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MEASUREMENT
M. S. KHAN
MEASUREMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE
MEASUREMENT OF MASS MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH
MEASUREMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE
MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
 To understand any phenomenon in
physics we have to perform experiments.
 During experiments we measure several
physical...
PHYSICAL QUANTITY
A physical property that can be measured and
described by a number is called physical quantity.
Mass of ...
TYPES OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
Fundamental Quantities Derived Quantities
Do not depend on other
physical quantities for thei...
UNITS FOR MEASUREMENT
Reference standards used for the measurement
of physical quantities
metre, foot, inch for length
kil...
TYPES OF UNITS
Fundamental Units Derived Units
Used to measure fundamental
quantities
Used to measure derived
quantities
𝑚...
SYSTEM OF UNITS
CGS System MKS System FPS System
Introduced in France
Gaussian system of units
Introduced in France
French...
 Introduced by General Conference on
Weight and Measures in 1971
 Developed for international usage in
scientific, techn...
PHYSICAL QUANTITY SI UNIT SYMBOL
Length metre 𝑚
Mass kilogram 𝑘𝑔
Time second 𝑠
Temperature kelvin 𝐾
Electric current amper...
DEFINITION OF KILOGRAM
The kilogram is the mass of prototype cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy
preserved at the Internati...
DEFINITION OF METRE & SECOND
The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in a
vacuum during a time interval of ...
Rules for
Writing
SI Units
RULE 1
Full name of unit always starts with small
letter even if named after a person.
newton
ampere
coulomb
NOT
Newton
Am...
RULE 2
Symbol for unit named after a scientist
should be in capital letter.
N for newton
K for kelvin
A for ampere
C for c...
RULE 3
Symbols for all other units are written in
small letters.
m for metre
s for second
cd for candela
kg for kilogram
RULE 4
One space is left between the last digit of
numeral and the symbol of a unit.
10 kg
50 N
15 Pa
NOT
10kg
50N
15Pa
RULE 5
The units do not have plural forms.
20 metre
10 joule
30 kelvin
25 ohm
NOT
20 metres
10 joules
30 kelvins
25 ohms
RULE 6
No space is used between the symbols
for units.
35 kWh
70 Nm
60 VA
NOT
35 kW h
70 N m
60 V A
Scientific
Notation
 In physics, we deal from very small to very
large quantities.
 We talk about size of nucleus, mass ...
EXPRESSING A NUMBER IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
RULE 1 : Express the number as a number between 1 and 10 times a
power of 10.
R...
EXPRESSING A NUMBER IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
0.000000000000000871 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
8.7 × 10−16
299792458...
Factor Name Symbol Factor Name Symbol
1024 yotta 𝑌 10−1 deci 𝑑
1021 zetta 𝑍 10−2 centi 𝑐
1018 exa 𝐸 10−3 milli 𝑚
1015 peta...
USE OF SI PREFIXES
1) 4.56 × 103
m = 4.56 kilometer = 4.56 km
2) 3.4 × 10−3
A = 3.4 milliampere = 3.4 mA
3) 1.73 × 109
W =...
CONVERSION FACTORS
A conversion factor is used to change the units of a measured
quantity without changing its value.
1. 1...
Convert metre into feet
Height of Burj khalifa = 828 m
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 m =
1
0.3048
ft
Height of Burj khalifa = 828 ×
1
...
Convert feet into mile
Length of Golden Bridge = 8981 ft
1 mi = 5280 ft
1 ft =
1
5280
mi
Length of Golden Bridge = 8981 ×
...
Convert kilogram into pound
Mass of Killer Whale = 4500 kg
1 lb = 0.4536 kg
1 kg =
1
0.4536
lb
Mass of Killer Whale = 4500...
Convert hours into days
Phobos orbital period = 7 h and 39 min
1 d = 24 h & 1 h = 60 min
1 h =
1
24
d & 1 min =
1
60
hr
Ph...
ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
1. How much taller is the Mount Everest
than humans?
2. How much bigger is the sun than the
earth?
3. H...
FINDING ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
1. Height of Mount Everest = 8.848 × 103 𝑚 ≈ 10 × 103 ≈ 104 𝑚
2. Height of humans = 1.7 𝑚 ≈ 1 ×...
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Physical Quantities--Units and Measurement--Conversion of Units

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This presentation covers physical quantities and their types, units and their types, conversion of units and order of magnitude in a very interactive manner. I hope this presentation will be helpful for teachers as well as students.

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Physical Quantities--Units and Measurement--Conversion of Units

  1. 1. MEASUREMENT M. S. KHAN
  2. 2. MEASUREMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE MEASUREMENT OF MASS MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH
  3. 3. MEASUREMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
  4. 4.  To understand any phenomenon in physics we have to perform experiments.  During experiments we measure several physical quantities like mass, length, time, temperature and pressure.  Measurement is necessary to compare two similar physical quantities and to verify physical theories. Need for Measurement In Physics
  5. 5. PHYSICAL QUANTITY A physical property that can be measured and described by a number is called physical quantity. Mass of a person is 65 𝑘𝑔 Length of a table is 2 𝑚 Area of a hall is 100 𝑚2 Temperature of a room is 300 𝐾
  6. 6. TYPES OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES Fundamental Quantities Derived Quantities Do not depend on other physical quantities for their measurement Depend on one or more physical quantities for their measurement • Mass • Length • Time • Temperature • Area • Speed • Volume • Force
  7. 7. UNITS FOR MEASUREMENT Reference standards used for the measurement of physical quantities metre, foot, inch for length kilogram, pound for mass second, minute, hour for time celsius, kelvin for temperature
  8. 8. TYPES OF UNITS Fundamental Units Derived Units Used to measure fundamental quantities Used to measure derived quantities 𝑚 for length 𝑘𝑔 for mass 𝑠 for time 𝑚2 for area 𝑚 𝑠 for speed 𝑘𝑔. 𝑚 𝑠2 for force
  9. 9. SYSTEM OF UNITS CGS System MKS System FPS System Introduced in France Gaussian system of units Introduced in France French system of units Introduced in Britain British system of units 𝑐𝑚 for length 𝑔 for mass 𝑠 for time 𝑚 for length 𝑘𝑔 for mass 𝑠 for time 𝑓𝑡 for length 𝑙𝑏 for mass 𝑠 for time
  10. 10.  Introduced by General Conference on Weight and Measures in 1971  Developed for international usage in scientific, technical and industrial work  Consists of seven fundamental units and two supplementary units International System of Units
  11. 11. PHYSICAL QUANTITY SI UNIT SYMBOL Length metre 𝑚 Mass kilogram 𝑘𝑔 Time second 𝑠 Temperature kelvin 𝐾 Electric current ampere 𝐴 Luminous intensity candela 𝑐𝑑 Amount of substance mole 𝑚𝑜𝑙 Plane Angle radian 𝑟𝑎𝑑 Solid Angle steradian 𝑠𝑟 S I UNITS
  12. 12. DEFINITION OF KILOGRAM The kilogram is the mass of prototype cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy preserved at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, at Sevres, near Paris.
  13. 13. DEFINITION OF METRE & SECOND The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/29,97,92,458 of a second. The second is the duration of 9,19,26,31,770 oscillations of light emitted by cesium-133 atom.
  14. 14. Rules for Writing SI Units
  15. 15. RULE 1 Full name of unit always starts with small letter even if named after a person. newton ampere coulomb NOT Newton Ampere Coulomb
  16. 16. RULE 2 Symbol for unit named after a scientist should be in capital letter. N for newton K for kelvin A for ampere C for coulomb
  17. 17. RULE 3 Symbols for all other units are written in small letters. m for metre s for second cd for candela kg for kilogram
  18. 18. RULE 4 One space is left between the last digit of numeral and the symbol of a unit. 10 kg 50 N 15 Pa NOT 10kg 50N 15Pa
  19. 19. RULE 5 The units do not have plural forms. 20 metre 10 joule 30 kelvin 25 ohm NOT 20 metres 10 joules 30 kelvins 25 ohms
  20. 20. RULE 6 No space is used between the symbols for units. 35 kWh 70 Nm 60 VA NOT 35 kW h 70 N m 60 V A
  21. 21. Scientific Notation  In physics, we deal from very small to very large quantities.  We talk about size of nucleus, mass of elementary particles, size of galaxies and mass of black holes. Size of proton = 0.00000000000000087 m Speed of light = 299792458 m/s  To work conveniently with such extreme numbers, scientific notation is used. 𝑎 × 10 𝑥 Coefficient Power
  22. 22. EXPRESSING A NUMBER IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION RULE 1 : Express the number as a number between 1 and 10 times a power of 10. RULE 2 : If the decimal point is moved to the left in the original number, make the power of 10 positive. RULE 4 : The power of 10 always equals the number of places by which the decimal point has been shifted to the left or right in the original number. RULE 3 : If the decimal point is moved to the right in the original number, make the power of 10 negative.
  23. 23. EXPRESSING A NUMBER IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 0.000000000000000871 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8.7 × 10−16 2997924588 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2.998 × 108
  24. 24. Factor Name Symbol Factor Name Symbol 1024 yotta 𝑌 10−1 deci 𝑑 1021 zetta 𝑍 10−2 centi 𝑐 1018 exa 𝐸 10−3 milli 𝑚 1015 peta 𝑃 10−6 micro 𝜇 1012 tera 𝑇 10−9 nano 𝑛 109 giga 𝐺 10−12 pico 𝑝 106 mega 𝑀 10−15 femto 𝑓 103 kilo 𝑘 10−18 atto 𝑎 102 hecto ℎ 10−21 zepto 𝑧 101 deka 𝑑𝑎 10−24 yocto 𝑦 SI PREFIXES
  25. 25. USE OF SI PREFIXES 1) 4.56 × 103 m = 4.56 kilometer = 4.56 km 2) 3.4 × 10−3 A = 3.4 milliampere = 3.4 mA 3) 1.73 × 109 W = 1.73 gigawatt = 1.73 GW 4) 2.68 × 10−9 s = 2.68 nanosecond = 2.68 ns 5) 6.84 × 106 J = 6.84 megajoule = 6.84 MJ
  26. 26. CONVERSION FACTORS A conversion factor is used to change the units of a measured quantity without changing its value. 1. 1 km = 1000 m 2. 1 m = 100 cm 3. 1 cm = 10 mm 4. 1 mi = 5280 ft 5. 1 mi = 1.609 km 6. 1 ft = 12 in 7. 1 ft = 0.3048 m 8. 1 t = 1000 kg 9. 1 q = 100 kg 10. 1 kg = 1000 g 11. 1 g = 1000 mg 12. 1 lb = 0.4536 kg 13. 1 h = 3600 s 14. 1 d = 86400 s 15. 1 y = 365 d
  27. 27. Convert metre into feet Height of Burj khalifa = 828 m 1 ft = 0.3048 m 1 m = 1 0.3048 ft Height of Burj khalifa = 828 × 1 0.3048 ft Height of Burj khalifa = 2716.5 ft
  28. 28. Convert feet into mile Length of Golden Bridge = 8981 ft 1 mi = 5280 ft 1 ft = 1 5280 mi Length of Golden Bridge = 8981 × 1 5280 mi Length of Golden Bridge = 1.7 mi
  29. 29. Convert kilogram into pound Mass of Killer Whale = 4500 kg 1 lb = 0.4536 kg 1 kg = 1 0.4536 lb Mass of Killer Whale = 4500 × 1 0.4536 lb Mass of Killer Whale = 9920.6 lb
  30. 30. Convert hours into days Phobos orbital period = 7 h and 39 min 1 d = 24 h & 1 h = 60 min 1 h = 1 24 d & 1 min = 1 60 hr Phobos orbital period = 7 + 39 60 × 1 24 d Phobos orbital period = 0.319 d
  31. 31. ORDER OF MAGNITUDE 1. How much taller is the Mount Everest than humans? 2. How much bigger is the sun than the earth? 3. How heavier is the earth than a blue whale? • To get an approximate comparison of such small and large quantities, we use the concept of order of magnitude. • Order of magnitude of a physical quantity is that power of 10 which is closest to its magnitude. • To find order of magnitude of a number, we may round off the coefficient 𝑎 to 1 (for 𝑎 ≤ 5) and to 10 (for 5 < 𝑎 ≤ 10).
  32. 32. FINDING ORDER OF MAGNITUDE 1. Height of Mount Everest = 8.848 × 103 𝑚 ≈ 10 × 103 ≈ 104 𝑚 2. Height of humans = 1.7 𝑚 ≈ 1 × 100 𝑚 ≈ 100 𝑚 3. Size of sun = 1.393 × 106 𝑘𝑚 ≈ 1 × 106 𝑘𝑚 ≈ 106 𝑘𝑚 4. Size of earth = 1.274 × 104 𝑘𝑚 ≈ 1 × 104 𝑘𝑚 ≈ 104 𝑘𝑚 5. Mass of earth = 5.972 × 1024 𝑘𝑔 ≈ 10 × 1024 𝑘𝑔 ≈ 1025 𝑘𝑔 6. Mass of blue whale = 1.6 × 105 𝑘𝑔 ≈ 1 × 105 𝑘𝑔 ≈ 105 𝑘𝑔
  33. 33. THANK YOU https://www.slideshare.net/KhanSaif2
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This presentation covers physical quantities and their types, units and their types, conversion of units and order of magnitude in a very interactive manner. I hope this presentation will be helpful for teachers as well as students.

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