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GM NTU W4 & 5.pptx

  1. DR. SHAGUFTA RIAZ Introduction to Garment Manufacturing (TE- 2114) Marker Making and Spreading
  2. CONTENTS  Fabric receiving and issuance to cutting department  Process flow of cutting department  Marker making, dimensions of a marker, marker efficiency, marker quality, methods of marker making  Lay planning, types of lay plan  Cutting
  3. FABRIC ISSUANCE FOR CUTTING 1. Fabric receiving at store 2. Internal quality check 3. Cut order planning 4. Fabric issuance for cutting
  4. PROCESS FLOW OF CUTTING DEPARTMENT Off loading & bundling Cutting Marker Making & Spreading or Lay Planning Cut order Planning Fabric Issuance
  5. SPREADINGA AND CUTTING 5 Spreading and cutting Planning Marker Spread Production Spreading Manual Automatic Cutting Manual Automatic Preparation for Sewing Ticketing Bundling
  6. SPREADING AND CUTTING Cut Order Planning Why?  It translates customer orders into cutting orders.  Minimize total production costs.  Meet deadlines.  To seek most effective use of labor, equipment, fabric and space. 6
  7. SPREADING AND CUTTING Responsibilities of Cut Order Planning  Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability.  Determining volume, size ratios, and sectioning procedures for marker making.  Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed. 7
  8. SPREADING AND CUTTING Responsibilities of Cut Order Planning  Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization.  Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel.  Issuing orders for marker making, spreading and cutting. 8
  9. SPREADING AND CUTTING 9 Cutting Orders lead to Marker Planning Lay Planning
  10. MARKER PLANNING Marker: A marker is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for sizes of a specific style that are to be cut from a one spread. 10
  12. MARKER PLANNING Marker Making: Marker making is the process of determining a most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a style, fabric and distribution of sizes (source: Apparel Manufacturing, Factories those don't have CAD system perform this process manually. 12
  13. MARKER PLANNING There are two different methods of marker making followed in apparel industry. Those are- a)Manual method b)Computerized method 13
  14. MARKER PLANNING Manual method can be done by two ways: – Marker planning with full size pattern • According to the standard measurement, all the patterns are in full dimension. • At first, all the hard patterns are placed on the paper • The patterns are marked by turning various directions to reduce the fabric usages. 14
  15. MARKER PLANNING Planimeter is used here to measure covered area of pattern lies in the marker. “The marker efficiency is determined by calculating marker area and fabric area.” 15
  16. MARKER PLANNING Computerized method can be performed by two ways: Automatic marker making • It is the most efficient marker making system. • The computer makes the marker itself according the command given to computer. • Small pattern pieces are displayed in computer screen but full size in computer memory. • Though marker making is time consuming method but modern automatic marker making system overcome that problem of time and needs only two minutes to make a marker. 16
  17. MARKER PLANNING Interactive method • The operator plans markers by connecting directly with the system through a computer screen. • All the pattern pieces are displayed at the top of the screen in the miniature form. • Those are dragged and draped to the pre- determined place by data pen or tablet. • It is less efficient, and less time required than automatic marker making system. . 17
  18. MARKER PLANNING Markers are made to fit specific width. They could be produced as: Blocked or sectioned markers Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes. • Stepped spread 18
  19. MARKER PLANNING 19 Blocked or sectioned markers
  20. MARKER PLANNING 20 Blocked or sectioned markers
  21. MARKER PLANNING Continuous markers Continuous markers contain all the pattern pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting. 21
  22. MARKER PLANNING Splice marks Cutting the fabric across its width to overlap layers in between the ends of the lay. It can be used for different reasons: 1. To accommodate for fabric defects. 2. When the fabric roll being spread ends in the middle of the marker. 3. When there is a change in the size, i.e. the pattern pieces of each size have not been mixed in the marker (e.g. on step markers). 22
  23. MARKER PLANNING Splice marks 23
  24. MARKER PLANNING Splice marks 24
  25. MARKER PLANNING 25 Straight splices Interlock splices
  26. MARKER EFFICIENCY  Types of markers Open marker Marker made with full pattern pieces. Closed marker Marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit). 26
  27. MARKER EFFICIENCY  Marker efficiency is defined as a ratio of area of marker used in a garment and area of total marker.  Secondly, Marker efficiency is determined from fabric utilization, the percentage of total fabric that is actually used in garment parts. Marker efficiency% = (Area of marker used for garments / Area of total marker) * 100 27
  28. MARKER EFFICIENCY If CAD or Planimeter are not available, then:  Calculate ratio of weight of fabric consumed by pattern pieces and total weight fabric under total marker area. So, a separate formula is used to find marker efficiency Marker efficiency% = (Weight of fabric consumed by patterns pieces in a marker / Total weight of fabric of under the marker area)*100 28
  29. FACTORS AFFECTING MARKER EFFICIENCY  Marker planner  Size of garment (more number of sizes higher efficiency)  Marker Length  Pattern Engineering  Fabric characteristics (Symmetric or Asymmetric, check or stripes)  Marker making methods 29
  30. FACTORS AFFECTING MARKER EFFICIENCY  Marker width  Style of garment (mixture of large and small components) 30
  31. KEY POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MARKER MAKING • During marker making it should be followed that fabric width must be higher than marker width (At least ½ inch). • Fabric length must be higher than marker length (At least one inch). • Marker width should be taken according to the fabric width and fabric spreading must be done by taking the guideline from the marker length. • During marker making, length of fabric cutting table should be considered. 31
  32. KEY POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MARKER MAKING • All the pattern pieces of a garment should be along the same direction when laid down on an asymmetric fabric. • Plan for garments production should also be considered during marker making. • During marker making, marker should be started with the large pattern pieces. Then fits the smaller pieces in the gap of larger pieces. In this way, fabric wastage is minimized and marker efficiency is also increased. 32
  33. KEY POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MARKER MAKING • In the last step of marker making, all the patterns are shuffled in various directions to reduce the marker length. It also helps to increase the marker efficiency 33
  34. LAY & LAY PLANNING Lay A stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting. Spreading  Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process.  Spread or lay is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker.
  35. SPREADING/LAYING Lay planning  Basis of managing cutting room labor and table space.  Spreading and cutting schedules are affected by table length, type of equipment, spreading length, spreading time and cutting time. 35
  36. SPREADING/LAYING Requirements of spreading Shade sorting of cloth pieces Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability Alignment of plies Correct ply tension Elimination of fabric faults 36
  37. SPREADING/LAYING Spreading equipment • Spreading surfaces ( table, pin table, vacuum table. • Spreading machines. 37
  38. SPREADING/LAYING Manual spreading • In manual spreading, fabric is drawn from its package which, if it is a roll, may be supported by a frame and carried along the table where the end is secured by weights or by clamps. • The operators work back from the end, aligning the edges and ensuring that there is no tension and that there are no wrinkles 38
  39. SPREADING/LAYING Manual spreading 39
  40. SPREADING/LAYING Automatic spreading  Spreading machines carry the piece of fabric from end to end of the spread, dispensing one ply at a time on the spread.  Spreading machines may include: • A motor to drive • A ply cutting device with automatic catcher to hold the ends of ply in place 40
  41. SPREADING/LAYING • A ply counter • An alignment shifter actuated by photo electric edge guides • A turntable • A direct drive on the fabric support, synchronized with the speed of travel, to reduce or eliminate tension in the fabric being spread. 41
  42. SPREADING/LAYING Types of Lay Plan The types of marker or lay plan being used in the industry are of the following type:  Half Garment Lay  Whole Garment Lay  Single Size Lay  Multi-Size Lay • Sectional Lay • Interlocking Lay • Mixed Multi-Size Lay
  43. SPREADING/LAYING Half Garment Lay This includes only half of the garment pieces (e.g. the right side of the garment). They are used for folded or tubular fabrics and for fabrics which are spread face to face.
  44. SPREADING/LAYING Whole Garment Lay All of the garment pieces, left and right sides, are included in the lay. This type of lay is used for open width fabrics.
  45. SPREADING/LAYING Single Size Lay The lay includes all of the pieces for a single size. Restricting the lay to a single size makes order planning and laying up the fabric easier, but the disadvantage is a somewhat higher material consumption, compared to multi-size lays.
  46. SPREADING/LAYING Multi-Size Lay Sectional Lay The lay is made in at least two distinct rectangular sections. Each section contains all of the parts of a single size. Adjacent sections may be the same or a different size.
  47. SPREADING/LAYING Multi-Size Lay Interlocking Lay Two or more sections, one after the other, usually different sizes, but the sections are not confined to strict rectangular areas; the pieces for the different sections may merge at the borders.
  48. TYPES OF LAY PLAN Multi-Size Lay Mixed Multi-Size Lay In this case there are no distinct sections; the pieces for the two or more different garment sizes are intermingled. This is the arrangement which normally gives the best material utilization.
  49. SPREADING MODES 49 Spreading Modes Nap one way & Face one way Nap either way & F/F Nap one way & F/F Nap either way & Face one way
  50. SPREADING MODES 50 Face one way Face one way Nap either way
  51. CUTTING  To make a complete garments, cutting is necessary.  Cutting means to out the garments pieces from lays of the fabric with the help of templates(markers).  Generally the marker is applied (drawn, traced, sprayed, clipped, pinned) to the top ply of a lay. 51
  52. CUTTING Objective of Cutting The objectives of cutting is to separate fabric parts from the spread of the lay according to the dimension of the marker for the purpose of garments making according to the pattern pieces. 52
  53. CUTTING Cutting requirements In order to achieve these objectives, certain requirements must be fulfilled  Precision (Exactness) of cut.  Clean edges.  Un fused edges.  Support of the lay.  Consistent cutting. 53
  54. CUTTING Factors involved in Cutting Fabrics Factors affect the cutting process for fabrics are as follows:- • Nature of fabric (grainline shade, twill etc.) • The thickness of fabric. • Design characteristics of a finished garment. • Machines and tables used. 54
  55. CUTTING 55 Hand Sheer Straight Knife Round knife Band knife Notcher Drill Die Cutting
  56. CUTTING TECHNIQUES Three cutting technique 1. Completely by manual-Hand operated scissors. 2. Manually operated powered knife.  Straight knife.  Band knife.  Round knife.  Die cutter.  Notcher cutter.  Drill. 56
  57. CUTTING TECHNIQUES 3. Computerized technique  Knife cutting.  Cutting by water jet.  Laser cutting.  Plasma torch cutting. 57
  59. PORTABLE STRAIGHT KNIFE CUTTER Advantages of straight knife  Comparatively cheap & and can be cut many plies at a time.  Higher lay of height can be cut very easily.  Round corners can be cut more precisely than even round knife.  Production speed is very good. 59
  60. PORTABLE STRAIGHT KNIFE CUTTER  Garments components can be directly separated from fabric lay.  Fabric can be cut from any angle. Disadvantages of straight knife  Sometimes deflecting occur due to the weight of the motor.  Knife deflection is high in risk, when any height is to high.  Sometimes accident may happen. 60
  61. ROUND KNIFE CUTTING Advantages of Round Knife cutting  Suitable for cutting single ply as well as multilayer also (say 20-30 layers).  Suitable for small scale cutting.  Easy to operate.  Suitable to cut the larger parts of garments. 61
  62. ROUND KNIFE CUTTING Disadvantages of Round Knife cutting  Not suitable for curved lines because, the blade does not strike all the plies simultaneously at the same point.  Round knife is used only for straight lines as lower lay of relatively few plies.  Not suitable for large production.  Difficult to cut small components. 62
  63. BAND KNIFE CUTTING Band Knife cutting 63
  64. BAND KNIFE CUTTING Advantages of Band Knife cutting  Straight and accurate cutting from the first layer to the bottom layer  Air blowing table provides air cushion for material easy movement  Equipped with knife sharpening device, sharpening underneath table no metal pieces on table surface  High accuracy and vertical cutting finish  Adjustable knife running speed  Special bearing guide design to keep knife moving in same position 64
  65. BAND KNIFE CUTTING Disadvantages of Band Knife cutting  Fabric wastage is high.  Work load high.  Running cost is high.  Require fix space. 65
  67. AUTOMATIC BLADE CUTTING Advantages of Automatic blade cutting  Flexible software control of cut speed and knife-speed to increase throughput, thus high speed cutting.  Machines can be used for different types of fabric.  State-of-the-art embedded digital motion  Fully network-compatible  Easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI)  Sophisticated cut data file handling  Modified notch and cutter parameter 67
  68. AUTOMATIC BLADE CUTTING Advantages of Automatic blade cutting  Fabric can be cut very rapidly.  Fabric can be cut very accurately.  The speed of fabric cutting can be controlled.  The cutting knife can be moved and operated in any directions.  Suitable for production on a large scale.  Can be attached to computer controlled marker making.  The fabric lay is compressed which helps cutting of the fabric. 68
  69. AUTOMATIC BLADE CUTTING Advantages of Automatic blade cutting  During cutting of fabric, the fault are comparatively lower than the other methods.  The possibility of blade deflection is less.  There is arrangement for sharpening of the blade.  The possibility of accident is less.  Marker is not required for cutting of the fabric.  Labor cost is less.  Fabric can be cut 6 to 8 times faster than the manual methods. 69
  70. AUTOMATIC BLADE CUTTING Disadvantages of Automatic blade cutting  The initial capital investment is high.  The maintenance cost is high. 70
  71. WATER JET CUTTING Advantages of Water Jet cutting  In waterjet cutting, there is no heat generated.  This is especially useful for cutting tool steel and other metals where excessive heat may change the properties of the material.  Unlike machining or grinding, waterjet cutting does not produce any dust or particles that are harmful if inhaled.  The kerf width in waterjet cutting is very small, and very little material is wasted. 71
  72. WATER JET CUTTING Disadvantages of Water Jet cutting  A limited number of materials can be cut economically  The time to cut a part can be very long. Because of this, water jet cutting can be very costly and outweigh the advantages.  Very thick parts can not be cut with water jet cutting and still hold dimensional accuracy.  Inconvenient for cutting of fabric lay of more height.  The cutting end of the fabric gets wet. 72
  73. LASER CUTTING Advantages of Laser Cutting  In a very high speed, that means 13 meters can be cut per minute.  As the cutting head is controlled by the computer, cutting can be made along the correct line.  Reduced contamination of workpiece.  As the fabric is cut by light ray, sharpening of the cutter is not required. 73
  74. LASER CUTTING Disdvantages of Laser Cutting  The fabric lay of multi-layer cannot be cut properly.  In case of synthetic fabrics, the cutting end may be fused.  The main disadvantage of laser cutting is the high power consumption.  Expensive method. 74
  75. PLASMA TORCH CUTTING  In this method fabric is cut by very fine flame caused by flowing the argon gas though nozzle.  Fabric can be cut in one or more layers. But it is suitable for cutting single ply fabric.  The table on which the fabric is cut, its surface should have 85% holes.  Still research regarding this method is going on. 75
  76. CUTTING Cutting Quality and Accuracy Factors that cause cutting inaccuracies are: • Wide or Vague lines on the marker . • Imprecise following of lines on the marker. • Variation in the cutting pitch (the angle at which cutter cuts the fabric and contact with fabric). • Shifting of the spread or block. • Allowing fabric to bunch up or push ahead of the knife. • Using improper equipment. • Using improper cutting sequence as parts are cut. • Condition of cut edges. 76
  77. QUIZ 1 (WEAVING) Q.1 If you are asked to do SWOT analysis of apparel industry, what could be Strength, weakness, opportunity and threat, write one for all? (2) Q.2 Draw a flow chart showing the process of garment manufacturing (2) Q.3 What is size range known for babies born prematurely?(1 ) Q.4 How many types of apparel manufacturing exist in industry? How each is beneficial? Explain briefly. (3) 77
  78. QUIZ 1 (YARN MANUFACTURING) Q.1 What would be your considerations when you go to buy a garment? (1) Q.2 Draw a flow chart showing the process of garment manufacturing (3) Q.3 How many types of measurements are for developing a garment? (2) Q.4 How many types of apparel manufacturing exist in industry? How each is beneficial? Explain briefly. (2) 78
  79. Thank You!
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