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Ego and defense mechanism

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Ego defence mechanism
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Ego and defense mechanism

  1. 1. Ego and defense mechanism Keerthi mohanan
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY Id: • It is based on the pleasure principle, present at birth. It endows infant with instinctual drives. The behaviors are impulsive and irrational. Ego: • It is based on reality principle, develops between 4-6 months of age. It experiences the reality of the external world, adapts to it and responds to it.
  3. 3. CONT.. Superego: • It is based on the perfection principle, develops between 3-6 years of age. Internalizes values and morals from primary caregivers by rewards and punishments. Has two components: ego-ideal and conscience.
  4. 4. DEFENSE MECHANISM
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Anna Freud identified the defense mechanisms employed by the ego in the face of threat to biological or psychological integrity.ego copes with anxiety through rational means. When anxiety becomes too painful, the individual copes by using defense mechanisms to protect the ego and diminish anxiety. They can be helpful when used in very small doses, and if overused can lead to personality breakdown. They operate at the unconscious level.
  6. 6. BASIC CONCEPT OF FREUD • Anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. When anxiety occurs the mind first reacts by problem solving thinking of escaping the situation. • If this is not helpful ego , the mediator uses its tools called the defense mechanism. • They helped shied the ego from the conflicts of id, superego and reality.
  7. 7. DEFINITION They are patterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that are relatively involuntary. They rise in response to perceptions of psychic danger, To unexpected change in the internal or external environment, or in response to cognitive dissonance. American Psychiatric Association(1994)
  8. 8. PURPOSES • Allows individuals to master changes in self-image according to the change in reality. • It can deflect or deny sudden increases in biological drives. • Help individuals to mitigate unresolved conflicts with important people. • It can keep anxiety, shame and guilt within bearable limits during sudden conflicts with conscience and culture.
  9. 9. TYPES OF DEFENSE MECHANISM • Compensation: covering up a real or perceived weakness by emphasizing a trait one considers more desirable. • E.g. a physically handicapped boy is unable to participate in football, so he compensates by becoming a great scholar.
  10. 10. DENIAL  It is the refusal to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or the feelings associated with it. E.g. . The mother of a child who is fatally ill may refuse to admit that there is anything wrong even though she is fully informed of the diagnosis and expected outcome because she cannot tolerate the pain that acknowledging reality would produce.
  11. 11. DISPLACEMENT • The transfer of feelings from one target to another that is considered less threatening or that is neutral. • E.g. a husband comes home after a bad day at work and yells at his wife.
  12. 12. RATIONALIZATION • Attempting to make excuses or formulate logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors. • E.g. a student who fails in the examination may complain that the hostel atmosphere is not favorable and has resulted in his failure.
  13. 13. REACTION FORMATION • Preventing unacceptable or undesirable thoughts or behaviors from being expressed by exaggerating opposite thoughts or types of behaviors. • E.g. a jealous boy who hates his elder brother may show exaggerated respect and affection towards him.
  14. 14. REGRESSION • Retreating in response to stress to an earlier level of development and the comfort measures associated with that level of functioning. • E.g. when his mother brings his new baby sister home from the hospital, 4 year old Tommy, who had been toilet trained for more than a year, begins to wet his pants, cry to be held and suck his thumb.
  15. 15. IDENTIFICATION • An attempt to increase self-worth by acquiring certain attributes and characteristics of an individual one admires. • E.g. a teenage girl emulates the mannerisms and style of dress of a popular female rock star.
  16. 16. INTELLECTUALIZATION • An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using the intellectual processes of logic, reasoning and analysis. • E.g. a young psychology professor receives a letter from his fiancée breaking off their engagement. He shows no emotion when discussing this with his best friend. Instead he analyzes his fiancée’s behavior and tries to reason why the relationship failed.
  17. 17. INTROJECTION • Integrating the values and beliefs of another individual into one’s own ego structure. • E.g. children integrate their parent’s value system into the process of conscience formation. A child says to friend,” Don’t cheat. It’s wrong”.
  18. 18. ISOLATION • Separating a thought or memory from the feeling tone or emotions associated with it. • E.g. a young woman describes being attacked and raped by a street gang. She displays an apathetic expression and no emotional tone.
  19. 19. PROJECTION • Attributing feelings or impulses unacceptable to one’s self to another person. • E.g. a surgeon, whose patient does not respond as he anticipated, may tend to blame the theatre nurse who helped that surgeon at the time of surgery.
  20. 20. REPRESSION • Involuntarily blocking unpleasant feelings and experiences from one’s awareness. • E.g. a woman cannot remember being sexually assaulted when she was 15years old.
  21. 21. SUBLIMATION • Rechanneling of drives or impulses that are personally or socially unacceptable into activities that are constructive. • E.g. a teenage boy with strong competitive and aggressive drives becomes the star football player on his high school team.
  22. 22. SUPPRESSION • The voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one’s awareness. • E.g. A young woman who is depressed about a pending divorce proceeding tells the nurse,” I just don’t want to talk about the divorce. There’s nothing I can do about it anyway”.
  23. 23. UNDOING • Symbolically cancelling out an experience that one finds intolerable. • E.g. a man who is anxious about giving a presentation at work yells at his wife during breakfast. He stops on his way home from work that evening to buy her a dozen red roses.
  24. 24. INSULATION • Withdrawing to passivity and becoming never accessible so as to avoid further threating situation
  25. 25. SYMBOLIZATION • Consciously using an idea or object to represent another actual event or object.
  26. 26. FIXATION • Never advancing to the next level of emotional development and organization
  27. 27. FANTASY • Escapes stress by focussing on unreal mental images in which his or her wishes are fulfilled
  28. 28. DISSOCIATION • Blocking off an anxiety event or period of time from the conscious mind. • People who have any kind of childhood abuse often suffer from some form of dissociation
  29. 29. CONVERSION • It is a expression of emotional conflicts or stress through physical symptoms
  30. 30. NURSING IMPLICATIONS • To understand our self and our patient • To identify the maladaptive behavioral responses among individual. • To identify the behaviors associated with the various stages of development.
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • In order to understand the personality disorder in a person we must know about the development of normal personality and thus the defense mechanisms to identify the maladaptive behavior in order to cope with the anxiety that one faces.
  32. 32. SUMMARY • Ego • Defense mechanism • Types of defense mechanism • Nursing implications

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