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Corporate governance

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concept and international developement

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Corporate governance

  1. 1. Presented By :- Kanchan Bawa
  2. 2.  Introduction  Definition  Why Corporate Governance  Importance of good governance  Corporate Governance of an Organization  Pillars of Corporate Governance  Principles of Corporate Governance  Corporate Governance in India  International Initiatives on Corporate Governance
  3. 3.  International Scenario  Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes  Conclusion
  4. 4. Corporate Governance is the process and structure used to direct and manage the business and affairs of the company towards enhancing business prosperity and corporate accountability with the ultimate objective of realizing long-term shareholder value, and taking into account the interest of other stakeholders.
  5. 5. “Good governance is not simply about corporate excellence. It is the key to economic and social transformation. The corporation of today are no longer sheer economic entities. These are the engines of economic and social transformation.” -Dr Madhav Mehra, President of World Council For Corporate Governance
  6. 6.  Better access to external finance  Lower costs of capital – interest rates on loans  Improved company performance – sustainability  Higher firm valuation and share performance  Reduced risk of corporate crisis and scandals
  7. 7. If a country does not have a reputation for strong corporate governance practices, capital will flow elsewhere. If investors are not confident with the level of disclosure, capital will flow elsewhere. If a country opts for tax accounting and reporting standards, capital will flow elsewhere. All enterprises in that country – regardless of how steadfast a particular company’s practices may be – suffer the consequences.
  8. 8.  Relationships among various participants in determining the direction and performance of a corporation.  Effective management of relationships among – Shareholders – Managers – Board of directors – employees – Customers – Creditors – Suppliers – community
  9. 9. Accountabili ty Fundamental Pillars of Corporate Governance Corporate Governance Transparenc y Responsibilit y Fairness Source: Malaysian Institute of Corporate Governance
  10. 10. Accountability Clarifying governance roles & responsibilities, and supporting voluntary efforts to ensure the alignment of managerial and shareholder interests and monitoring by the board of directors capable of objectivity and sound judgment. Transparency Requiring timely disclosure of adequate information concerning corporate financial performance.
  11. 11. Responsibility Ensuring that corporations comply with relevant laws and regulations that reflect the society’s values Fairness Ensuring the protection of shareholders’ rights and the enforceability of contracts with service/resource providers
  12. 12.  Sustainable development of all stake holders- to ensure growth of all individuals associated with or effected by the enterprise on sustainable basis.  Effective management and distribution of wealth – to ensue that enterprise creates maximum wealth and judiciously uses the wealth so created for providing maximum benefits to all stake holders and enhancing its wealth creation capabilities to maintain sustainability.
  13. 13. Discharge of social responsibility- to ensure that enterprise is acceptable to the society in which it is functioning. Application of best management practices- to ensure excellence in functioning of enterprise and optimum creation of wealth on sustainable basis. Compliance of law in letter & spirit- to ensure value enhancement for all stakeholders guaranteed by the law for maintaining socio-economic balance.
  14. 14.  The Indian corporate scenario was more or less stagnant till the early 90s.  The position and goals of the Indian corporate sector has changed a lot after the liberalisation of 90s.  India’s economic reform programme made a steady progress in 1994.  India with its 20 million shareholders, is one of the largest emerging markets in terms of the market capitalization.
  15. 15.  International Corporate Governance Network founded by institutional investors in Europe and North America  Global Corporate Governance Forum founded by OECD and World Bank  Commonwealth Association for Corporate Governance founded by Commonwealth Heads of Government
  16. 16. Year Name of Committee/Body Areas/Aspects Covered 1992 Sir Adrian Cadbury Committee, UK Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance 1994 Mervyn E . King’s Committee , South Africa Corporate Governance 1995 Greenbury Committee , UK Directors’ Remuneration 1998 Hampel Committee, UK Combine Code of Best Practices 1999 Blue Ribbon Committee, US Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees 1999 OECD Principles of Corporate Governance 1999 CACG Principles for Corporate Governance in Commonwealth 2003 Derek Higgs Committee, UK Review of role of effectiveness of Non-executive Directors 2003 ASX Corporate Governance Council, Australia Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations
  17. 17. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development started operations in 1961to convene governments of countries focused on democracy and the market economy to support sustainable economic growth, boost employment, raise living standards, maintain financial stability, assist in enhancing economic development, boost growth in world trade, share expertise and exchange views.
  18. 18. Endorsement of OECD Principles of Corporate Governance by OECD Ministers as an international benchmark for policy makers, investors, corporations and other stakeholders worldwide. Revised Principles of Corporate Governance. OECD Steering Group on Corporate Governance issued the Methodology for Assessing Implementation of OECD Principles of Corporate Governance.
  19. 19. ROSCs summarize the extent to which countries observe certain internationally recognized standards and codes. The IMF has recognized 12 areas and associated standards as useful for the operational work of the Fund and the World Bank. These comprise accounting; auditing; anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism; banking supervision; corporate governance; data dissemination; fiscal transparency; insolvency and creditor rights; insurance supervision; monetary and financial policy transparency; payments systems; and securities regulation.
  20. 20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CORPORATE MANAGEMENT External Focus Internal Focus Governance assumes an open system Management assumes a closed system Strategy-orientated Task-orientated Concerned with where the company is going Concerned with getting the company there
  21. 21. “Corporate governance is… holding the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and communal goals. The governance framework is there to encourage the efficient use of resources and equally to require accountability for the stewardship of those resources. The aim is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society. The incentive to corporations is to achieve their corporate aims and to attract investment. The incentive for states is to strengthen their economics and discourage fraud and mismanagement.”
  22. 22. 83 81 89 Companies are willing to pay 18 % to 28% more for better governance.
  23. 23.  As Indian companies compete globally for access to capital markets, many are finding that the ability to benchmark against world-class organizations is essential.  For a long time, India was a managed, protected economy with the corporate sector operating in an insular fashion.  But as restrictions have eased, Indian corporations are emerging on the world stage and discovering that the old ways of doing business are no longer sufficient in such a fast- paced global environment.
  24. 24. Thank You
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