2. Clinical Definition
• Alzheimer's disease is a
that destroys brain cells.
Alzheimer's disease is
not a normal part of
aging, and is also the
most common form of
3. Who does Alzheimer's affect?
• Alzheimer’s affects a variety of people, and is
very common among the elderly.
• This makes it likely that many of you have a
• The experience of knowing someone with this
disease varies, and it can often be emotional
when recalling the symptoms.
• Memory loss that disrupts daily life
• Challenges in planning or solving problems
• Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at
• Confusion with time or place
• Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships
• New problems with words in speaking or writing
• Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
• Decreased or poor judgment
• Withdrawal from work or social activities
• Changes in mood and personality
5. Cause of Alzheimer’s
• The cause of Alzheimer’s is still unknown, however there are certain risk
factors that may influence whether someone gets it or does not.
• These risk factors include
• Aging- people do not develop Alzheimer’s in their early 20’s or teenage
years. It has been established that aging decreases the human bodies self
• Genetics- Although you may inherit the genes for Alzheimer's, that does not
guarantee you will develop it.
• Other Factors- Research is being done on other factors such as existing
diseases or conditions that the person may have, infections, toxins in the
environment, education level, alcohol and tobacco use, diet and exercise
• An estimated 500,000 Canadians have
Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia.
Over 70,000 of them are under 65 and
approximately 50,000 are under the age of 60
7. Treatment Options
• Many medications are available to treat Alzheimer's but
there is no cure.
• For mild to moderate cases of Alzheimer's some drugs
to be taken are Aricept, Exelon, and Reminyl.
• For more severe cases, a doctor may prescribe Ebixon.
• The best way to lower your risk of developing
Alzheimer’s is by being proactive, doing things
• Exercising regularly
• Keeping the brain active in old age
• Managing stress and depression
• eating a well balanced diet, low in cholesterol
9. Case Study
• A prospective analysis of risk factors for Alzheimerʼs disease was a major objective
of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a nationwide, population-based study.
Of 6,434 eligible subjects aged 65 years or older in 1991, 4,615 were alive in 1996
and participated in the follow-up study. All participants were cognitively normal in
1991 when they completed a risk factor questionnaire. Their cognitive status was
reassessed 5 years later by using a similar two-phase procedure, including a
screening interview, followed by a clinical examination when indicated. The analysis
included 194 Alzheimerʼs disease cases and 3,894 cognitively normal controls.
Increasing age, fewer years of education, and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele were
significantly associated with increased risk of Alzheimerʼs disease. Use of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wine consumption, coffee consumption, and
regular physical activity were associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimerʼs disease.
No statistically significant association was found for family history of dementia, sex,
history of depression, estrogen replacement therapy, head trauma, antiperspirant or
antacid use, smoking, high blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke. The protective
associations warrant further study. In particular, regular physical activity could be an
important component of a preventive strategy against Alzheimerʼs disease and many