Cardiac and circulatory adaptation to exercise.pptx
2. LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS
I. EYOB KASEYA ……………………….
II. GETAHUN …………………………….
3. CONTENTS TO DISCUSS
1. The cardiovascular system and exercise
2. Functions of the cardiovascular system
3. Aerobic physical activity and cardiac
4. List of cardiovascular exercises
5. Long term effects of exercise on the
5. The Cardiovascular System and
• The heart is a muscle that is required to
contract continuously throughout the life
to deliver oxygen to all organs in the body
and breathe out carbon dioxide
• Blood vessels connect the heart and lungs
so that carbon dioxide can be removed
from the blood and oxygen can be added to
• The heart then pumps this blood
throughout the body.
6. • Exercise places an increased demand on the
cardiovascular system to pump more oxygen
to supply the working muscle to produce
energy (aerobic oxidation).
• Oxygen demand by the muscles increases,
more nutrients are needed and more waste
7. The human heart
3D ANIMATION OF WORKING OF
Human Anatomy - Heart circulatory
system How the Heart Works
8. Functions of The Cardiovascular
System during exercise
The cardiovascular system serves five
important functions during exercise:
• 1- Delivers oxygen to working muscles
2Deoxygenates blood by returning it to the
3Transports heat from the center to the skin
4- Delivers nutrients and fuel to active
tissues 5- Transports hormones
9. AEROBIC PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
• activity in which the body’s
large muscles move in a
rhythmic manner for a
sustained period of time.
• Aerobic activity, also called
fitness. Brisk walking,
running, swimming, and
bicycling are examples
10. that requires some increase in
breathing and/or heart rate and expends 3.5
to 7 kcalories per minute. Walking at a speed
of 3 to 4.5 miles per hour (about 15 to 20
minutes to walk one mile) is an example.
moderate-intensity physical activity:
11. • vigorous-intensity physical activity: physical
activity that requires a large increase in
breathing and/or heart rate and expends
more than 7 kcalories per minute.
• Walking at a very brisk pace (>4.5 miles per
hour) or running at a pace of at least 5
miles per hour are examples.
12. List of Cardiovascular
• Swimming -- Swimming is an
excellent cardiovascular/muscular defining exercise.
• Football American football is america's most popular sport and
involves high intensity exercise for usually around 30 seconds
• Golf Golf is the most popular sport for people over the age of 40
and is growing rapidly.
• Boxing This is definitely one of the most intense cardiovascular
exercises known to man.
• Aerobics Aerobics is the most popular aerobic exercises performed
mostly by women.
13. • Hockey Hockey is a great sport
that can be played by just about
anyone at any age.
• Skiing Skiing is an incredible
cardiovascular workout that is usually
around 5-10 minutes
• Squash Squash is a great anaerobic
exercise that can be played by all ages
• Stepper This exercise was made popular by
the popular myth of spot reducing Rowing
14. •Treadmill This is the most popular cardiovascular
exercise. Due to the impact on the knees and
• Running or Jogging Jogging is probably one of the most popular
exercises in the world
• Biking or Cycling Biking or cycling is a tremendous cardiovascular
workout and requires very little equipment which most people have
• Walking While intense walking is a good aerobic exercise it is
probably more used as a weight loss tool than it should be.
15. • Recumbent Bike This exercise is very popular
for people who do not want to jog and run.
• Elliptical or Cross Trainer
This is the newest in cardiovascular
16. • Housework or Cleaning While
most people wouldn't call this a
cardiovascular exercise, it
certainly is one.
• Dancing Dancing is an
excellent cardio workout that
can be done by anyone at any
17. Long Term Effects of Exercise on the
What is the
In pairs list what aspects of the
cardiovascular system may change
as a result of regular long term
In fours, compare results and see if
you can add to your original list.
1. Cardiac hypertrophy
2. Increased SV
3. Increased CO
4. Decreased resting HR
6. Increase in blood volume
7. Reduction in resting BP
8. Decreased recovery time
9. Increased aerobic fitness
The heart increases in its size
and blood volume.
The wall of the left ventricle
to increase the strength
potential of its contractionsIn
sedentary, middle aged
individuals it may be as high
as 100 beats/min.
rate (HR) 60-
80 beats / min
28 – 40 bpm
20. CV system cont...
Increase in Stroke
SV = The amount of blood that
can be pumped by the heart
This means the heart can now
pump more blood per minute.
Why is this beneficial?
Increased blood flow allows for
faster and more efficient
delivery oxygen and nutrients
In untrained individuals
stroke volume at rest it
increasing up to 110-
130ml/beat beat during
intense, physical activity.
In elite athletes resting
stroke volume averages
to as much as 150-
21. CV system cont...
SV X HR= CO
As SV and HR increase
during exercise CO wil
In a trained heart both SV
and HRhave increased
SV does increase to a
point –however the
significant increases in
CO are caused by a
Untrained REST MAXEXERCISE
SV 60ml/beat 120ml/beat
X X X
HR 70 beats/min 130 beats/ min
= = =
Elite REST MAXEXERCISE
SV 100ml/beat 200ml/beat
X X X
HR 40 beats/ min 180 beats/ min
= = =
CO 4800ml/min 36000ml/min
22. CV system cont...
With regular training your
resting HR falls.
Also your HR returns to
normal quicker after
How could you measure
over your 6 week
increase to your cardiac
and skeletal muscle.
This improves blood
supply to the active
muscles and improves
the muscles’ efficiency
23. CV system cont...
Increase in Blood
Your blood volume is the
amount of blood
circulating in your body
It increases as an
adaptation to regular
It increases as a result
What are the 2 measurements
Research shows that the quicker
your BP returns to normal the
fitter you are.
How could you measure this?
Regular exercise can contribute to
24. CV system cont... Decreased
• HR recovery is a
measure of how much
your HR falls the first
minute after exercise.
• Fit people can recover
• The CV system has adapted and
become more efficient through the
demands of regular exercise
• Increased Aerobic
• This occurs as a result of
what kind of training?
• Aerobic training e.g.?
• Aerobic fitness refers to
endurance, or the ability to
sustain work for prolonged
• How can you measure an
improvement in aerobic
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