PHILOSOPHY AND IT’S
DEV SANGHA INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL
STUDIES AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY ?
• Philosophy (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, ‘love of wisdom’ is the study
of general and fundamental questions about
existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
• philosophy is referred to as a body of views resulting from systematic
reflection on what are considered to be the most fundamental questions
of life. The question include those of reality ,truth and value .however
with the development of philosophic thought in modern times
philosophy is now looked upon more as an intellectual activity of
analysis, clarification and criticism of beliefs and ideas .
DEFINITIONS OF PHILOSOPHY
• According to Plato: philosophy aims at knowledge of
external nature of things.
• According to Fitche: philosophy is the science of
• Philosophy is the mother of all sciences and arts .
• philosophy is an activity of thought.
• It is a particular unique type of thought or style of
WHO IS A PHILOSOPHICALLY MINDED
before we attempt to understand what philosophy is and what it does it
may be interesting to probe into what continuous philosophique minded
characteristics of philosophy minded person related to three dimensions
of his her thought process :
• comprehensiveness ,
• penetration and
All these three dimensions are, of course, interrelated.
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
Traditionally, philosophy has been dealing with three kinds of basic problems and logic
is its principle vehicle or tool of investigation .these problems are
The problems of reality , knowledge and value.
the problem of reality is :what is the nature Of the universe in which we live?or,the
ultimate Analysis,what is real? The Branch of philosophy dealing with this problem is
called metaphysics .it is specifically deals with question related to the world around us
(cosmology )and those related to the nature ‘Being' and ‘self ‘(‘ontology’).
The problem of knowledge is :how do we know what is real ?how do we get this
knowledge and how can we Sure it is true ?the area of philosophy dealing with
this problem is called epistemology.
The third problem the problem of value is what is meant by value and what are
the important values desired in our lives this value rooted in reality how can be
the can be realised in our experience the branch of philosophy dealing with such
question is called axiology.
KINDS/BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
• Metaphysics: it deals with the nature of reality. (what is reality? what
• Theology presence of God
• Ontology :deals with ultimate reality.
• Cosmology : it is the study of the problems connected with origin and
• Cosmogony : it is theory concerning the origin and development of the
universe the creation of the world.
• Philosophy of self :who am I ?
• Eschotology: last aur final matters death and the life after death
•Epistemology: deals with the theory of problems of
knowledge.question such as, how do we get the
knowledge ? What is sources of knowledge ? Methods of
knowledge, limits of knowledge, validity of knowledge.
•Axiology: higher value of life, principle of life(Truth
Beauty and Goodness)
• Logic: techniques of reasoning.
• Ethics: moral philosophy
• Aesthetics : Beauty Analysis (beauty and ugliness)
• metaphysics is the domain of philosophy that deals with the question what is
real one expect of this theory is reality is to understand the character of the
physical universe the branch of physics as to the organisation and orderly
arrangement of the various parts of the universe other consideration include in
cosmology are the nature of time and space and factors of casualty.
Time : Immanual Kant regarded Time as a kind of patternor form according to
which our minds operate .this is to say that time is external and independent of
Us.it is a way in which human mind relates to rest of the world .to be an
individual involves experiencing the universe in a sequence of parts, one at a
time, gradually accumulating these experiences .
Space : similar Are the pattern involved in the consideration of the
character of space. Space s also seen as an external physical reality
as indispensable as Rock as treeS. according to them individual
experience is being fractional ,involve a kind of relation to the
whole of the universe which we Describe in common sense parlance
as being surrounded on all sides buy an apparently endless expense
• It is an important aspect of cosmological picture .most of us at one
time or another ask the question:just how did the world come to
being ? Answer to search a question are various.
• One of the most important answer is theo theological .according to
It god is the efficient couse -the first couse and creator who made
the physical world .there is such order and design evident in the
universe that the only adequate explanation of its coUse i that
there is a God who created it .the classical argument to prove the
existence of god is called the cosmological argument.
• another answer proposed the theory of evolution. the theory of
evolution of the explanation that the world in its present form
ivolved throug long ages to process and change.
• Another aspect of metaphysics is the study of human beings. when sokrates
began to teach he created a revolution by his instance that a human being’s
own study was the him/ herSelf was the most direct route of reality “know
thyself “ was the catch phrase he /she adopted to highlight what he /she held to
be the true starting point In one’s metaphysical investigation.
• human being is an important object of study in metaphysics because human
beings have the unique position of being subject as well as object.
• Among the many questions human being can ask him/ her self ,one, which is
most significant is :what am I ? just a body of physical organism ?a machine ?or
I am a soul spirit Or a mind? or am I both a soul and a body ? “there are Varous
answer given to this and related question was determined ones metaphysics
• there is another consideration concerning human beings which
has metaphysical connection ,the question of his freedom is
he/she free ? does he /she have free will ?or is he she simply a cog
in the machinery of the cosmos where every act in which he
engages is determined for him by forces over which he/she has no
• A third Concern which may seem to be ethical But is metaphysical,
at least in part, is the moral status of human beings ? is he /sHe
moral by nature or is he /sHe Non- moral species non -moral
universe in which morality has nothing to do existence.
• then there are metaphysical queries in philosophy relating to the
existence and name of god there are many who believed in God but
there are others who do not for those who believe in god it is important
to understand something of nature of God as will as his existence it is
comparatively simply to show yes I believe in god it is quite another
matter however to say what God there is a wide range of attempted
answer to the problem of God’s existence and nature first there is a
place which holds that body is and that he or she is the source sum total
of all existence according to earth easm however there is no god no
ultimate reality in or behind the cosmos.
• Another very important consideration in metaphysics is :what do
we mean by existence ? existence is the cause of all other
consideration. The branch of metaphysics dealing with the
meaning of existence or entities is termed ontology. The task of
ontologyis to determine what we mean when we say that
something is. exactly what does The infinite “to be mean what? is
it to exist?
Epistemology,the second important branch of philosophy, deals
with the question of knowledge.
• A) one aspect of knowledge is the possibility or impossibly of it.
• B) A second aspect of the knowing experience is the instrument of
source of knowledge.
• C)the third aspect of knowledge relates to directness or
indirectness in the knowing process.
• D) Essentially theP roblem of knowledge centres around the role of sense
perceptual experience and reason which are held to be two primary
instrumens of knowledge. The Crux of the epistimilogical situation is : what is
it that happens when our sense organs are stimulated ,when qualities arises in
conciseness and are identified as colourS, particular objects ,sounds ,texturS
wArmth –cold feeliings etc.?
• Third domain of philosophy is aXiology or the theory of
values .there are ,of course, different types of values and
different theories of valueS. Yet those receiving attention
from philosophers are the ethical ,aesthetic, religious
and social values. Other values are the intellectual
,economic ,political, educational recreational and health
• Ethical values : The study of laws or standard regarding moral
Beliefs and conduct.
• Aesthetic values : Enjoy things of beauty without knowing what
beauty is ?
• Religious values : Religious values are likely to be
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