○ DMF is only applied for permanent teeth.
○ The teeth not included in the examination are;-
1- Unerupted teeth.
2- Congenitally missing and supernumerary teeth.
3- Teeth removed for other than dental caries
Priciples and Rules when Recording DMF
1- No tooth be counted more than once.
2- Decayed, Filled and Missed teeth due to caries
should be recorded separately.
3- Filled tooth with recurrent caries recorded as
4- Deciduous teeth are not included in DMF count.
5- A tooth is considered to be erupted when the
occlusal surface or incisal edge is exposed by
reflecting the overlying gingival tissue.
WHO modification of DMF Index (1986)
1- All third molars are included.
2- Temporary restorations are considered as D.
3- Only carious cavities are considered as D.
Modifications of def index
Before age of exfoliation.
Only for 1ry molars
Does not allow for 2 grades
d + e = d
○ DMFT or DMFS and deft and defs are never added
○ The index for the permanent teeth is usually determined
first then for primary teeth.
Evaluation Of DMF Index
1- It is the only comprehensive index to date to measure
2- It is applicable to most age groups.
3- It is very high inter and intraexaminer agreeability.
4- Is the best method to asses treatment need.
5- Gives an analyses of the following:-
a- Decayed – request for service provider.
b- Missing – tell the negligence of the people.
c- Filled – tell about the services utilized
Limitations of DMF index:
1- DMF score is a simple count. It has no
denominator indicating the number of teeth at
2- DMF index gives equal scores to missing,
untreated decayed, or well restored teeth.
3- DMF index is invalid when teeth have been
lost for reasons other than caries.
4- DMF index can overestimate caries
experience by including for ex. Teeth with
5- DMFS index cannot account for sealed teeth.
To do this ,the DMFS would then become
6- DMF index is not recommended for measuring
Root caries can be measured
1- Simple prevalence (proportion/percentage).
2- Number of carious and restored root lesions per
3- ROOT CARIES INDEX (RCI)
○ Number of missing teeth per an individual should
be recorded in a separate figure with any of the
previous 1,2,or 3.
○ It is first described in 1980.
○ Scoring is restricted to teeth at risk.
○ At risk tooth for root caries is that tooth with gingival
recession, i.e. part of cemental surface has exposed to
The is calculated as
decayed + filled root surface
root surface with loss of periodontal attachment:
decayed + filled + sound
○ If we have 100 teeth with gingival recession
(for a group of population) , only 9 teeth were
decayed or filled on root surfaces.
• Burt AB, Eklund SA. Dentistry, Dental Practice and the Community.
6th Ed 2005, W. B. Saunders Company, Chapter No.15. P.P 194-202