play a key role in all type of contractility and motility with in cells.