SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Semantics and Lexicon
Acquistion of Language
0 It is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to
perceive and comprehend language, as well as to
produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
0 Refers to human traits as non-human does not use
language to communicate with each other.
0 First Language Acquisition
0 The capacity to successfully use language requires one
to acquire range of tools including phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics and an extensive
0 Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that
studies the sounds of human speech, or – in
the case of sign language --- the equivalent
aspects of sign.
0 It is concerned with the physical properties of
speech sounds or signs (phones): their
physiological production, acoustic properties,
auditory perception, and neurophysiological
Areas of Study
- The study of organs of speech and their use
in producing speech sounds by the speaker.
- the study of physical transmission of speech
sounds from the speaker to the listener.
- The study of reception and perception of
speech sounds by the listener.
Quick View of History
0 First know phonetic studies were carried out
as early as 6th
century BCE by Sanskrit
0 Panini is among the most well-known early
investigators. His grammar formed the basis
of modern linguistics and described a number
of important phonetic principles.
Anatomy of the Vocal
Speech sounds are generally produced by the
modification of an airstream exhaled from the
lungs. The respiratory organs used to create
and modify airflow are divided into three
0 The vocal tract ( supralaryngeal )
0 The larynx
0 The subglottal system.
Articulations take place in particular parts of the
mouth. They are described by the part of the
mouth that constricts airflow and by what part of
the mouth that constriction occur. In most
languages, constrictions are made with the lips
and the tongue.
Constrictions made by the lips are called labials.
The tongue can make constrictions with many
different parts, broadly classified into coronal and
dorsal places of articulation
Types of Articulation
0 Labial – made by the lips
0 Coronal articulations are made with either the
tip or the blade of the tongue
0 Dorsal articulations are made with back of
Articulations involving lips can be made in
three different ways: with both lips (bilabial),
with one lip and the teeth (labiodental), and
with the tongue and the upper lip
Bilabial consonants are made with both lips. In
producing these sounds, the lower lip moves
farthest to meet the upper lip, which also
moves down slightly. In some cases the force
from air moving through the aperture ( opening
between the lips) may cause the lips to
separate faster than they can come together.
Labiodental consonants are made by the lower
lip rising to the upper teeth. Labiodental
consonants are most often fricatives while
labiodental nasals are also typologically
3 Labiodental Consonants
They are made with the blade of the tongue
approaching or contacting the upper lip. Like
bilabial, the upper lip moves slightly towards
the more active articulator. They are formed by
combining an apical symbol with a diacritic
implicitly placing them in the coronal category.
These are made with the tip or the blade of the
tongue, and because of the agility of the front of the
tongue, represent a variety not only in place but in
the posture of the tongue. The coronal places of
articulation represent the areas of the mouth the
tongue contacts or makes a constriction, and include
dental, alveolar, and post-alveolar locations.
Tongue postures can be apical (top of the tongue
tip), laminal (blade of the tongue), sub-apical (
the tongue tip is curled back and the bottom
of tongue is used).
It is made up with the tip of the blade of the
tongue and upper teeth. They are divided into
two groups based upon the part of the tongue
used to produce them.
Apical dental consonants – tongue tip touching
Interdental consonants – produced with the
blade of the tongue as the tip of the tongue
sticks out in front of the teeth.
They are articulated with the tongue against or
close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is
called that because it contains the alveoli
(sockets) of the superior teeth. It can be
articulated with the tip of the tongue (apical),
as in English, or with the flat tongue just above
the tip (laminal), as in French and Spanish.
They have a number od different definitions
depending on whether the position of the
tongue or the position of the roof of the mouth
is given prominence.
Dorsal consonants are those consonants made
using the tongue body rather than the tip or
• Palatal consonants
• Velar consonants
• Uvular consonants
They are made using the
tongue body against the hard
palate on the roof of the
mouth. They are frequently
contrasted with velar or uvular
This is made using the tongue
against the velum. They are
crosslinguistically; almost all
languages have a velar stop.
Because both velars and
vowels are made using the
tongue body. They are highly
affected with coarticulation
Uvular consonants articulated
with the back of the tongue
against or the near the uvula,
that is, further back in the
mouth than velar consonants.
Uvulars may be stops,
fricatives, nasals, trills, or
In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of how sounds
and gestures patterns in and across languages, relating such
concerns with other levels and aspects of the language. Phonetics
deals with articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds,
how they are produced, and how they are perceived.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned
with the systematic organization of sounds in
languages. It has traditionally focused largely
on the study of systems of phonemes in
It may also cover any linguistic analysis either
at a level beneath the word. ( Including
syllable, onset and rime, articulatory
gestures,mora, features and more, etc).
At all levels of languages where sound is
considered to be structured for conveying
The word “phonology” as in the PHONOLOGY OF
ENGLISH can also refer to the phonological system
(sound system) of a given language. This is one of the
fundamental systems which a language is considered
to comprise, like its syntax and its vocabulary.
Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics. While
phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic
transmission and perceptions of the sounds of speech,
phonology describes the way sounds function with a
given language or across language to encode
The word phonology comes from Ancient Greek
“phone” means “voice, sound and the suffix –
logy ( which is from the greek word logos –
word, speech, subject of discussion)
According to Nikolai Trubetskoy, phonology is
the study of sound pertaining to the system of
language as opposed to phonetics which is the
study of sound pertaining to the act of speech.
Analysis of Phonemes
Phonemes are distinctive units within a language.
In English, the “p” sound in pot is aspirated (pronounced as
phot while that in spot is not aspirated).
This are now called sound as variations and therefore are
considered “allophones” of the same phonological category,
that is of the phoneme /p/.
Part of the phonological study of a language therefore
involves looking at data ( phonetic transcription of the
speech of native speakers) and trying to deduce what the
underlying phonemse are and what sound inventory of the
Allophones ( and
A basic video of Phonology.
0 In addition to the minimal units that can
serve the purpose of differentiating meaning
(phonemes, the phonology studies how
sounds alternate, replace one another in
different forms of the same morpheme
(allomorphs), as well as for example:
1. Syllable structure
2. Stress or mora
3. Feature geometry
0 It also includes topics such as phonotactics
(the phonological constraints on what sounds
can appear in what positions in a given
language) and phonological alternation (how
the pronunciation of a sound changes
through the application of phonological rules.
0 The principles of phonological analysis can be
applied independently of modality because
they are designed to serve as general
It is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in
language, programming languages, formal logics, and
semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between
signifiers-like words, phrases, signs, and symbols --- and what
they stand for, their denotation.
Semantics in Linguistics
Semantics is also called semasiology. The word
semantics was first used by Michael Breal, a
french philologist. It denotes a range of ideas
from the popula to highly technical. It is often
used in ordinary language for denoting a
problem of understanding that comes down to
a word selection or connotation.
The formal study of semantics intersects with
many other fields of inquiry including
lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology, and
Semantics and Syntax
Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of
the combinatorics of units of language
( without reference to their meaning), and
pragmatics, the study of relationship between
the symbols of a language, their meaning and
the users of the language.
Semantics as a field of study also has
significant ties to various representational
theories of meaning including truth theories of
meanin, coherence theories of meaning, and
correspondence of meaning.
Semantics in Linguistics
Semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the
study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of
words, phrases, sentences, and larger units of
discourse ( termed text, or narratives). The
study of semantics is also closely linked to the
subject of representation, reference and
The basic study of semantics is oriented to the
examination of the meaning of signs.
Lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or wood-stock is the
vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of
knowledge (such as nautical or medical)
In Linguistics, a lexicon is a language’s inventory of
lexemes. The word lexicon derives from the Greek word
that means of or for words)
Linguistic theories generally regard human
languages consisting of two parts: a lexicon, a
catalogue of language’s word, and a grammar.
A system of rules with allow for the
combination of those words into meaningful
The lexicon is also thought to include bound
morphemes, which cannot stand alone as
words such as most affixes.
Size and Organization
Items in the lexicon are called lexemes, or
lexical items or word forms. Lexemes are not
atomic elements but contain both phonological
and morphological components. When
describing the lexicon, a reductionist approach
is used, trying to remain general while using a
To describe the size of a lexicon, lexemes are
grouped into lemmas. A lemma is a group of
lexemes generated by inflectional morphology.
Lexicalization and other
mechanisms in the
lexiconA central role of the lexicon is the documenting
of established lexical norms and conventions.
Lexicalization is the process in which new
words, having gained widespread usage, enter
Since lexicalization may modify lexemes
phonologically and morphologically, it is
possible that single etymological source may
be inserted into a single lexicon in two or more
0 Innovation, the planned creation of new roots
0 Borrowing of foreign words
0 Compounding, the combination of lexemes to make
a single word
0 Abbreviation of compounds
0 Derivation, a morphological change resulting in a
change of category
0 Agglutination, the compounding of morphemes to
a single word.
Neologism (New Words)
Neologism are new lexemes candidates which,
if they gain wide usage over time, become part
of a language’s lexicon. Neologisms are often
introduced by children who produce erroneous
forms by mistake. Another common source is
slang and activities such as advertising and
Neologism that maintain
the sound of their
lexical item as the
basic material for
Borrowing using a
lexical item as the
basic material for the
Guestword :unassimilated borrowing
Foreignism: foreign word, ex: phonetic
Loanword: totally assimilated borrwing,
Examples of Simultaneous
External and Internal Lexical
0 Phono-semantic matching:
the target language material is originally similar to the
source language lexical item both phonetically and
0 Semantacized Phonetic Matching:
the target language material is originally similar to the
source language lexical item phonetically, and only in a
loose way semantically.
0 Phonetic Matching:
The target language is originally similar to the source
language lexical item phonetically but not semantically.
Role of Morphology
0 Another mechanism involves generative
devices that combine morphemes according
to a language’s rule.
For example: the suffix “-able” is usally only
added to transitive verbs, as in readable but
A compound word is a lexeme composed of
several established lexemes, whose semantics
is not the sum of that of their constituents.
They can be interpreted through analogy,
common sense, and most commonly, context.
Compounding may result in lexemes of
unwieldy proportion. This is compensated by
mechanisms that reduce the length of words.
0 Phonological assimilation, the modification of
loanwords to fit a new language’s sound structure
more effectively. If, however, a loan word is too
foreign, inflection or derivation rules may not be
able to transform it.
0 Analogy, where new words undergo inflection and
derivation analogous to that of words with a
similar sound structure.
0 Emphasis, the modification of words’ stress or
0 Metaphor, a form of semantic extension
The term “lexicon” is generally used in the context of
single language. Therefore, multi-lingual speakers are
generally thought to have multiple lexicons.
Speakers of language variants ( Brazilian Portuguese
and European Portuguese, for example) may be
considered to possess a single lexicon. Thus a cash
dispenser ( British English) as well as an automatic
teller machine or ATM in American English would be
understood by both American and British speakers,
despite each group using different dialects.