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Philosophy & It's branches

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Branches of philosophy
Branches of philosophy
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Philosophy & It's branches

  1. 1. PHILOSOPHY AND IT’S BRANCHES MS.KALPANA SINGH DEV SANGHA INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
  2. 2. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY ? • Philosophy (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, ‘love of wisdom’ is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. • philosophy is referred to as a body of views resulting from systematic reflection on what are considered to be the most fundamental questions of life. The question include those of reality ,truth and value .however with the development of philosophic thought in modern times philosophy is now looked upon more as an intellectual activity of analysis, clarification and criticism of beliefs and ideas .
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF PHILOSOPHY • According to Plato: philosophy aims at knowledge of external nature of things. • According to Fitche: philosophy is the science of knowledge. • Philosophy is the mother of all sciences and arts . • philosophy is an activity of thought. • It is a particular unique type of thought or style of thinking.
  4. 4. WHO IS A PHILOSOPHICALLY MINDED PERSON before we attempt to understand what philosophy is and what it does it may be interesting to probe into what continuous philosophique minded characteristics of philosophy minded person related to three dimensions of his her thought process : • comprehensiveness , • penetration and • flexibility All these three dimensions are, of course, interrelated.
  5. 5. THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY Traditionally, philosophy has been dealing with three kinds of basic problems and logic is its principle vehicle or tool of investigation .these problems are The problems of reality , knowledge and value. the problem of reality is :what is the nature Of the universe in which we live?or,the ultimate Analysis,what is real? The Branch of philosophy dealing with this problem is called metaphysics .it is specifically deals with question related to the world around us (cosmology )and those related to the nature ‘Being' and ‘self ‘(‘ontology’).
  6. 6. CONTINUE The problem of knowledge is :how do we know what is real ?how do we get this knowledge and how can we Sure it is true ?the area of philosophy dealing with this problem is called epistemology. The third problem the problem of value is what is meant by value and what are the important values desired in our lives this value rooted in reality how can be the can be realised in our experience the branch of philosophy dealing with such question is called axiology.
  7. 7. KINDS/BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY • Metaphysics: it deals with the nature of reality. (what is reality? what is soul?) • Theology presence of God • Ontology :deals with ultimate reality. • Cosmology : it is the study of the problems connected with origin and imposition. • Cosmogony : it is theory concerning the origin and development of the universe the creation of the world. • Philosophy of self :who am I ? • Eschotology: last aur final matters death and the life after death
  8. 8. CONTINUE •Epistemology: deals with the theory of problems of knowledge.question such as, how do we get the knowledge ? What is sources of knowledge ? Methods of knowledge, limits of knowledge, validity of knowledge. •Axiology: higher value of life, principle of life(Truth Beauty and Goodness) • Logic: techniques of reasoning. • Ethics: moral philosophy • Aesthetics : Beauty Analysis (beauty and ugliness)
  9. 9. METAPHYSICS • metaphysics is the domain of philosophy that deals with the question what is real one expect of this theory is reality is to understand the character of the physical universe the branch of physics as to the organisation and orderly arrangement of the various parts of the universe other consideration include in cosmology are the nature of time and space and factors of casualty. Time : Immanual Kant regarded Time as a kind of patternor form according to which our minds operate .this is to say that time is external and independent of Us.it is a way in which human mind relates to rest of the world .to be an individual involves experiencing the universe in a sequence of parts, one at a time, gradually accumulating these experiences .
  10. 10. CONTINUE Space : similar Are the pattern involved in the consideration of the character of space. Space s also seen as an external physical reality as indispensable as Rock as treeS. according to them individual experience is being fractional ,involve a kind of relation to the whole of the universe which we Describe in common sense parlance as being surrounded on all sides buy an apparently endless expense of space.
  11. 11. CASUALTY • It is an important aspect of cosmological picture .most of us at one time or another ask the question:just how did the world come to being ? Answer to search a question are various. • One of the most important answer is theo theological .according to It god is the efficient couse -the first couse and creator who made the physical world .there is such order and design evident in the universe that the only adequate explanation of its coUse i that there is a God who created it .the classical argument to prove the existence of god is called the cosmological argument. • another answer proposed the theory of evolution. the theory of evolution of the explanation that the world in its present form ivolved throug long ages to process and change.
  12. 12. HUMAN BEING • Another aspect of metaphysics is the study of human beings. when sokrates began to teach he created a revolution by his instance that a human being’s own study was the him/ herSelf was the most direct route of reality “know thyself “ was the catch phrase he /she adopted to highlight what he /she held to be the true starting point In one’s metaphysical investigation. • human being is an important object of study in metaphysics because human beings have the unique position of being subject as well as object. • Among the many questions human being can ask him/ her self ,one, which is most significant is :what am I ? just a body of physical organism ?a machine ?or I am a soul spirit Or a mind? or am I both a soul and a body ? “there are Varous answer given to this and related question was determined ones metaphysics
  13. 13. CONTINUE • there is another consideration concerning human beings which has metaphysical connection ,the question of his freedom is he/she free ? does he /she have free will ?or is he she simply a cog in the machinery of the cosmos where every act in which he engages is determined for him by forces over which he/she has no controL ? • A third Concern which may seem to be ethical But is metaphysical, at least in part, is the moral status of human beings ? is he /sHe moral by nature or is he /sHe Non- moral species non -moral universe in which morality has nothing to do existence.
  14. 14. GOD • then there are metaphysical queries in philosophy relating to the existence and name of god there are many who believed in God but there are others who do not for those who believe in god it is important to understand something of nature of God as will as his existence it is comparatively simply to show yes I believe in god it is quite another matter however to say what God there is a wide range of attempted answer to the problem of God’s existence and nature first there is a place which holds that body is and that he or she is the source sum total of all existence according to earth easm however there is no god no ultimate reality in or behind the cosmos.
  15. 15. EXISTENCE • Another very important consideration in metaphysics is :what do we mean by existence ? existence is the cause of all other consideration. The branch of metaphysics dealing with the meaning of existence or entities is termed ontology. The task of ontologyis to determine what we mean when we say that something is. exactly what does The infinite “to be mean what? is it to exist?
  16. 16. EPISTEMOLOGY Epistemology,the second important branch of philosophy, deals with the question of knowledge. • A) one aspect of knowledge is the possibility or impossibly of it. • B) A second aspect of the knowing experience is the instrument of source of knowledge. • C)the third aspect of knowledge relates to directness or indirectness in the knowing process.
  17. 17. CONTINU E • D) Essentially theP roblem of knowledge centres around the role of sense perceptual experience and reason which are held to be two primary instrumens of knowledge. The Crux of the epistimilogical situation is : what is it that happens when our sense organs are stimulated ,when qualities arises in conciseness and are identified as colourS, particular objects ,sounds ,texturS wArmth –cold feeliings etc.?
  18. 18. AXIOLOGY • Third domain of philosophy is aXiology or the theory of values .there are ,of course, different types of values and different theories of valueS. Yet those receiving attention from philosophers are the ethical ,aesthetic, religious and social values. Other values are the intellectual ,economic ,political, educational recreational and health values.
  19. 19. CONTINUE • Ethical values : The study of laws or standard regarding moral Beliefs and conduct. • Aesthetic values : Enjoy things of beauty without knowing what beauty is ? • Religious values : Religious values are likely to be
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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