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Security as a condition is the degree of
resistance to, or protection from, harm.
It applies to any vulnerable and valuable
asset, such as a person, dwelling, community,
nation, or organization.
Establishing or maintaining a sufficient degree
of security is the aim of the work, structures,
and processes called "security."
Concept in Hotel
It is the moral and legal
responsibility of a hotel to
protect its guests and their
property against threats
posed by human beings
with a conscious intent to
The security department of
the hotel is responsible for
the overall security of the
building, in-house guests,
visitors, day users, and
employees of the hotel.
Security in Hotel
Hotel guests want to feel safe and secure in their
temporary home. Hotels have a duty to protect them.
After all, the business depends upon them.
Apart from the possibility of death or injury and
destruction, the adverse publicity from an incident,
can result in ruined reputations, failing business and
knock-on effects to tourism in the country or region.
The risk to hotels can also increase because of the
identity of an individual guest or his or her family.
VIP’s, celebrities or the infamous can present special
Hotel staff may not even become aware of risks that
some guests may bring with them. Consequently a
hotel must be vigilant at all times.
What are the risks?
Examples of Risk
• Robbery by organized crime
• Opportunist robbery
• Burglary from rooms
• Baggage theft
• Invasion of guest privacy, by locals, press, interest
• Blackmail of staff
Poor Hotel Security
The use of technology, has greatly impacted
how criminals can target hotels.
For instance, instead of visiting a hotel to
collect many pieces of information, a criminal
can now scan the Internet pulling up specifics
about room numbers, location to other areas of
interest, the leadership team and photos of
critical areas in the property.
Using applications like Google Earth, a
criminal can diagram the structure and their
Possibility of death
The adverse publicity from an incident
Result in ruined reputations
Failing business and knock-on
Effects to tourism in the country or region.
The risk to hotels can also increase because of
the identity of an individual guest or his or her
VIP’s, celebrities or the infamous can present
Easy terrorist attacks
Effective Hotel Security
Now since we know what could be the
consequences, it is always better to prevent it
than curing it.
Sometimes some things may be irreplaceable
and it is always preferable to avoid such
In order to avoid such circumstances, an
effective hotel security program is formulated
in the hotel organization.
Effective Hotel Security
An effective hotel security programs enables
the hotel to avoid preventable incidents and
react to a quick, appropriate manner.
Three basic elements should be included in
Effective Hotel Security
No matter which department or post everyone can
contribute in making the hotel a safe place for all.
This is not only the concern of the security
Every property needs to have procedures for the staff
to follow. The staffs should be well informed about the
emergency procedures as well as any unusual events.
Simple safety equipments to state-of-the-art security
surveillance system all help make today's hotels a
safer and better place to be.
How can an effective
security system work?
What are the equipments
that could be used for
Based on the three aspects we have discussed just earlier.
The organization of the security department
includes the chain of command or hierarchy from
executive down to the front line.
The purpose of this section is to make clear who
reports to whom and who has which
This gives a clear understanding of the duties and
responsibilities along with all the answers
regarding what are the limitations within the
position and the line of authority, responsibilities
The organizational structure depends upon the
1. Division of work
2. Span of Control
Division of Labor:
The division of labor refers to narrow
specialization of tasks within a process so that
each employee can become a specialist in
doing one thing.
The degree of division of labor depends on the
degree to which performance of particular
tasks is measureable, the degree to which
wages affect task performance, and the
implementation of technology.
Span of Control
Span of Control in an organization is defined
as the number of employees reporting directly
to one supervisor.
Traditionally, the span of control has been
defined as four to seven subordinates under
The average size of the span of control,
together with the total number of employees,
determine the number of levels in an
Span of Control
In a large organization there is one head and a sub
head. It is ideal to have a manager at the senior
middle level so that one manager can take care of
personnel/ operational side and the director can take
the administrative or Investigative side. The director is
still the highest authority but it saves a position.
the above mentioned positions can be skipped entirely
if the organization is small to medium. in such case
supervisors or shift managers can be allocated
depending upon the number of frontline staffs.
The ideal proportion of supervisor to officer is 1:5, if
there are 10 officers in a shift or team , there should
be 2 supervisors.
Span of Control
V.A Graicunas developed the term Span of Control in
1933 when he researched the effectiveness of varying
management ratios. he determined that there were
several factors, such as the physical location of the
employees( whether they worked together or
separately), personalities, types of work performed,
and the capabilities of the employees.
The ratio was found to be acceptable at 4 employees
to 1 supervisor all the way to 22:1 depending on those
factors. Police departments operate at about 4:1 and
the fire departments operate at about 3:1.
Later after the introduction of the new technology
,"Computer and other automation system took away
some of the duties of supervisors and managers.
Organizational Hierarchy of Security
Department General Manager
Security Guards Doorman
Draw an organizational chart for a large hotel keeping
in mind all the vulnerable areas, the no. of guards
according to the 24 hour shift patterns in different
departments of the hotel, public areas, entrances on
the basis of the physical location of the employees(
whether they worked together or separately),
personalities, types of work performed, and the
capabilities of the employees.
Please explain why you have chose the no. guards or
supervisors in that particular area.
Assume that there is also a casino and 3 outlets
including a bar, recreational area( gym, spa,
swimming pool), 150 rooms & staff parking area.
Types of Security Providers
Depending upon the various factors such as the company
profile, structure, capacity, location, safety requirements as
well as feasibility and economy of the hotel, a hotel chooses
one of the following types of security service providers:
1. Proprietary/ In- House Security
2. Contract Security
Proprietary security and contract security companies are
responsible for protecting companies and businesses and
ensuring the safety of employees and consumers.
A proprietary security company is controlled entirely by a
particular company(hotel itself in this case) and is responsible
for the hiring, firing and management of personnel.
A contract security company is operated by a professional
security company and contracts its services to different
Proprietary security is more expensive
because your company is in charge of paying
for benefits and higher wages for experienced
Because the status of proprietary security is
considered higher, it usually attracts a higher
quality of guard.
The wages tend to be lower with a contract
security company because uniforms, sick
leave and training benefits are all covered by
Proprietary security employees often feel more
loyal to a particular company, because they
feel a camaraderie with fellow employees and
have an opportunity for growth and
There may be periods of time when a
company may have to add or lay off workers,
which can create a security problem within a
By using a contract security service,
companies have the opportunity to deal with
staffing problems easily and quickly.
If your company requires daily security
organization that needs to be micromanaged,
having day-to-day proprietary security may be
the way to go.
An important consideration when deciding
which type of company to use is that
regardless of which type of security company
you select, employee turnover is a possibility.
Depending on the site, this could be problem
that affects the safety of the individuals in the
Proprietary security personnel are trained to the
specific needs of the company, which helps them
become more familiar with the layout of a building
and recognize individuals coming in and out of
Because of a high turnover rate, contract security
guards aren't given the opportunity to become as
friendly with employees.
This can affect their loyalty and commitment and
adversely, to your detriment, affect their
When a company decides to go with
proprietary security, it is responsible for taking
the proper measures regarding background
checks and ensuring that an applicant has the
proper training and skills to handle a job of this
When working with a contract security
company, you don't have to worry about
training, recruitment or background checks; it
is all handled by that firm.
Blake & Associates Inc.(American Company) notes
that turnover in contract security is high -- between
130 and more than 400 percent annually.
In-house security has the advantage of less turnover,
as there is the perception of the job being a more
A business wouldn't have to regularly retrain new
contract staff about the company and building. In
addition to having a stable work environment, in-house
employees view their employer as offering a
higher-quality job and being more loyal to staff,
according to Blake & Associates Inc.
Staffing-There might be periods where you would
have to lay off or add more staff. The contract
company can deal with this easily and quickly, In
house does not tend to have this flexibility.
Company employees may feel more comfortable with
in-house security, knowing that all parties are
employed by the same group.
Having staff in a company can create an "us versus
Employees may not report incidents or may hesitate
to report because the contracted security is not "one
of them" and may not understand the business or the
people well enough to deal with the situation
Whereas( Impartiality)-Guards aren't directly tied to
your company so they can perform duties, & enforce
regulations more effectively. They aren't going to get
friendly enough with your business to get too
comfortable and slack off
In your view which is a better option for a non
chain 5 star hotel, non- star hotel and an
internationally recognized chain hotel.
Presentation on the next day.
Why do we need to
understand the job
responsibilities of different
Job Description of Security
Responsible for: Security Department
Main Scope and General Purpose of Job:
To direct and co-ordinate the overall activities of
the Security Department. To guarantee the safety
of all the guests, employees and hotel property.
Give direction and control all activities relating to
the Security department, ensure the hotel meets
its financial and guest satisfaction objectives.
Responsible to create and coordinate trainings or
anything related to employee development
Job Description of Security
Performs duties common to all supervisors and other duties as may be assigned.
Establishes standard policies and procedures for recruitment.
Be aware of the Fire and Emergency procedures, and your Departments
responsibility in an emergency.
Be aware of the Security policies and procedures of the Hotel, and ensure that at all
times in all areas of the Hotel that they are being strictly adhered to.
Be responsible for formulating the departmental plan and supervise it to be followed
Briefs Supervisors on function, VIP arrivals and other events, which will necessitate
additional or special preparations.
Cables relationship with all guest of the hotel.
Conduct regular operational meetings to review, monitor, adjust and upgrade the
performance of the Department as a whole, explaining new directions and policies
and procedures at the same time.
Conducts frequent front and back of house checks ensuring the procedures,
standards of employee grooming and manning levels are in order and takes
appropriate action where necessary.
Conforms to and enface policies & procedures and rules & regulations as laid down
by the brand(hotel chain) and the hotel in order to achieve the highest levels of
uniformity and guest service.
Job Description of Security
Delegates to and supervise all staff within the department and assist them
in preparing work schedules.
Directs and controls all subordinate to ensure that all day to day operational
matters are handled on time.
Establish control procedures in all operation aspects in accordance with
Implement and enforces safety regulations and house rules.
Investigate cases happened in the hotel. Should criminal cases are
occurred in the hotel, Assist Police to do investigation work.
Maintain a Hotel logbook on incidents, complaints etc. and refer them, if
required to the appropriate department for follow up action.
Performs special duties as required or designated by the General Manager.
Prepare job responsibilities of the security department. Adjust and update it
according to the working situation.
Prepare the plan (especially during the densely populated or vehicle period)
for external traffic, so as to keep the hotel area in good order.
Job Description of Security
Prepare various monthly reports as required by the General
Responsible for implementing the policies and procedures in
operation of the Security.
Responsible for the entire operations, staffing and equipment
of the Security Department.
Through close supervision recommend improvements and
changes to the operation of the Security Department
especially creating service standard of the hotel.
To handle and resolve all guest queries and complaints in an
efficient manner and to establish an amicable relationship
with all clients, customers and guests of the Hotel.
Trains personnel according to established procedures and
security training conducts training meetings to discuss
problems and future plans, gives information and assignment.
The security manager is responsible for training the whole
1. All hotel regulations and factors affecting the operations of
2. Unarmed defense tactics
3. Fire prevention and safety techniques
4. Basic fire fighting
5. First Aid
6. Preservation of crime scene and evidence
7. Action, duties and power where crime is detected
8. Action in crisis situation
9. Report writing
Main Scope and General Purpose of Job:
The primary responsibility of a hotel security
guard is to protect the hotel and the guests,
employees and property within it.
Hotel security guards spend the majority of
their time patrolling the grounds and premises
of the hotel, or monitoring the hotel via security
cameras. They report to either the head of
security or the hotel manager.
Main Duties of Security Guard
To make regular rounds of all hotel corridors and
To observe any suspicious or abnormal activities on
the part of staff or guests.
To be alert to undesirable persons such as pimps,
prostitutes, drunks, etc. and to evict them from the
To assist the Duty Manager in inspecting the rooms of
doubtful clients and assisting with suspected
To investigate any offence reported whilst on patrol
and to ensure full details are made available to the
police when necessary.
To ensure that staff particularly maids, conform to
rules when cleaning guests’ rooms.
Main Duties of Security Guard
To look out for keys left in doors and to ensure
To seize and deal with property found on patrol.
To maintain a close watch for any fire or safety
To provide escort where required for cashiers, etc.
To assist guests in decoding in-room safes.
To monitor security equipment e.g. CCTV, smoke
To sign out pass/master key to employees.
Handle lost and found items(usually only
Why read this?
Come up with answers……
Enhance better team coordination as well as higher efficiency in task
Proper division and allocation of staffs.
To calculate manpower or labor.
It properly defines the organization structure ensuring and facilitating
effective communication, authority, limitations and responsibilities
eradicating any confusions.
Better prepare the personnel for emergency or contingency situations
where staffs need to take quick decisions.
To ensure specialization and no over or double work is done.
To know the limitation within the person and assign duties accordingly
which he/she would be able to complete which eliminates the problem of
inadequacy or incompetence.
It sets the standard for any establishment:
When things go wrong we know whom to catch.
When things surpass expectation, we know whom to appraise.
This act as the most powerful tool while dealing with problem regarding
labor unions, managements decisions, financial planning, expansions, etc.
Overall guides all the employees towards attainment of the same objective-the
What do you understand by Security
Security Equipment are Firearms, ammunition,
batons, chemical agents, security restraints
and similar devices.
Can they work on their own?
They are aid to the security personnel and
help them become more effective and efficient.
While Choosing Security
Property management department should understand the
uses and limitations of any given type of security equipment
before authorizing its installation.
So before purchasing any security hardware or equipment,
the hotel must evaluate the following:
1. Will the equipment to be purchased solve a particular
2. Is the equipment the most cost effective –in other words
are there less expensive (in terms of both capital and
operating cost) alternatives? This will include rental of
equipment rather then purchase.
3. Will the equipment have counter-productive effects on the
operations(not immediately noticeable)?
4. Who will be responsible for this equipment and whether he
is capable of maintaining and using the equipment. Is the
training required and if so at what?
Why all of that?
Thorough cost benefits analysis must be
carried out before making any purchase.
Hotel should not fall into the misconception
that what works well in one hotel must work in
others as well.
Every hotel will have its own set of threats,
So the hotel needs to be aware of all the
requirements and the equipments required.
Categories of Security
They can be broadly divided into 5 categories:
1. Equipment for Physical Security and
2. Equipment for Surveillance
3. Communication System
4. Alarm System
5. Equipments for Guest Room Security
Physical Security and Perimeter
Physical security involves the protection of the
hotel buildings, its ground and the assets
within the building.
Perimeter control is concerned with restricting
access to a property.
What are the equipments used in physical
security and perimeter control?
Physical Security and Perimeter
Access control systems allow authorized personnel
and material to move through normal access routes
while detecting and delaying movement of
unauthorized personnel and material.
Access control adds little, if any, enhancement to a
structure’s physical barriers. The use of electrically
operated locks and strikes with access control
systems may actually reduce penetration delay times
Thus, access control systems must be integrated
with other components of the overall physical security
system to be effective. This will ensure that personnel
seeking entry to the protected area are queued at the
There are many different types of access control
systems and they vary extensively in their complexity
Equipments for Physical Security
and Perimeter Control
Computer security equipment
Safety deposit centers
X-ray machines, free standing metal detectors, halnd held
Shutters and grilles
Steel office storage and furniture
Vacant property protection: concrete, temporary fencing, barb
Physical Security and Perimeter
There are certain areas or aspects that are
needed to be considered before buying the
equipments for physical security and perimeter
Layout and design
Layout and Design
Every hotel should incorporate necessary security and
safety equipments during the designing of the
building, pubic areas, hotel rooms, inter-departmental
offices, recreation centers, parking and all other
access points within the hotel premise.
Criminals operate best when undetected, this usually
means under the cover of darkness or concealed
Designs in hotel should be given great priority so that
security measures are appointed at the most strategic
locations which provides security as well as economy
of movement, operation and, surveillance.
The security department should be aware of the
layout and design of all the hotel and its related
premise and assess all the areas for the level of risk
and plan accordingly all the necessary risk limiting,
preventing as well as tackling equipments or
Objective of Physical Security and
deter potential intruders (e.g. warning signs
and perimeter markings);
distinguish authorized from unauthorized
people (e.g. using keycards/access badges)
delay, frustrate and ideally prevent intrusion
attempts (e.g. strong walls, door locks and
detect intrusions and monitor/record intruders
(e.g. intruder alarms and CCTV systems); and
trigger appropriate incident responses (e.g. by
security guards and police)
Layout and Design
the type of establishments,
its client base,
business volume(rooms, seasons)
no. of employees,
operational requirements( operating hours & services
Compliance with the SOP of security procedures
risk levels or operational hazard and
the hotel should choose effective and efficient security access
limiting equipments but guest privacy and comfort should not
be compromised which is the main objective of the hotel.
Layout and Design
It is up to security designers, architects and
analysts to balance security controls against
risks, taking into account the costs of specifying,
developing, testing, implementing, using,
managing, monitoring and maintaining the
controls, along with broader issues such
as aesthetics, human rights, health and safety,
and societal norms or conventions.
Physical access security measures that are
appropriate for a high security prison or a military
site may be inappropriate in an office, a home or a
vehicle, although the principles are similar.
The elements of private security are to detect, deter,
delay and respond to unwanted activity in a
protected facility, lighting provides deterrence to
In the field of physical security, security lighting is
often used as a preventive and corrective measure
against intrusions or other criminal activity on a
physical piece of property. Security lighting may be
provided to aid in the detection of intruders, to deter
intruders, or in some cases simply to increase the
feeling of safety. Lighting is integral to crime
prevention through environmental design
In most hotels, the interior lighting plan is generally
more than adequate for most safety considerations
however; the areas around the property, especially
Security lighting can be counter-productive.
Work as group and come up with the reason to
why this happened.
Turning off lights halved the number of thefts
and burglary in Övertorneå Sweden.
A test in West Sussex UK showed that adding
all-night lighting in some areas made people
there feel safer, although crime rates
increased 55% in those areas compared to
control areas and to the county as a whole.
Bright, unshielded floodlights often prevent people from
noticing criminal activity, and help criminals see what they are
While adequate lighting around a physical structure is deployed to
reduce the risk of an intrusion, it is critical that the lighting be
designed carefully as poorly arranged lighting can create glare
which actually obstructs vision.
Studies have shown that many criminals are aware of this effect
and actively exploit it. The optimal design will also depend on
whether the area will be watched directly by humans or by closed-circuit
television, and on the location of the observers or cameras.
Security lighting may be subject to vandalism, possibly to reduce its
effectiveness for a subsequent intrusion attempt. Thus security
lights should either be mounted very high, or else protected by
wire mesh or tough polycarbonate shields. Other lamps may be
completely recessed from view and access, with the light directed
out through a light pipe or reflected from a polished aluminum or
stainless steel mirror. For similar reasons high security installations
may provide a stand-by power supply for their security lighting.
Some typical considerations
Reduce and prevent glare and situations mentioned above
Shielded or full cut-off (FCO) lamp housings which conceal the
bulb could be used, which should direct light onto the ground or
target and away from observers.
These lights should send no light above 80 degrees from
the lowest point.(Nadir)
Lighting should be bright enough, and not "as bright as possible".
In many cases a good rule of thumb is 0.5 watts per square
metre (0.05 watts per square foot).
This might need to be increased in very confused environments,
but conversely can be reduced in very open environments.
Multiple lamps of moderate power instead of a few powerful
lamps will reduce glare, provide more even illumination with
reduced pools of shadow, and provide some redundancy if one
lamp's bulb blows out or develops a bad counter balance.
Some typical considerations
Prevent malicious tampering or interference. This means that
besides the lamp itself, the entire circuit from the source (Electric
company or generator), through the wires, to the lamp and back
should be protected.
Luminaries should be accessible so that the maintainer can
replace blown bulbs as quickly as possible and clean the
luminaries periodically. However they should be protected or
somehow made inaccessible to tampering.
Ensure the electric meter box is locked or inaccessible, or else
power the lights from a different line.
Control and power lines, where outside or vulnerable, should be
either buried well underground (in conduits preferably) or at a
height of at least 8 metres (about 24 feet).
Ideally multiple circuits should be used to prevent an accidental
or malicious short or cut causing all illumination to fail.
If you look at the statistics, roughly 80% of the criminal acts at
shopping centers, strip malls and business offices occur in
the parking lot.
Lawyers make a good living off liability cases based on a lack
of sufficient security measures or not taking "reasonable
care" in the protection of employees and customers against
The lawsuits often revolve around lack of sufficient lighting,
surveillance and response. Once crime takes a foothold in an
area it is difficult to break the trend, but there are some things
you can do that can improve security, deter crime, reduce
potential liability and make your customers feel safer.
It's interesting to note that where parking lot security has
been implemented, customer use has actually increased
because they feel safer. Increased customer use means
increased profit which can be used to justify the increased
cost related to any security improvements.
Types of Parking
Parking areas can be generally categorized as
surface parking lots,
and structures that are physically connected to the
Street parking are the parking that are on the side
of the streets. Surface parking are the open areas
that are allocated for parking. Structures built for
the purpose of parking are the freestanding
structure and parking facilities that are attached to
compliment or ease people coming to a particular
place like mall. Theatres,etc.
Types of Parking
Parking Security Equipments or
Lights- Various type and
Mechanical or motorized
Traffic Barrier post
Under Chassis Vehicle /
Car Inspection Mirror
Consideration for parking Areas
The following consideration should be taken
before installing security equipments at the
1. The type of parking
4. Operating hours
5. Use (public, private, for employees only, only for
6. Terrain/ Landscape
7. Atmospheric conditions
8. Availability of natural lighting and natural
Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid
material. Glasses are typically brittle(fragile) and
Selecting the right glass is important to the
hotel as it not only add to the charm of the hotel
but also provides a medium of safety and if
proper considerations aren’t taken, the same
could be a tool for hazards and accidents.
There are glass protecting products but it is wiser
to select the proper glass then laying a protective
layer over it, unless it is mandatory.
Glass protecting Products/
Bar or Grill
Aluminum or metal Protection Borders
Window Protection Films
Apart from this stronger glass are advised to
Types of Glasses
Normal (Annealed) Glass
Normal glass is synonymous with flat glass irrespective of the
process of manufacture.
Float glass has a perfectly flat, brilliant surface, whereas
sheet glass has slight distortions.
Both are referred as normal (annealed) glass and can be
processed to obtain many different varieties of glass for use
Normal glass is used in residences, shopping malls, hotels,
restaurants, etc. for windows, shelves, doors and partitions,
Solar Applications, Display cases, Shop fronts, Solariums,
Greenhouse, Atriums & Railings etc.
Types of Normal (Annealed)
It is normal annealed glass, though clear &
transparent, it does posses some color tint usually
greenish. It is due to presence of some impurities
such as iron.
Clear glass has very high-energy transmission
when exposed to sunlight.
It provides a clear view of the objects across it.
Applications: Used in doors, windows, solar
applications, shelves etc.
It is also used for further processing to other
It is normal glass that is coloured by the addition of metal
oxides into molten glass.
Tinted glass possesses filtering properties that help reduce
eyestrain due to dazzle.
Its absorption properties help diminish energy transmissions
when exposed to sunlight.
Tints like green allows more visible light and cut out infrared
Variations in the thickness of the glass would yield different
performance in terms of light and solar radiation
Although darker shades reduce the amount of heat being
transmitted to the interiors, they also reduce the amount of
Used in doors, windows and partitions etc
Patterned, figured or rolled
It is a decorative and translucent glass with
figures or patterns on one face.
In addition to diffusing light and obstructing
visibility from the outside, the figures soften the
This type of glass is usually more fragile and less
convenient to clean.
Interiors of the buildings, opaque glazing like
Patterned, figured or rolled
It has wire mesh incorporated during its
production. Wired glass is recommended for its
fire protection property.
In case of fire, the glass cracks but broken pieces
tend to remain in position restricting the spread of
flame and smoke for some time.
Used where nominal fire protection is required in
windows doors & partitions etc.
Extra clear glass
Extra clear glass is a high value glass, free from
impurities such as iron.
It has high light transmission of more than 92
percent and is free from interference with the true
colour & sparkling of objects across it.
It is used for a sparkling display of expensive
materials like jewellery, watches, crystal ware, fine
fabrics, art wares, solar applications etc
Ceramic printed glass
Also known as silk-screened glass for its
appearance like a silk screen.
Certain areas of application make it
important to mask a part or whole of glass
for privacy or hiding the background or
enhancing the look of a product or for purely
The size, density and colour would
determine the opacity and shading whereas
the variety of dots, squares, checks and
patterns will give many design combinations
to achieve the desired effect.
It is not affected by moisture, oil, soaps,
chemicals or detergents and retains its
original appearance though out the life of the
Curtain walls, shower installations, glass
doors, spandrels and partitions, etc.
Ceramic Printed Glass
High security places, for example, banks, teller, and drive-through
windows, ticket windows, gas stations, currency exchanges,
armored vehicles, jewellery shops and burglar resistant
Other areas where laminated glass is used are:
• Curtain wall glazing
• Sloped glazing
• Glass roofs & floors
• Animal observatory windows
• Safety glazing for partitions
• Security glazing for banks against bullets/ hand propelled
• Earthquakes, high velocity winds & fire resistance applications.
• Acoustic glazing
Tempered glass is an extremely strong glass which is heat
treated to a uniform temperature of approximately 650ºC and
rapidly cooled to induce compressive stresses of 770 kg/cm2
to 1462 kg/cm2 on the surfaces and edge compression of the
order of 680 kg/cm2.
Tempered glass is not manufactured on float line. It is a
Tempered or toughened glass gains its added strength from
the compressed surfaces. However, if a deep scratch or an
impact penetrates the surface, the glass will break into a
number of small particles.
The heat treatment process for tempered glass requires that
all fabrication be completed prior to toughening.
Any attempt to cut, drill, grind or sand blast the glass after
toughening may result in glass breakage. The heat treatment
process does not change the light transmission and solar
radiant heat properties of the glass.
It is used in commercial applications where wind, snow or thermal
loads exceed the strength capabilities of normal (annealed) glass
such as safety glazing for entranceway, railings, partitions or fire
Tempered glass can be used in balustrades, escalator side panels,
handrails, shower screens, bathtub enclosures, sliding/swing doors,
squash, racquetball wall, showcases, partitions etc.
Other areas where tempered glass should be used are:
• Mainly used for safety and strength
• Curtain walls of high-rise buildings
• Exterior and interior of buildings where strength is important
• Spandrels for walls and decorative paneling
• Door openings, showroom and lobby facades, escalator side
• Viewing partitions of sports complexes, resorts and airports.
Heat Strengthened Glass
Heat strengthened glass is a type of tempered glass
which has been strengthened thermally by inducing a
surface compression of 422 to 658 kg/cm2 as
compared to a range of 770 to 1462 kg/cm2 in case of
fully tempered glass.
It is valued for its mechanical strength, which is twice
that of normal annealed glass though half of fully
With the exception of strength and breakage
haracteristics, heat - strengthened glass retains the
normal properties of annealed glass.
Heat-strengthened glass provides necessary
resistance to thermal stress associated with high
performance glazing materials such as tinted glass
and reflective glass.
Reflective glass is used in office buildings,
• Privacy windows
• Decorative walls
• Spandrel glazing
• Vertical and sloped glazing
The insulating glass is a prefabricated unit
made of two or more glass panes, separated
by a cavity and edges-hermetically(A hermetic seal
has the quality of being airtight. In common usage, the term often
implies being impervious to air or gas) sealed together.
This edge seal not only binds the individual
sheets of glass together to maintain the
mechanical strength of the joint but also
protects the cavity between the glasses from
• Office buildings, hospitals, hotels, houses
and buildings with exceptionally high heating
or cooling requirements.
• Buildings that need the temperature and
humidity strictly controlled such as telephone
exchanges, laboratories, etc.
• Airport control towers, windows of coaches of
trains, and other environments that need
regulated atmosphere and prevention of
• Buildings near highways, railways and
airports that need sound insulation property of
Consideration of selecting glass in
Use – roofs, window, door, partition, etc
Functionality- molding, design,
Equipments for Surveillance
Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior,
activities, or other changing information,
usually of people for the purpose of
influencing, managing, directing, or protecting.
The word surveillance is the French word for
"watching over"; "sur" means "from above" and
"veiller" means "to watch“
In simple terms it can be defined as the
“careful watching of someone or something.
Equipments of Surveillance
Apart from other sophisticated surveillance
equipments such as Biometric Reader- retina
recognition, voice recognition, finger print
recognition or the surveillance from the
satellite, hotel surveillance is done either
personally or by the help of Closed Circuit
Television Cameras which not only helps us to
see what is going on but also record it at the
same time on your PC, Laptops or smart
phones as well.
HOW HOTEL VIDEO
SURVEILLANCE CAN BE
Security – Hotel video surveillance can help keep your guests safe from theft
and other criminals by helping you track your visitors and prevent break-ins on
Prevent theft – Hotel security cameras can help keep intruders out of exclusive
hotel areas like swimming pools and gyms, where theft is common. A
surveillance system in your store room and other maintenance areas can
uncover potential employee theft.
Remain competitive – Along with providing security, a professional video
surveillance system gives your guests peace of mind while staying at your
hotel, and can help you increase your return business and remain competitive
in an aggressive market.
Flexible – Modern security cameras are easy to install and can be adjusted at
anytime to fit your needs. Unlike analog CCTV cameras, wireless IP cameras
don't require technicians, power tools, or miles of wiring. All you do is mount the
cameras and start recording.
Remote monitoring – Adding an NVR (Network Video Recorder) to your
security camera system gives you the ability to broadcast your surveillance
footage over the internet. This breakthrough in surveillance technology allows
you to monitor any of your cameras at any time from any internet connection,
POTENTIAL RISKS OF
Privacy – Protect the privacy of your guests and
employees by keeping your surveillance cameras
in public places like lobbies, restaurants, pool and
spa areas, and meeting areas, and out of guest
rooms and break rooms.
Damage – Cameras, especially when they are
outdoors, can be damaged by storms or falling
objects. While this kind of damage is rare, it's
important to keep a secondary security system in
place to protect your guests and property should
Outages – Power disruptions or surges can
cause interruptions in recording or damage to
Types of CCTV Cameras
Indoor Camera: Indoor camera as the name suggests are used for indoor security
mechanism. Depending upon your security needs, you can mount it at any suitable
location inside the building. These are suitable for security in homes, schools, offices,
Outdoor Camera: Outdoor CCTV Camera is used for outdoor places. They are
mostly used for entry and exit points with limited night lighting. Outdoor cameras
typically have hard shell vandal-proof casings and a variety of lens options.
IR Day/Night Camera: IR Day/ Night Camera are used for high alert security areas
where surveillance needs to happen throughout day and night. In the daytime the
camera functions like a normal camera with standard colors and at night it switches
to low-lux black and white mode. When visibility decreases due to no-light at night,
Infrared LEDs are automatically illuminated providing full security. These
cameras are used by military personals, in parking lots, and high security
Dome Camera: Dome cameras are installed inside a dark dome and are designed in
a way that they go unnoticed by visitors. They come in compact design for a discreet
appearance. The thief does not know if the camera is recording. These cameras can
also be rotated and tilted manually. Dome type cameras are used in public places
like railway station, bus terminals, and other areas where there is huge gathering of
Types of CCTV Cameras
Bullet Camera: Bullet cameras are placed inside a bullet shaped housing, and they
are used in residential places as well as commercial places. They are small in size,
have an integrated design, and are really effective. They offer illuminate viewing
even in darkness and are weatherproof as well.
Vandal Proof Camera: Vandal proof cameras are used as outdoor security
cameras. These cameras are sheltered within solid material and are covered by a
"hub" of break-proof glass which doesn't hinder the quality of the video camera
streams. It is difficult to break these cameras and this makes them perfect for high
security. They are suitable for wall or ceiling mounting and are rain and fog resistant.
Hidden Camera: Hidden cameras are compact in size and are used for secret
monitoring. They are usually installed in public places like department stores,
theatres, clubs, etc. Hidden cameras have a built-in recorder that records and
broadcasts simultaneously. By using a large number of security cameras and
networking them various strategic views of the place can be obtained.
Pan Tilt Zoom Camera: Pan-tilt-zoom camera offers the ability to view and zoom in
all directions. You can even set the camera to automatically rotate to different fields
Consideration before buying CCTV
Your hotel or resort's specific security needs depend on many
factors. Consider each of the following when you are purchasing
and configuring your hotel video surveillance system:
Where do you experience the most thefts?
How do you currently manage security at your hotel?
Do you feel like your surrounding area contributes to your overall
How would you describe your average guest?
How is your hotel or resort laid out?
Single building housing guest rooms, amenities like pool and spa, and
Several buildings spread out over a large property
Have you ever had issues with employee theft?
Communication is the most basic and the most
important aspect or tool of efficient service and
Today hotel have adopted numerous
communication devices which have eased the
process of communication.
To respond quickly to a security need, a
communication system is required to quickly notify
staff responsible for the security function.
Our main aim is prevention is better than cure and
this exactly fits in this definition.
Types of Communication
Alarm, Message or
easiest and most
efficient medium –
intercom, PABX, etc.
Considerations while buying
The following things are needed to be considered
before buying the communication equipments:
Size of the organization- Big, small, medium
Operational areas- Garden, Beach, Indoors,
Distance- within the hotel premises, long distances,
Purpose- emergency awareness, message delivery,
security check etc.
Functionality- specified to only one task or multi task,
night visibility, internet connectivity
Design- easy to carry, small
Portability- hands free, wireless.
A burglar alarm is a system designed to
detect intrusion – unauthorized entry – into a
building or area. They are also called security
alarms,security systems, alarm
systems, intrusion detection
systems, perimeter detection systems, and
Burglar alarms are used in residential,
commercial, industrial, and military properties for
protection against burglary (theft) or property
damage, as well as personal protection
against intruders. Car alarms likewise protect
vehicles and their contents. Prisons also use
security systems for control of inmates.
Types of Sensors on alarm
In hotel alarm systems are often used for monitor the many
entrances and emergency exits found throughout a hotel.
There are various type of sensors used in the alarm
according to its different functions – fire, burglary, heat,
Some of them are:
Smoke, heat, Carbon monoxide
Glass Break etc
Parts of an Alarm
The most basic alarm consists of one or more sensors to detect intruders,
and an alerting device to indicate the intrusion. However, a typical premises
security alarm employs the following components:
Premises control unit (PCU), or panel: The "brain" of the system, it reads
sensor inputs, tracks arm/disarm status, and signals intrusions. In modern
systems, this is typically one or more computer circuit boards inside a metal
enclosure, along with a power supply.
Sensors: Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may placed at the
perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect
intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows
for opening, or by monitoring unoccupied interiors for motions, sound,
vibration, or other disturbances.
Alerting devices: These indicate an alarm condition. Most commonly,
these are bells, sirens, and/or flashing lights. Alerting devices serve the
dual purposes of warning occupants of intrusion, and potentially scaring off
Keypads: Small devices, typically wall-mounted, which function as
the human-machine interface to the system. In addition to buttons, keypads
typically feature indicator lights, a small mulch-character display, or both.
Interconnections between components. This may consist of direct wiring
to the control unit, or wireless links with local power supplies.
Security devices: Devices to detect thieves such as spotlights, cameras &
Types of Alarm
Local alarms are those not hard-wired to a central monitoring location and
may serve as deterrents(A thing that discourages or is intended to
discourage someone from some act.)
Examples is the local alarm that is integrated with the panic hardware on a
fire exit. When the exit door is opened, the circuit is broken and the alarm
Contact alarms systems are hard-wired to a central point. so the same can
be monitored and appropriate action may be taken when the alarm goes
off. Silent alarms are always hard-wired to a central point and may be
considered for cashier areas, storerooms, and other areas. From such a
point, the alarm can be silently transmitted to the telephone room, police
department, or private security company; both the police and the on-premises
security personnel can be alerted.
Example of a contact alarm sometimes used in cashier areas that is helpful
during robberies involves using a money clip that cannot be removed from
a cash register without tripping a silent alarm.
Types of Alarm
Remote alarm systems typically relying some sort of transmission
for example, the more elaborate microwaves, radio waves and
Microwave detectors are active units which transmit and receive
electromagnetic energy are designed to detect motion. Perimeter
protection with microwaves is used in some properties due to its
long range capabilities; its potential for stability, once adjusted; and
its virtually tamper-proof characteristics.
This is best used in locations where unwanted movement should be
Radio frequency (R F) fields trip an alarm when any intruder
breaks the radio wave by moving into an R F field. As with the use
of the microwave detector noted above, these systems are of
greatest value in locations where there should be no motion.
This system is best used as an intruder alarm.
Types of Alarm
Photoelectric light beam is a filtered light beam passes
between a sending and receiving unit; as is the case in R F
field systems,any break in the beam sets off an alarm.
This system is generally used for outside perimeter control,
especially in resort properties.
And Finally Fire Safety Alarms:-
While the use of some alarm systems is usually optional, fire
alarm systems are generally required by local fire and safety
Fire alarms is required to alert employees of fires or other
emergency conditions. Because of this reason all hotels,
motels and apartments must have a fire alarm system
in proper operating condition which is tested at least every
Considerations while buying an
Visibility- easy detectable or not
Area of installation
Purpose / Need
Functionality- wireless, hard wired, size, shape,
the sensors it uses.
Feasibility- whether the requirements of the
system are easily available or not.
Equipments for Guest Room
When we travel to different places, the main reason that we
choose a good hotel is the assurance of a safe, clean and
Different security equipments installed in the room makes the
guest feel safe and comfortable even when they are travelling
away from their own safe dwellings.
Hotel guest room security may be enhanced by the use of
security equipment such as hotel/motel function locks, safety
chains, and similar devices.
Secondary access limiting devices on sliding glass, balcony,
and connecting room doors, access limiting devices for
operational windows, a guestroom telephone or other
communication device available for use 24 hours a day, a
peephole in or window next to the guestroom door etc.
The Following are the areas and equipments in the guest
Hotel Guest Room Locks:
Hotel Guest room Security locks can be a critical
aspect of guest protection. Locks and locking
systems are needed which lend themselves to the
smooth and efficient operation of the property, but
which are not easily compromised.
If a property uses a master keying system in
which one key opens all or many of the property's
doors, it should face the possibility that a master
key may be lost or stolen. If this happens, every
lock's code or combination ( that is, the
arrangement of tumblers in the core of the lock)
may need to be changed.
Depending on the type of locks used, this re-keying
can be a relatively quick and inexpensive
process or a long and costly one. [ One of the
best ways to avoid this situation is to follow
A new and highly technical access
control system involves biometrics.
Such a system utilizes human
characteristics which are unique to a
specific individual. No two
Fingerprints are same anywhere in
the world , the retina or iris of an eye,
and the size, shape, and even
the print of a hand.
In Future biometric applications there
would be the possibility to include a
person's voice being recorded at
check-in and immediately being
transmitted to the door accessing a
restricted guestroom corridor,
guestroom, health club, point-of-sales
Sliding glass doors another consideration in
establishing the security of a guestroom. A number of
secondary access-restricting devices are currently
available and should be examined as possible
additions to the single latch provided with each sliding
Hinged bars and metal and wood sections that can be
placed in the sliding channel or additional lock units
are sometimes used to add to the security of sliding
A metal peg may be inserted in a hole drilled through
both the sliding door and the frame to prevent the
sliding door unit from being lifted out of the channel
and removed from the frame.
Windows which open may need secondary latching
devices. If local fire codes permit, devices which limit
how far windows can be opened may be installed to
help prevent intruders from entering through ground
floor or balcony windows and to reduce or eliminate
the possibility of children or even adults falling out of
Consider the need for the
guest to be able to identify a
caller before opening the
door. A view port [door viewer
or peephole] is one device
that can serve this purpose.
A wide-angle view port
maximizes the view of the
corridor adjacent to the
Management should consider placing a telephone
device in each guestroom. This telephone can be used
by the guest to notify the property of emergencies or
suspicious activities and by the property to notify the
guest of emergencies like Fire, Bomb threat etc.
Nowadays hotels are exploring the feasibility of using
two-way interactive cable television to provide security
for emergency communication with the guest.
This facility usually delivers entertainment and
programming to the guestroom, but it also has the
capability to return communication via the same device.
This permits monitoring of guest medical alerts, burglar
alarms, and fire alarms etc.
In-Room Security Information
There has been a great effort on the part of the hospitality industry to
effectively involve the guest as a member of the security team for a
Hotels are required to have a floor plan or an information card be
provided which indicates the location of the guestroom in relation to fire
stairwells. This information card also lists the steps to be taken by the
guest in the event of afire emergency.
In addition to fire protection data, consider including security data on the
guestroom door. Decals or notices may be posted that:
How to double lock the guestroom door.
Notification for the guest to indicate that not to open the door without first
identifying the person seeking entrance.
Instructions on a tent card for all guestroom security devices.
Mention the availability of safe deposit boxes at the front desk on the
Guest registration card.
Any additional information about the locality of the property.
Other Necessary Equipments
Smoke or heat detection units are required by
an increasing number of local jurisdictions.
Regulations vary from those only requiring
smoke and/or heat detectors in corridors,
storerooms, and under stairways to those
requiring full systems that provide protection in
every guestroom, guest bathroom, public area,
and back-of-the-house location.
Smoke Detectors and Heat
Smoke and heat detection units also vary in their
characteristics; some have the ability to report a heat
buildup prior to evidence of smoke or flame, while others
respond only to smoke and other products of combustion.
Single-station hard-wired smoke detectors require that the
unit be on electric wiring as opposed to battery power. In
some cases where the sounding of a unit can put the
building into general alarm, a public address system can
advise guests and staff within the property accordingly.
Automated systems, which integrate all smoke detectors in
each location with a master panel, permit staff to
immediately determine where a smoke detector has
activated and to respond accordingly.
There are also battery back-up systems for use during
power failures (which frequently occur in a fire scenario)
that may be installed as a third level back-up when auxiliary
power generation activates at the time of a primary electric
Many local jurisdictions enacted regulations requiring fully
automated smoke detector systems in all new construction
and the retrofitting of smoke detectors for all lodging
There are four classes of fires that a
lodging property should be prepared for
1) Class A fires involve ordinary
2) Class B fires involve flammable
3) Class C fires involve electrical
4) Class K fires involve cooking oils
Tips: Although some jurisdictions will
permit the elimination of fire
extinguishers in a facility with a full
sprinkler system, consideration should
still be given to the use of extinguishers
as they would permit the fighting of
incipient fires rather than waiting for a
fire to generate enough heat to activate
Carbon Monoxide Detectors:-
Carbon monoxide is a
dangerous by-product of a
malfunctioning water heater,
kerosene heater, coal boiler, or
any other wood, coal, or
petroleum product unit. (It is also
the most critical toxic gas
generated in any structural fire).
There have been tragic incidents
in which carbon monoxide from
such units has resulted in the
death of a guest or staff. Since
carbon monoxide is invisible and
has no smell, it cannot be
detected by natural means.
Sprinkler systems are now
mandated in an establishment four
stories or higher, adhering to the
Hotel and Fire Safety laws on
This requires a system covering
back-of-the-house, public, and all
Most jurisdictions now require full
sprinkler systems in the new
construction of any commercial
occupancy regardless of the
height of the structure.
Accident Prevention Signs:-
OSHA(Occupational Safety and
Health Administration) classifies
accident prevention signs into three
1) Danger signs.
2) Caution signs and,
3) Safety instruction signs.
Danger signs: which indicate
immediate danger, should be posted
to warn of specific dangers and to
warn that special precautions may be
Red should be the basic color for
identification of all danger signs,
which include restricted area, in case
Accident Prevention Signs:-
Caution signs: should only be used to warn
against potential hazards or to caution
against unsafe practices.
The color yellow has been used to
advantage for marking physical hazards on
stairs in both back-of-the-house stairways
and fire stairwells.
Areas of construction or remodeling should
have caution signs. Floor stand signs could
warn guests of wet floors and to watch their
Safety instruction signs: should be used
only where there is a need for general
instructions relative to safety measures.
These signs are typically green with white
lettering. Signs with green arrows, for
example, could be used to note the path to
follow between buildings or on trails.
A hotel may be subject to numerous amount of
threats. Some are foreseeable and some are
not. It is always wise to be prepared and have
a set of procedures laid down so that at the
time of emergency, with appropriate in
advance training, such procedures may not
only help but reduce the risk level and
casualties at emergency situations.
Nowadays, almost every hotel has a set of
security procedures laid down for such
emergency situations. Some of them are
discussed in this chapter.
The main aim of hotel is to provide safe and
secure environment for guest and their
belongings. Hence, proper key control will
ensure that the guest rooms are secure and
the guest property, as well as the guest, are
For this a hotel should establish a clear
procedure for the control of keys.
Procedures for Key Control
Authorization of a person to order keys from
Control the number of keys to be duplicated and
keep a strict record on the number of keys
Keep the keys in a safe place. Keys kept at the
Front Desk should not be left unattended or
accessible to anyone reaching over the desk.
Ensure periodic inventory checks.
Replace locks immediately following a break-in or
Change locks at regular interval of time.(The
police recommend a change once every two
The cheapest system in a long run may be an
Procedures for Key Control
Make sure that the keys are retrieved from the guest on
Maintain locks to ensure that they are always in good working
Key racks should be kept out of view of the public.
Set up a system whereby keys may only be issued on the
production of the pass(key card) given to the guest on
checking in which has to be returned at the time o checkout.
In addition to this, the front desk staff should always verify
name and room number(and any other information) of guest
and check this against the hotel records before handing over
Retrieve guest room keys involuntarily left on the front desk
counter. A drop box should be made available.
Consider a practice of using keys that do not have he
property’s name, address, logo or room number in them. This
practice makes it much more difficult for the keys that have
been lost to be traced to the appropriate property by who
Electronic Key System
A variety of electronic systems are available; most include one or
more of the following elements:
A mortise lock integrated with an electronic card reader.
A key card which either communicates with the front desk computer and
permits entry or which is compatible with the permission-level within the
microchip in the lock set unit in the guestroom door. This establishes
entrance capability either at the time the key card is being produced or
upon introduction to the door lock.
A computer terminal at the front desk or adjacent area which produces the
key card and selects the code which will permit entry by a new key card
and will reject all prior units issued for that room.
A computer capable of providing millions of combinations for entrance to a
A battery source and/or hard-wired system for energizing the lock system.
The capability of "timing" the card so it no longer functions as of a set time,
such as upon check-out.
Surveillance and Access control
It is important that hotel security should know
who are in the building and the purpose of
If the public is invited to patronize certain
areas, such as bars, restaurant, banquet room,
etc, it does not mean that other areas which
are designated for guests, are also available to
Anybody disguised as guest can get into the
hotel property and remember always to keep
on eye on suspected behaviour.
There are certain precautions that are needed to
be considered in monitoring access through non-public
Supervision of entrances E.g employee entrance,
delivery entrances and service entrances.
The hotel will have many different entrances
which have to be taken special care of.
Back-gate entrance of employee should be
Delivery entrance scanning, proper checking and
proper time allocation should be kept in mind
while receiving deliveries like food material,
maintenance parts, guest room supplies.
Routine Patrolling of guest corridor.
Security personnel, guards or even elevator
operators should have an eye on the corridors
as these are accessible to only guest and any
suspicious person with bags, or harmful arms,
or equipments should be immediately informed
or taken required action.
Apart from CCTV surveillance, patrolling from
time to time will help increase the security
perimeters as well as stop crime on time.
Elevator Control in high rise hotel buildings:
Elevators are the easiest way to get to guest
The elevator operator should politely and
tactically ask the guest about the hotel rooms
or where they are staying to cross check the
guests if they are in-house guest or not.
If the elevator is not operated by an operator,
then CCTV cameras should be continuously
monitored by the security personnel for any
Display of Staff identification on entrance,
work hours and exit from the Hotel to all
Hotel should issue proper name tags or
identity card so that one can easily recognize
whether the person is a hotel staff or not.
While using the staff gate entrance or exit,
presentation of staff ID should be practiced to
ensure no unauthorized person enters through
the staff entrance.
Packages/ Parcel check to guard against
theft of hotel property by Employees
Any packages or parcel going out of the hotel
should be checked before letting the hotel
employee exit or return home.
Sometimes employees will intentionally take
away small valuable hotel properties which
may be undetected if not checked.
Identifying salesmen or deliverymen and their
purpose of Visit.
Salesmen or delivery men should be asked to
present their identification like visiting card or
identity card and all details regarding the time of
entry, purpose of visit and the name of the person
they wish to see should be recorded in entrance
registers or log books.
While entering, a proper visitor pass should be
produced by the guard to ensure that the
person(salesmen or deliveryman) is a visitor and
came for an official purpose.
Secondary or emergency Exit and entrance
should be monitored.
Fire exit points in hotel are another easy way
to enter or exit the hotel.
Since we cannot lock the fire exit, frequent
monitoring is required for those areas.
Every department should have an eye on
suspicious activity and secure their own
area from unauthorized persons.
Reporting the security personnel if any
suspicious person or suspicious activity is
Unattended bags, car parked in no parking
zone intentionally or in a very busy areas, new
persons entering from the employee gate,
guest refusing to shoe any form of
identification, scanty baggage, etc.