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Search Leeds Talk - Entities, Search, and Rank Brain: How it works and why it matters

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Entity-Based Search – What is it? What are entities? Where do they come from? And how does Google use them? This presentation answers questions about the history of Google, structured data, the Knowledge Graph, how Rank Brain ties into it and what SEOs need to know about it all.

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Search Leeds Talk - Entities, Search, and Rank Brain: How it works and why it matters

  1. 1. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Data, Data, Everywhere. Kristine@SitesWithoutWalls.com
  2. 2. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger In the beginning, there was a … Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine
  3. 3. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger What?
  4. 4. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger What?
  5. 5. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Link Profiles http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/papers/google.pdf
  6. 6. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger The Web 1998
  7. 7. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google Goes To Work http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/papers/google.pdf
  8. 8. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger In 2018 … Roughly half of the world's population or 3.8 billion people use the internet every day.
  9. 9. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google processes TRILLIONS of queries a year & has indexed BILLIONS of Websites.
  10. 10. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger IN 2015, THERE WERE 2,834,650,000,000 Google searches with an average 7,766,000,000 searches a day.
  11. 11. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Breaks down to … 5.5 billion searches per day or over 63,000 search queries per second.
  12. 12. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger That is a lot of data. #DIDYOUNEEDASLIDEFORTHIS?
  13. 13. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Dealing With Data.
  14. 14. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  15. 15. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google was founded on unstructured data.
  16. 16. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Unstructured data (or unstructured information) is information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner. Unstructured information is typically text-heavy, but may contain data such as dates, numbers, and facts as well. https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=definition+unstructured+data&oq=definition+unstructured+data&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.5175j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
  17. 17. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Unstructured Data uses keywords. https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  18. 18. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger TF-IDF Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency ie the frequency of keywords https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  19. 19. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger As queries number in the trillions unstructured data becomes inefficient. Data needs structure.
  20. 20. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger So Google moved from Relational Databases to Knowledge Graphs. Knowledge Graphs
  21. 21. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger NOTE Knowledge Graphs DO NOT EQUAL THE KNOWLEDGE GRAPH Knowledge Graphs
  22. 22. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Graph-based knowledge representation has been researched for decades and the term knowledge graph does not constitute a new technology. Rather, it is a buzzword reinvented by Google and adopted by other companies and academia to describe different knowledge representation applications. Knowledge Graphs http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1695/paper4.pdf
  23. 23. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Enter Semantic Search https://web.archive.org/web/20090516213508/http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/090512-201139
  24. 24. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://web.archive.org/web/20090516213508/http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/090512-201139 What is Semantic Search?
  25. 25. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Semantic Search = Understanding Intent
  26. 26. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Welcome G Squared
  27. 27. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google Squared Google Squared returns search results in a spreadsheet format. It structures the unstructured data on web pages. So a search for Small Dogs returns results with names, description, size, weight, origin, etc., in columns and rows. Google is looking for data structures on the web that imply facts, and then grabbing it for Squared results. “It takes an incredible amount of compute power to create one of those squares,” she says.” ~Techcrunch https://techcrunch.com/2009/05/12/what-is-google-squared-it-is-how-google-will-crush-wolfram-alpha-exclusive-video/
  28. 28. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://searchengineland.com/up-close-google-squared-19313 Before the Knowledge Graph
  29. 29. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://searchengineland.com/up-close-google-squared-19313 Before the Knowledge Graph
  30. 30. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google Squared “Check out this example below, a Square for the search “dog breeds.” It’s cool that you can add major or minor medical concerns to the list of columns, but the selection of examples is really strange. Call it structured data if you like, I call it a surefire recipe for making a bad dog buying decision.” https://readwrite.com/2009/06/03/google_squared_is_live_who_knew_structured_data_co/
  31. 31. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google Kills Google Squared. RIP Google Squared 2009-2011
  32. 32. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger ”…quite possibly ... one of Google's significant achievements” Nathania Johnson of Search Engine Watch https://web.archive.org/web/20090516213508/http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/090512-201139 Knowledge Graphs
  33. 33. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Why?
  34. 34. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://searchengineland.com/up-close-google-squared-19313 “Strings to Things" The Holy Grail of Search? NLP (Natural Language Processing).
  35. 35. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger But Google doesn’t process Natural Language. “Strings to Things"
  36. 36. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger However, this was the early stages of Google moving search from strings (unstructured data) or the “bag of words” approach  to “things” (structured data). “Strings to Things"
  37. 37. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger “Things” are known objects with known (or learned) relationships. “Strings to Things"
  38. 38. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://searchengineland.com/up-close-google-squared-19313 Before THE Knowledge Graph – Wonder Wheel
  39. 39. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger https://searchengineland.com/up-close-google-squared-19313 Before the Knowledge Graph – Wonder Wheel
  40. 40. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Welcome THE Knowledge Graph 2012.
  41. 41. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  42. 42. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Knowledge Graphs are based on known relationships. THE Knowledge Graph is Google’s graph database. THE Knowledge Graph
  43. 43. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger The Knowledge Graph (Google) is seeded by things known. Instead of just text without meaning, The KG is a relational graph with known objects and mapped relationships. THE Knowledge Graph
  44. 44. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger "Four years ago this July, Google acquired Metaweb, bringing Freebase and linked open data to Google," he wrote. Google software engineer Barak Michener http://www.eweek.com/database/google-releases-cayley-open-source-graph-database THE Knowledge Graph Seeds
  45. 45. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Also includes trusted sources such as the CIA Fact Book, Wikipedia, Wikidata etc. http://www.eweek.com/database/google-releases-cayley-open-source-graph-database THE Knowledge Graph Seeds
  46. 46. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Why the Knowledge Graph? To help better match user intent. THE Knowledge Graph
  47. 47. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger The Knowledge Graph enables you to search for things, people or places that Google knows about—landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports teams, buildings, geographical features, movies, celestial objects, works of art and more—and instantly get information that’s relevant to your query THE Knowledge Graph
  48. 48. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger In other words NOUNS THE Knowledge Graph
  49. 49. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger NOUNS=ENTITIES THE Knowledge Graph
  50. 50. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google moves to ENTITY SEARCH THE Knowledge Graph
  51. 51. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Knowledge Graph entities The Knowledge Graph has millions of entries that describe real-world entities like people, places, and things. These entities form the nodes of the graph. The following are some of the types of entities found in the Knowledge Graph: Book BookSeries EducationalOrganization Event GovernmentOrganization LocalBusiness Movie MovieSeries MusicAlbum MusicGroup MusicRecording Organization Periodical Person Place SportsTeam TVEpisode TVSeries VideoGame VideoGameSeries WebSite
  52. 52. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Entities + Relationships= Knowledge Graph THE Knowledge Graph
  53. 53. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Knowledge Graph = the Answer Engine THE Knowledge Graph
  54. 54. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Knowledge Graph = the Answer Engine THE Knowledge Graph
  55. 55. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google as an Answer Engine https://www.google.com/search/howsearchworks/responses/#?modal_active=none
  56. 56. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird  “Strings to Things”.
  57. 57. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  58. 58. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird The name was derived from the speed and accuracy of the hummingbird. “Strings to Things"
  59. 59. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird Arrives 2013 Google moves from matching keyword terms to Google trying to process Natural Language Queries. “Strings to Things"
  60. 60. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger But Google doesn’t process Natural Language. “Strings to Things"
  61. 61. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird adds a semantic layer to the search algorithms utilizing structured data. “Strings to Things"
  62. 62. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird adds a semantic layer to the search algorithms like synonyms and close variants. https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  63. 63. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird adds a semantic layer to the search algorithms that uses “semantic distance and term relationships”. https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  64. 64. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Hummingbird adds a semantic layer to the search algorithms that uses “phrase based Indexing and co- occurrence.” https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  65. 65. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Page Segmentation. This part of the algorithm determines meaning through placement. https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  66. 66. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Entity Salience. This part of the algorithm determines meaning through known relationships. https://moz.com/blog/7-advanced-seo-concepts
  67. 67. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Google doesn’t process Natural Language. This means we must add an “interpreter”.
  68. 68. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Enter Structured Data & Schema https://web.archive.org/web/20090516213508/http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/090512-201139
  69. 69. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger What is Structured Data?
  70. 70. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger What is Structured Data? Structured data for SEO purposes is on-page markup that enables search engines to better understand the information currently on your site’s web pages, and then use this information to improve search results listing by better matching user intent.
  71. 71. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger What is Structured Data? This structured data is defined by using schema to act as the interpreter. This is the definition we add to the page using schema code. Google allows 3 types. • RDFa • Microdata • JSON-LD
  72. 72. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema JSON-LD is the recommended schema code. JSON-LD stands for JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data This is just a way to implement schema outside the HTML mark-up structure. RDFa and Microformats required the code to be implemented via HTML.
  73. 73. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema Benefit is it can be removed from the HTML structure, which makes it easier to write, implement, and maintain. For a good breakdown on what JSON is at the code level. Portent’s JSON Implementation Guide is very helpful. https://www.portent.com/blog/seo/json-ld-implementation-guide.htm
  74. 74. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger JSON-LD Schema
  75. 75. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema IMPORTANT! Test your JSON-LD. Use the Google Structured Mark-Up Helper. https://search.google.com/structured-data/testing-tool
  76. 76. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema NOTE this tool only tells you if it is semantically correct, NOT if you are using the proper schema. Make sure to check with Google’s Guides on schema implementation. Improper use or implementation can result in a manual action. • https://developers.google.com/search/docs/guides/intro-structured-data • https://developers.google.com/search/docs/guides/prototype
  77. 77. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema IMPORTANT! Your JSON content MUST match what is in the page exactly. If they differ, you will likely get a manual action as Google sees this as cloaking.
  78. 78. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Schema
  79. 79. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Ranking Without Links
  80. 80. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Rank Brain
  81. 81. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Rank Brain is used for Unknown Queries where entity meanings/relationships are unclear or unknown.
  82. 82. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Rank Brain. Only algorithm that uses AI on the live results Rank Brain.
  83. 83. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Rank Brain
  84. 84. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  85. 85. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Presence of Rank Brain means Google is confused …
  86. 86. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Why? Google does not use NLP (Natural Language Processing) Rank Brain.
  87. 87. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Uses Structured Data, Entities & Known Relationships Person, Place, Thing = Noun = Entities. Nouns or Persons/Places/People/Things are what we call entities. Entities are known to Google and their meaning is defined in the databases Google references. Rank Brain.
  88. 88. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Rank Brain Also Uses Users Queries & Clicks to Help It Understand Query Intent.
  89. 89. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Should you optimize for it? Rank Brain.
  90. 90. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Why would you optimize to rank with AI? Rank Brain.
  91. 91. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger (Gary Illyes) Rank Brain.
  92. 92. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Just write in natural and conversational language.
  93. 93. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger So why do we care about this?
  94. 94. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger We can act as the interpreter and help “teach” Google what our site is about.
  95. 95. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Adding semantic mark-up (structured data via schema) allows us to tell Google what WE SAY our site is about and WHAT RELATIONSHIPS we define within it.
  96. 96. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger We can act as the interpreter and help “teach” Google the context of our content.
  97. 97. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  98. 98. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger We can help give Google a clearer understanding. And in the end that helps us help Google better answer the questions users ask and to better surface our content where we want it. We give our data meaning Google understands.
  99. 99. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger
  100. 100. #SearchLeeds @schachin Kristine Schachinger Data, Data, Everywhere. Kristine@SitesWithoutWalls.com