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Muscloskeletal disease in small animals

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Muscloskeletal diseasein small animals

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Muscloskeletal disease in small animals

  1. 1. Anatomy & physiology of bone, muscle & joints Skeletal disorder & congenital disorders by birth Submitted by: Dr. Kanwarpal Singh Dhillon M.V.SC (Medicine)
  2. 2. Bone Tissue and The Skeletal System
  3. 3. The Skeletal System • Functions of the Skeletal System – Support against gravity – Leverage for muscle action - movement – Protection of soft internal organs – Blood cell production – Storage - calcium, phosphorous & fat
  4. 4. The Skeletal System • The skeletal system includes: – Bones – Cartilages – Joints – Ligaments – Other connective tissues
  5. 5. Structure of Typical Long Bone • Diaphysis - tubular shaft forming the axis of long bones. – Composed of compact bone – Central medullary cavity – Contains bone marrow • Epiphysis – expanded end of long bones. – Composed mostly of spongy bone – Joint surface is covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage – Epiphyseal lines separate the diaphysis from the epiphyses • Metaphysis – where epiphysis and diaphysis meet
  6. 6. Bone - Remodeling/Homeostasis • Homeostasis and Mineral Storage – Bones store calcium • Contain 99% of body calcium • Store up to 2 kg calcium • Hormones control storage/release – PTH, calcitriol release bone calcium – Calcitonin stores bone calcium • Blood levels kept constant
  7. 7. General Structure of Synovial Joints • Articular cartilage – Ends of opposing bones are covered with hyaline cartilage – Absorbs compression • Joint cavity (synovial cavity) – Unique to synovial joints – Cavity is a potential space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid
  8. 8. Muscle Function • Movement – Depends on type of muscle tissue – Depends on location of muscle tissue • Thermogenesis • Protection • Posture Maintenance • Joint Stabilization
  9. 9. Muscle Tissue Characteristics All muscle tissues share basic characteristics 1.Excitability 2.Contractility 3.Elasticity 4.Extensibility
  10. 10. Muscle Tissue Types Skeletal Cardiac Smooth
  11. 11. (I) CONGENITAL MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES • Congenital disease of bone, cartilage ( joint deformity), & muscle (congenital myopathy) may be identifiable at birth or shorty thereafter & often have an inherited etiology.
  12. 12. Retarded growth • Reduced growth in terms of skeletal development or body wt. when compared with – normal littermates – or a failure to attain the weight & height standards characteristic of a given breed. • Many diseases may result in retarded growth.
  13. 13. • 6-month-old dwarf German shepherd dog
  14. 14. Osteochondrodysplasia • Most patients with osteoochondrodysplasia have reduced skeletal growth, characterized by abnormal endochondral and intramembranous ossification. • They have long trunks & short legs.
  15. 15. Dysostosis • Occur in the skull, axial & appendicular skeleton. • Characterized by overrepresentation or a partial or complete absence of one or more bone elements.
  16. 16. Radial hemimelia Polydactyly
  17. 17. Joint malformation • Severe joint malformation are rarely diagnosed. • May ranges from complete absence of joints to bony fusion of skeletal elements.
  18. 18. Congenital myopathies • It is group of primary, inherited diseases of skeletal muscle identified within the first weeks to months after birth.
  19. 19. (II) ACQUIRED MUSCLUOSKELETAL DISEASES • Do not have a primarily genetic etiology & are not identifiable at birth.
  20. 20. Traumatic injuries (fractures) • Approximately 40-50% of all dogs presented to referral centers with traumatic injuries are less than 1 year of age. • Traumatic growth plate injuries have been classified by Salter & Harris in an effort to relate mechanisms, characterized by a separation through the growth plate
  21. 21. • A type I growth plate injury is characterized by a separation through the growth plat. • A type II injury is a combined growth plate separation-metaphyseal fracture. • A type III injury is a combined growth plate separation-epiphyseal fracture. • A type IV injury is characterized by a combination of a growth plate separation with an epiphyseal & metaphyseal fracture. • Type V injuries are caused by crushing of the growth plate, which results in premature closure & reduced bone length growth.
  22. 22. Limb deformities • Limb deformities with abnormally shaped bones may be caused by dysostoses, osteochondrodysplasias, nutritonal diseases & growth plate injuries. • Clinically this results in shortened bones or asymmetrical growth plate with subsequent angular deformity & rotational deformities of the affected bone.
  23. 23. Nutritional diseases • It includes nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypovitaminosis D (rickets), hypervitaminosis D, hypovitaminosis A, hypervitaminosis A, hypovitaminosis E Rickets
  24. 24. Developmental orthopedic bone diseases (DODs) • Craniomandibular osteopathy occurs in Terrier breeds. • The bony formation along the mandible can be so severe the affected dogs may not be able to prehend & chew food.
  25. 25. • In young large or giant breed dogs, diaphyseal pain in one or multiple bones may be an indication of panosteitis. • Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is a developmental disease in immature, large, or giant breed dogs in which the metaphyseal area of long bones becomes swollen &
  26. 26. Joint disease • Approximately 35% of dogs younger than 1 yr of age presented with a musculoskeletal problems are diagnosed with an arthropathy. • Arthopathies may be classified as: – Non inflammatory – Inflammatory • Infectious • Non infectious • About 95% of the arthopathies in growing dogs are non- inflammatory. Canine polyarthropathy
  27. 27. Shoulder osteochondrosis • Several breeds are predisposed for shoulder OC & 50- 70% heritability has been estimated in Labrador Retrivers. Radiographic image of osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the caudal aspects of the humeral head
  28. 28. Elbow dysplasia • Lameness localized to the elbow of young growing dogs with no history of trauma is usually caused by the syndrome called elbow dysplasia. • It includes ununinted anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, OC of the medial humeral condyle, ununited medial epicondyle & asynchronous growth B/W radius & ulna.
  29. 29. Patellar luxation • Medial patellar luxation occurs mainly in small or miniature dog breeds. • Lateral patellar luxation occurs mainly in large dog breeds.
  30. 30. Hip dysplasia • Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a developmental trait primarily affecting medium & large breed dogs. • It is characterized by faulty conformation & laxity of the hip joint that usually affects both hips. • Clinically, early synovitis & capsulitis caused by subluxation is characterized by hindlimb lameness, reduced exercise tolerance, reluctance to jump, a “bunny hopping gait” & pain in hip joint. • Affects all breeds of dogs, but more common in large breeds.
  31. 31. REFERENCES… • Small Animal Pediatrics by Michael E. Peterson & Michelle Anne Kutzler THANKS

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