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Curriculum Development

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Curriculum development
Introduction:
The term “curriculum” is a latin word currere which means running, race,
lap...
Page | 2
Philosophical determinants of curriculum:-
Philosophy is a powerful determinant factor of aims of education, but ...
Page | 3
Faith, beliefs and attitudes of the people
Cooperation
Media explosion
Population explosion
Regional and national...
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Curriculum Development
Curriculum Development
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Curriculum Development

*Introduction
Curriculum it is the blue print of an any educational programme.

*Definition

Curriculum development is the multi-step process of creating and improving a course taught at a school or university. While the exact process will vary from institution to institution, the broad framework includes stages of analysis, building, implementation, and evaluation.

*uses

1.Curriculum development allows teachers to take a thoughtful and methodical approach to determine what students will be required to learn.

2.Curriculum development takes care of the big-picture strategy required to successfully teach a course.

*Different Curriculum Process

Are there different curriculum development processes or models?

First, there are generally two types of curriculum models: the product model and the process model. The model you choose to follow will influence the steps you'll take to develop the course.


Entire textbooks have been written on these long-standing models, but here's a brief explanation of each to make sure everyone is on the same page:

Product model:
Also known as the objectives model, this model focuses on evaluations, outcomes, and results. It determines what learning has occurred. If you need to develop a curriculum that prioritizes standardized test scores, you'll need to adhere to the product model. Generally, this model is thought to be more rigid and more difficult to adapt to your students' unique needs, but it does provide quantitative learning assessments.


Process model:
This model focuses on how learning develops over time. There's an emphasis on how the students are learning, and what thoughts they have throughout the process. This approach is more open-ended and considers the overall growth and development of a student rather than their performance on an exam.

Consider the characteristics of each model as well as any institutional requirements you need to adhere to. You may already have a strong preference for one of the two! It is also possible to develop a curriculum that values both product and process.


Once you've determined what type of curriculum you want to create, it's time to choose an approach. There are three widely accepted methodologies for curriculum design:

1.Subject-Centered
This model emphasizes the specific skills and knowledge associated with a subject area. Most kinds of widely standardized curriculum fall under the subject-centered approach.

2.Problem-Centered
This approach aims to provide students with relevant real-world skills. Learners are taught how to look at a problem and come to a solution.Students still learn key skills and knowledge.

3.Learner-Centered
Learner-centered design emphasizes the needs and goals of each learner as an individual.

*Steps of Curriculum Developement

Generally, the steps to curriculum development will fall into a framework that mirrors many instructional design approaches. Each process looks something like this:
Analysis

Design

Selecting

Formation

Review

*Introduction
Curriculum it is the blue print of an any educational programme.

*Definition

Curriculum development is the multi-step process of creating and improving a course taught at a school or university. While the exact process will vary from institution to institution, the broad framework includes stages of analysis, building, implementation, and evaluation.

*uses

1.Curriculum development allows teachers to take a thoughtful and methodical approach to determine what students will be required to learn.

2.Curriculum development takes care of the big-picture strategy required to successfully teach a course.

*Different Curriculum Process

Are there different curriculum development processes or models?

First, there are generally two types of curriculum models: the product model and the process model. The model you choose to follow will influence the steps you'll take to develop the course.


Entire textbooks have been written on these long-standing models, but here's a brief explanation of each to make sure everyone is on the same page:

Product model:
Also known as the objectives model, this model focuses on evaluations, outcomes, and results. It determines what learning has occurred. If you need to develop a curriculum that prioritizes standardized test scores, you'll need to adhere to the product model. Generally, this model is thought to be more rigid and more difficult to adapt to your students' unique needs, but it does provide quantitative learning assessments.


Process model:
This model focuses on how learning develops over time. There's an emphasis on how the students are learning, and what thoughts they have throughout the process. This approach is more open-ended and considers the overall growth and development of a student rather than their performance on an exam.

Consider the characteristics of each model as well as any institutional requirements you need to adhere to. You may already have a strong preference for one of the two! It is also possible to develop a curriculum that values both product and process.


Once you've determined what type of curriculum you want to create, it's time to choose an approach. There are three widely accepted methodologies for curriculum design:

1.Subject-Centered
This model emphasizes the specific skills and knowledge associated with a subject area. Most kinds of widely standardized curriculum fall under the subject-centered approach.

2.Problem-Centered
This approach aims to provide students with relevant real-world skills. Learners are taught how to look at a problem and come to a solution.Students still learn key skills and knowledge.

3.Learner-Centered
Learner-centered design emphasizes the needs and goals of each learner as an individual.

*Steps of Curriculum Developement

Generally, the steps to curriculum development will fall into a framework that mirrors many instructional design approaches. Each process looks something like this:
Analysis

Design

Selecting

Formation

Review

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Curriculum Development

  1. 1. Page | 1 Curriculum development Introduction: The term “curriculum” is a latin word currere which means running, race, lap or course, which are taken to reach a goal, it is the last meaning that is closer to the accepted use of the word in education, i.e. as applied to a courseof study. Thus curriculum means a courseto be run for reaching certain goal or destination. Curriculum may be considered as a blue print of an educational programme. It is the base of education on which the teaching learning process is planned implemented. The conceptof curriculum has changed from time to time. If one goes through the traditional books oncurriculum and the modern books on curriculum one will realize, leading to the goal. Definition:  “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio”- Cunningham.  “The sum total of student activities which the schoolsponsorsforthe purposeof achieving its objectives”- Alberty.  “Curriculum is a systematic arrangements of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a schoolfor a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational programme”- Florence Nightingale. Determinants and foundation of curriculum:- The development of curriculum depends largely on three fields:  Philosophy  Sociology  Psychology The knowledge of three fields will help them to satisfy their lives within the context of the society
  2. 2. Page | 2 Philosophical determinants of curriculum:- Philosophy is a powerful determinant factor of aims of education, but is also equally a strong deciding factor of contents and methods of education It aims at the all-round development of the individual It is based on the philosophy of nation. It reflects the ideals and aspirations og the people It inculcates the desired ideals of life in the youngsters. It helps in the development of proper philosophy of life. It is in accordancewith the aspiration level of the individual It enables the learners to learn the desirable cultural values, intellectual virtues, social norms, and moral doctrine. IT helps in develop in personal and national character. The philosophical foundation of education includes:- 1. Child- centeredness (naturalistic philosophy) 2. Need- centeredness (pragmatic philosophy) 3. Activity- centeredness ( projects and basic curriculum) Sociological determinants of curriculum:- Schools are the social institutions specially set up for the preservation and transmission of culture by society seek to discharge this function through the curriculum. Sociological consideration that guide the curriculum development are- Core values and needs of Indian society Changing values of the people Demands of modernization Good family life, ways of life Democratic temper of teh society
  3. 3. Page | 3 Faith, beliefs and attitudes of the people Cooperation Media explosion Population explosion Regional and national imbalance Economic efficiency Education for fellowship and leadership Creative and purposefulactivities Cultural, political factors Knowledge attitude, beliefs Psychological determinants:- Knowledge of the nature of the learner and learning process and the conditions facilitating optimum learning Knowledge of growth and development Intelligent, development capacities Curriculum to be child centered, learning experiences should be provided in accordancewith the mental development of learner i.e. ability grouping Interests of the learner
  4. 4. Page | 4 Process & steps of curriculum development Introduction:- Curriculum development is an on-going society is not static; therefore its needs are not static. Improvement in general education, changes in traditional customs, advances in medical sciences, research in nursing and increasing availability of resources – all have an effect on nursing education, so that evaluation and modification of the curriculum are essential if the programme offered y the school/college is to keep pace which a particular school/ college of nursing plans for its students and which is developed by the members of its own curriculum committee. Defintiton:- Beane, Toerpter and Alessr (1986) defined curriculum development in their book, “curriculum planning and development”- “curriculum development is mainly concerned with the design of plans for actual teaching-learning situations. It is based upon the broad goals and identified ways to translate those goals into a co-ordinated and coherent programme of learning experience”. Phases of curriculum process: The curriculum is based on the philosophy and purposes ofthe schoolor college or university and its construction requires an understanding of educational psychology together with knowledge and skill in the principles and practice of nursing education. There are five steps in the development of the curriculum. There are five phases in curriculum process,which include as follow: Phase I – formulating the statement of philosophy of the schoolor college or university Phase II- establishment of purposes and objectives of the schoolor college or university. Phase III- selection of learning experience to achieve the purposes and objectives Phase IV – Effecting organization of the selected learning experience.
  5. 5. Page | 5 Phase V- Evaluation of the total program. Phase I :- Formulating the statement of Philosophy The philosophy and administration of schoolor college, institution or education program originates from the Board of Trustees and its member constituted by the government or any private trust, who are expected to become acquainted with the interests and problems in the community. For example, community may decide to organize hospital for care of sick, organisation of university or college or schoolof nursing may follow. o An educational philosophy states the values which are believed to be right, true and good by the persons responsible for he schoolor college. o An educational philosophy will be unique to the particular society and individuals whom it serves. Philosophy Purpose/ Objectives Selection of learning experience Organization of learning experience and content Evaluationof total programme Curriculum process
  6. 6. Page | 6 o All teaching staff should participate in the formation of the school philosophy or college philosophy o College or schoolphilosophy is used as a screen o College or schoolphilosophy should not conflict with the philosophy of the institution of which it is a part. o College or schoolphilosophy should be re-examined periodically to determine its suitability in the light of changing condition. Phase II:- Aims, Goals and Objectives One of the major difficulties of the curriculum process is the transition from general aims to the particular objectives of the classroom. Whether the aims of the educational process are stated as a part of the curriculum process  The ultimate goals are the expected outcomes expressed as patterns or categories of behaviour  Ultimate goals are the expected end products ofan education carried out over time.  Mediate goals are the patterns of expected behaviour at given stages over the educational period.  It is doubtful whether specific objectives can be determined in phase I at all, because they are concerned with fairly discrete educational goals the classroom level. Aims & Objectives of Basic B.Sc Nursing Aims:- The aim of the basic B.S.c Nursing program is to :-  Provide a balance of professional and general education  Enable a student to become a professional nurse practitioner
  7. 7. Page | 7  Prepare graduated to assume responsibilities as professional, competent nurses and midwives in providing promotive, preventive curative and rehabilitative services.  Prepare nurses who can make independent decisions in nursing situations, protectthe rights and facilitate individuals and groups in pursuit of health, function in the hospital, community nursing services, and conductresearch studies in the area of nursing practice. They are also expected to assume the role of teacher, supervisor, and manager in a clinical/ public health. Objectives: On completion of the four year B.Sc nursing program the graduate will be able to:-  Apply knowledge from physical, biological, and behavioural sciences, medicine including alternative systems and nursing in providing nursing care to individuals, families and communities.  Demonstrate understanding of life style and other factors, which affect health of individuals and groups  Provide nursing care based on steps of nursing process in collaboration with the individuals and groups  Demonstrate critical thinking skill in making decisions in all situations in order to provide quality care.  Utilize the latest trends and technology in providing health care  Understanding of fundamental principles of administration and organization of nursing services.  Understanding the human behaviour and an appreciation of effective interpersonal relationship with individuals, families and groups.  Appreciation of the various factors affecting the community social, health and welfare programme  Ability to assume responsibility for continuing learning and for increasing competence in nursing practice.
  8. 8. Page | 8  Appreciation of professional attitudes necessary for leadership roles in nursing  Demonstrate skills in teaching to individuals and groups in clinical/ community health settings  Participate effectively as member of the health team in health care delivery system  Demonstrate leadership and managerial skills in clinical/ community health setting.  Conductneed based research findings to improve the quality of care  Demonstrate awareness, interest, and contribute towards advancement of self and of the profession. Phase III:- Selection of Learning Experience Even if the general aims are derived and stated apart from the process ofcurriculum developmet, it is obvious that data useful in the three-step process in phase I must be derives from the behavioural sciences. In order to achieve ends, appropriate means are required. The means of instilling or changing behaviour are through learning experiences. Phase II of th curriculum process is concerned with the selection of appropriate experience to bring about th desired behaviour specified in phase I. Though learning experience are specific, they may be classified into general categories which deal with man’s functioning in particular ways, or his interests in certain directions, or his attempts to solve certain directions, or his attempts to solve certain kinds of problems. Learning and learning experience::- Learning refers to a more or less permanent change n behaviour, which occurs as a result of practice. The term behaviour, as is used here, demands special attention. It refers to mental, emotional and physical reactions or responses so, mental emotional and physical reactions or responses are behaviours.
  9. 9. Page | 9 Classifications of learning experiences:- Learning experiences can be classified into two categories i.e. direct learning experiences and indirect learning experiences Direct learning experiences:- there are firsthand experiences with various objects or symbols. Some of the direct experience are as follow. - Observing samples or specimen - Experimenting with physical and chemicals materials - Setting up apparatus for experiment - Operating machines - Constructing models, charts, plans, diagrams - Drawing figures, painting models - Summarizing a lengthy description - Collecting analysing and interpreting the data and generalizing - Listing important facts andpoints - Presenting ideas orally or in writing - Conducting physical examination of clients - Performing nursing procedures - Handling different types of medical equipment Indirect learning experience:- These are those experiences which are not firsthand experiences. In education program like nursing education in most of the time every student cannot get direct experiences in all matters relating to nursing.
  10. 10. Page | 10 Phase IV:- Organization and integration of Experiences and content The major task to be attempted in phase IV is the combining of information about experiences, including developmental sequences and stages discovered in Phase II. Phase IV is the phase which leads directly into teaching situation. Phase V:- Evaluation of the Curriculum The final phase in the curriculum process is the coming to conclusion about the success orfailure, of the educational enterprise by means of some measurement or assessment of change in behaviour. STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: According to Ralph Tyler, there are four main steps or tasks in curriculum development. They are:- 1. Formulation of educational objectives 2. Selection of learning experiences 3. Effective and efficient organisation of learning experience 4. Evaluation of the curriculum Formulation of educational objectives Educational objectives are the statement of those desired changes in behaviour as a result of specific teaching-learning activity or specific teacher-leaner activity. Data required for formulating educational objectives: The following information will be formulate educational objectives in an effective manner 1. Philosophical statement of the institute 2. Social and health needs of the society
  11. 11. Page | 11 3. Needs of the student 4. Resources available in the society 5. Entry criteria of level of students 6. Specification of positions to be held by the student on the completion of the programme like staff nurse, nursing tutor, etc. 7. Minimum requirements in terms of clinical and other facilities prescribed by the statutory bodies like nursing council, universities etc. 8. Future trends in nursing 9. Criteria to be fulfilled in order to appear for internationally reputed qualifying examinations like CGFNS, MOH exams etc. Criteria for selection and statement of Objectives: Following criteria will help to state the objectives in a meaningful way Objectives has to be stated in terms of desired changes in behaviour and the area of subject matter through which behaviour is to operate Objective should be stated in the form which makes them most helpful in selecting the learning experiences and guiding the reaching activity. The desired changes in behaviour should be consistent eith the accepted educational objective The objectives for the specific subjects or the units or lessons should be direct contribution to attain the overall objective of the curriculum The objective should be attainable and practicable in the specific teaching-learning situation. Objectives selected should be worth while Objectives should be easily accepted and understood by the teacher as well as students.
  12. 12. Page | 12 Objectives should be cooperatively planed and developed by all teachers and by the teacher and student whenever and wherever possible Objectives have to be so worded that each statement contains only a single objective Objective should not too detailed STEPS IN FORMULATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: According to Ralf Tyler, there are nine essential tasks or steps in the formulation of educational objectives, they are: Identify the needs of the learner Identify the needs of the society Study the suggestion of the experts Formulate the philosophy State the objectives gathered from various sources in a proper way Formulate the theory of learning Screen the objectives through educational philosophy & educational psychology and select the appropriate ones Defines the objectives clearly in terms of content State the educational objectives in terms of behavioural outcomes or change. SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES Learning experience is defined as deliberately planned experience in selected situations where students actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes of behaviour in the students. In nursing education, selection of learning experience is concerned with the decision about the content of subject matter and clinical, community and laboratory practice. Thus, selection of learning situation together with correspondinglearning activities will comprise the learning experiences. When these are in relation to the selection of subject matter, i.e. different theoretical are selected in terms of
  13. 13. Page | 13 community and clinical nursing practice and laboratory work these will constitute practical learning experience. In short, learning experience are those experiences which make appropriate responses among students as indicated in the objectives. PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES: All learning needs should be in relation to the selected objectives Learning activities should be in relation to those real life situations where the students are expected to practice after being qualified. Selection should be in a manner that there is an effective integration between theory and practice Reaction sought must be within the range of possibility for the students concerned The same learning experience will result in several outcomes and several learning experiences may bring out the same outcome. Learning experiences should be selected in such a way that learners are constantly motivated Learning experiences should be planned and organised in sucha way that the student gets meaning out of each experiences and focus on the future needs. Learning is enhanced by utilizing a wide variety of teaching-learning methods. Students will learn effectively if the experiences are satisfactory to them. Learning experiences should consider the students ability to undergo the desired changes in behaviour. Learning experiences selected should be according to the needs of the students and every student should be given similar learning experiences.
  14. 14. Page | 14 Learning experiences selected should provide same or equal chances for all students. ELEMENTS OF ORGANISING THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES Elements to be considered while organising the learning experiences are :- Grouping learning experiences under subject heading Preparation of master plan for curriculum Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum Preparation of the correlation chart Organisation of clinical experience in the total curriculum Types of teaching system have to be followed PREPARATIONOF MASTER PLAN FOR CURRICULUM Preparation of master plan will guide teachers in the placement of subject matter and clinical experience. This will give a clear picture as to how, in which year and in what stage is the subject matter going to be taught and the relevant clinical experience to be offered. Master plan should be prepared in accordance with the requirement prescribed by the statutory bodies like Indian nursing council and universities. The master plan also spell out the hours of planned instructions an required hours of clinical experience per week or per moth of the year, invariably the master plan explains the following Total duration of programme Explanation of different course of study with special reference to theory and practical Total allotted hours in terms of theory and practical ORGANIZATION OF CLINICAL EXPERIENCE
  15. 15. Page | 15 Organization of clinical experience in the curriculum is done on the basis of the syllabus and regulations laid down by the statutory bodies like Indian nursing council and universities. Organization of clinical experience is the responsibility of the faculty. Clinical experience related to each courseshould be planned according to the objectives so that students will get enough opportunities for developing the desired nursing skills and attitude. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CLINICAL ROTATIONPLAN Multiple factors influence the planning of clinical rotation plan. They are:- Requirement stated by the statutory bodies like Indian Nursing Council and universities. The objectives of the course Only a limited number of student can be posted in a particular clinical area Infrastructure of various clinical areas Duration of experience in each area Nurse educators available for supervision PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPING CLINICAL ROTATIONPLAN Principles related to the development of clinical rotation plan will help to accomplish the objective of the clinical postings in a more effective manner. A clinical rotation plan must be in developed accordancewith the master plan of the curriculum The master plan must be made in advance with the cooperation of all the faculty members involved in the clinical teaching. Maxims of teaching should be followed while selecting areas of experience Principle of continuing sequence and integration should be followed to maximum extent. Enough teaching staff should be made available in the clinical areas for giving properinstructions to the students.
  16. 16. Page | 16 Seeks suggestions of the nursing staff working to the suggestion of nursing staff will help to postthe students in such a way that they will get enough exposure First year students should receive maximum supervision and attention. All students should get enough experience as per the clinical rotation plan All assignments related to the clinical area should be finished before the completion of the postings. Overcrowding in clinical areas with different groups of students is not advisable. EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM Evaluation of nursing curriculum has becomea major concernof nurse educators in recent years. Curriculum evaluation involves an assessment of the philosophy of the institutions, programme goals of the institution, nursing concepttaught in each course, course objective, teaching-learning methods, courseevaluation methods and relationship of non-nursing courses to the overall plan of study. CORECURRICULUM According to Fredgreaves, core curriculum means the central area of concern, the central theme or thread which provides the main route for the students through the curriculum or part of it. It can also mean the areas of curriculum which are compulsory, rather than electives or special options. Nursing process approachof giving nursing care can be regarded as the core curriculum in any nursing educational programme. MODELS OF CURRICULUM
  17. 17. Page | 17 Models of curriculum help to understand the nature of curriculum. Some of the useful curriculum models are discussed below in a very brief manner. The behavioural Objective (produce) Model:- This model was developed by Ralph Tyler (19550). He was one of the most influential of the early curriculum theorists and has arguably developed a considerable and lasting influence on present day thinking about the nature and function of the curriculum. His theories reflect very much the need to organise and the utility of purposeand concern for an end productof quality and practical application. He views curriculum objectively and in terms of its function and clearly includes teaching and learning as integral parts of it. He identifies four fundamental questions to be answered in the process ofdeveloping a curriculum. a. What educational purposes should the schoolseek to attain, i.e. objectives. b. How can learning experiences be selected that are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives c. How can learning experiences be organised for effective instruction? d. How can the effectiveness of learning experience be evaluated? Stenhouse’s ProcessModel Lawrence (1975) formulated the process model. This is an input model, i.e. emphasis on learning experience or the process ofeducation. He believed that it was possible to organise curriculum without having to specify in advance the expected behavioural change in students. According the content of curriculum can be selected on the basis that is suitable in itself and not merely as the means to achieve behavioural objective. Lawton’s Cultural Analysis Model
  18. 18. Page | 18 Lawton’s model (1983) was a reaction against what he saw as the dangers of the behavioural objectives models. This model proposesa curriculum planned on the technique of cultural analysis. Culture is defined as the whole way of life of society and the purposeof education is to make available to the next generation what we regard as the most important aspects of culture. Cultural analysis is the process bywhich the selection is made from the culture and in terms of curriculum planning. Beattie’s FourFold Model Beattie (1987) suggest that there are four fundamental approaches in relation to the task of planning a curriculum for nursing they are:- 1. The curriculum as a map of key subjects: approachconsists of mapping out the key subjects in nursing curriculum 2. The curriculum as schedule of basic skills: this approach emphasis the explicit specification of basic skills of nursing practice. 3. The curriculum as a portfolio of meaningful personal experiences: this approachplaces the students at the centre of things by organising the curriculum around their interests and experiences. 4. The curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues: this approachavoids giving detailed subject matter; focusing instead on controversial issues and political dilemmas in nursing and health care. Types of curriculum Corresponding to the changes in the education system in our country or in other countries there have been changes in the concepts and form of curriculum. As new psychological, philosophical and sociological principles modified the educational process, new types of curricula came into being. They are:- The traditional or subject centred curriculum Child centred curriculum Activity curriculum Experience curriculum
  19. 19. Page | 19 Undifferentiated curriculum Basic education curriculum Official curriculum Hidden curriculum Olivia Bevis recommends four types of nursing curricula namely the Legitimate curriculum Illegitimate curriculum Hidden curriculum Null curriculum The officialcurricula include the stated curriculum framework with philosophy and mission; recognised lists of outcomes, competencies, and objectives for the programme and individual courses. The operationalcurriculum consists of what is actually taught by the teacher and how its importance is communicated to the student. The curriculum includes knowledge, skills and attitudes emphasized faculty in the classroom and clinical setting. The legitimate curriculum: this is the one agreed by the faculty either implicitly or explicitly. Sometimes it is written into plans, sometimes not. But, regardless it is recognised and acknowledged by faculty and students as ‘real’ curriculum. The illegitimate curriculum: this is the curriculum that, becauseof the constraints of the behavioural objectives driven curriculum prevalent in nursing, cannot be graded or officially acknowledge or sanctioned becauseit does not lend itself to descriptors that are behavioural. It is the curriculum that values and reaches, among many other things, caring compassion, power and its use. Hidden curriculum: it is the curriculum in which we are unaware of the messages given by the way we teach, the priorities we set, the type of methods we use and the way we interact with students. This is the curriculum of subtle
  20. 20. Page | 20 socialization of teaching how to think and feel like nurses. It is the curriculum that covertly communicates priorities, relationships and values. The Null Curriculum: this is the curriculum that exists only in the hearts and mind of educators but seldom exists in reality. This may be because teachers are not taught the art of provoking cognitive dissonanceand raising issues and questions that supportthe general aims of education like critical thinking, enquiry and intellectual development. CURRICULUM FRAME WORKIN INDIA Curriculum is a compositeof the entire range of experiences the learner undergoes under the guidance of the schoolor college. It is a systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a schoolor college or a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational program. A curriculum directed to teh education of the nurses is designed within three frameworks. 1. The legally established limits for the nursing activities of the nurses within the individual state or union and union territories 2. The natural roles of nurse in the profession of nursing 3. The types of nursing situations or areas where specifically qualified persons are able to learn for nursing. The provisions of the states or union relative to the objectives and education of nurses vary, but they are based upon the limited roles of nurses in nursing profession. There will be common curricula for one state or country that will be requirements which is prescribed by the statutory bodyin the form of syllabus. In Indian Nursing Council” is the statutory bodywhich prescribes syllabus for all levels of nursing programs. It may be ANM,GNM, B.S.c, M.Sc, M.Phil, PhD courses.

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