SC 24でのメタバース関連標準化概要:ヘルスケア応用事例を交えて(ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24)

Kurata Takeshi
Kurata TakeshiDeputy Director, HARC, AIST à AIST
SC 24でのメタバース関連標準化概要:
ヘルスケア応用事例を交えて
(ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24)
蔵田 武志123
1国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 人間拡張研究センター 副研究センター長
2筑波大学 システム情報系 教授(連携大学院) 応用サービス工学研究室
(システム情報工学研究群 知能機能システム学位プログラム)
3名古屋大学 未来社会創造機構 客員教授
2023年電子情報通信学会ソサイエティ大会
ソサイエティ特別企画セッション [BK-3] メタバースを支える技術、標準化の観点から
[BK-3-5] ISO/IECでのメタバースの標準化概要(ISO/IEC Joint SEG metaverse)
三宅滋 (日立)
自己紹介: 蔵田 武志
1996年より電子技術総合研究所研究員、2020年より現職(産業技術
総合研究所人間拡張研究センターの副研究センター長)。2003-2005
年にJSPS海外特別研究員(ワシントン大)を兼務。2013年より筑波
大学大学院教授(連携大学院)、2018-2020年に住友電気工業(株)ク
ロスアポイントメントフェロー、2021年より名古屋大学客員教授をそ
れぞれ兼務。日本VR学会評議員、サービス学会理事、
ISO IEC/JTC 1/SC 24(CG、XRなど)日本代表(HOD)、
ISO IEC/JTC 1/SC 24/WG 9(MR/ARグループ)コンビーナー、
PDRベンチマーク標準化委員会初代委員長。屋内測位、XR、サービス
工学、健康経営支援、視覚障害者支援等の研究に従事。博士(工学)。
国際標準化をはじめたきっかけ http://journal.vrsj.org/15-2/s37-41.pdf
Benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and
tracking methods for MAR (ISO/IEC 18520)
4
• Main Body
• Terms and Definitions
• Benchmarking processes
• Benchmark indicators
• Trial set for benchmarking
• Conformance
• Annex A: Benchmarking activities
• Annex B: Usage examples of conformation checklists
• Annex C: Conceptual relationship between this document and other
standards
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24/WG 9 (MR/ARグループ)で作成
AWE US 2023
5
Metaverse was dead.
XR is hard.
「メタバース」という言葉
が初めて使われた小説
Snow Crashの著者も登壇
Metaverse, (Digital) Multiverse,
Omniverse, Interverse, etc.
• Interverse
• The concept of fusing digital multiverse with the universe
• Virtual economy forms and related technologies that return value in cyberspace to physical
space (by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan)
6
https://www.techtarget.com/searchcio/tip/Metaverse-vs-multiverse-vs-omniverse-Key-differences
https://ivrc.net/2023/en/toppage/
https://www.w3.org/2008/WebVideo/Annotations/wiki/images/1/19/MetaverseRoadmapOverview.pdf
Source: Metaverse Roadmap 2008
Source: SIP, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan
ARもメタバース?!
AWE US 2023:Niantec
7
マルチユーザーがすぐに繋がる空間コンピューティング(AR)プラットフォーム
Niantec: Real World Metaverse
8
https://nianticlabs.com/news/real-world-metaverse
• AR的なものを単にメタバースと呼ぶのは
抵抗があるというように解釈できる
• ともかく、用語の定義は重要
業界における
用語の使われ方
ISOでは、
MetaverseもXRも
まだ定義されていない。
(VR, AR, AV, MRは定義されている)
→ 世の中的にある程度意味が安定してからで
ないと、定義しない傾向
ISOで何が定義されているかを調べるサイト
https://www.iso.org/obp/
9
XRとしか書かない。賢い。
10
XRはXR
XRはeXtended Reality
XRはCross Reality
などなど
IEEE VR 2023のパネルセッショ
ンでは、Khronosからのパネリ
ストが、「XRはXRで、
eXtended RealityはBackronym
(後付け)のように感じるが、
それを言うと批判がでそうな
ので・・・」という趣旨の発
言をしていた。
(XR分野の歴史からすると、
XRはXRしておいた方が良い気
がしています)
https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/titeki2/tyousakai/cycle/dai6/6sankou1.pdf
https://www.ieice.org/tokyo/ceatec2019_01.pdf
ISO/IECウェビナー
(開催済み、ビデオ・資料のアーカイブあり)
12
https://www.iec.ch/academy/webinars
Standards for the Metaverse
ISO/IECウェビナー:
Standards and projects by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24
13
• PNG(画像フォーマット)
• VRML
• X3D(VRMLの後継)
• HAnim(アバター)
• Metaverse関連
• 国際安全保障関連の標準
• SEDRIS(環境データ)
• BIIF(画像等のの交換)
ISO/IECウェビナー:VRMの紹介
14
[BK-3-3] 3D アバターファイルフォーマットの標準VRMの概要と標準化(VRMコンソ)
岩城進之介 (バーチャルキャスト)
Standards and projects by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24/WG9 15
ISO/IEC 18039:2019
MAR reference model
ISO/IEC 18038:2020 Sensor
representation in MAR
ISO/IEC PRF 3721
Information model for
MAR content — Core
objects and attributes
ISO/IEC PRF 21145
Style representation for MAR
ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021
Material property and parameter
representation for model-based
haptic simulation of objects in
VR/MAR
ISO/IEC 23488:2022
Object/environmental
representation for image-
based rendering in VR/MAR
ISO/IEC 18040:2019
Live actor and entity
representation in MAR
ISO/IEC AWI TR 16088 Constructs for
Visual Positioning Systems in MAR
ISO/IEC AWI 21134 Benchmarking of integrated indoor
localization and tracking methods using dead reckoning
ISO/IEC 18520:2019 Benchmarking of vision-based
spatial registration and tracking methods for MAR • 日本主導で作成
• インターバース(空
間コンピューティン
グ、AR、実世界メタ
バース)実現のため
の主要技術の評価の
枠組みの標準化
屋内測位国際競技会
草の根活動(ある種のフォーラムでの合意形成)をベース
に、以下の標準を作成中
ISO/IEC AWI 21134 Benchmarking of integrated indoor
localization and tracking methods using dead reckoning
launched on 21 June 2022
650+ member organizations
https://metaverse-standards.org/
あれっ?
ISO/IEC JTC 1は?
17
AWE US 2023
18
市場調査:バーチャルリハビリ・遠隔リハビリシステム 19
https://www.360marketupdates.com/global-virtual-rehabilitation-and-telerehabilitation-systems-market-18486215#
市場調査:バーチャルリハビリ・遠隔リハビリシステム 20
2027年 グローバル:市場規模 1620億円 年成長率 18%
日本: 市場規模 190億円 年成長率 18% 家庭、アジアパシフィックで需要が伸びる
21
XRに基づくリハビリの研究・事業事例リスト
Name Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
People
involved in XR
Organization Country Notes URL
Physical rehab
Service/Product
IREX
(1) A patient’s real-time image is projected into virtual environments where
they perform individualised gesture-based exercise games designed by their
clinician to each patient’s ability and recovery level
(2) The biometrics for quantitative evaluation are collected by the video
camera tracking and analysis systems
Broad
Broad (upper and lower-
limbs, cognitive
capabilities)
MR
(Monitor)
Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation
programs
User (and
clinician)
GestureTek Health Canada None https://gesturetekhealth.com/products/irex
XRHealth
(1) Assigned physical therapists proposing VR rehab programs for each
disease
(2) Improving physical functions through VR games
(3) FDA-registered medical VR applications
Broad
Broad (physical,
neurological or behavioral
symptoms)
VR (HMD)
Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation
programs
User XRHealth USA INC USA Telerehabilitation https://www.xr.health/
SaeboVR
(1) Designed to engage the client involving daily functional activities through
a virtual ADL (activities of daily living)
rehabilitation system to help the brain “re-program” itself and form new
neural connections
(2) Virtual assistant appearing on the screen to educate and facilitate
performance by providing real-time feedback
(3) Using Microsoft Kinect
(4) FDA-cleared software system
Patients with
cognitive or upper
limb impairments
Upper limbs
VR
(Monitor)
Providing ADL-focused virtual world in which
the users incorporates their impaired upper limb
to perform simulated self-care tasks that involve
picking up, transferring and manipulating virtual
objects
User Saebo, Inc USA None https://www.saebo.com/shop/saebovr/
MindMotion GO
(1) Gamified neurorehabilitation therapy platform for medium and light
severity impairments able to be deployed in the patient’s home
(2) Including rehabilitation exercises for the upper extremity, trunk, and
lower extremity; audio-visual feedback and graphic movement
representations for patients
(3) Using Microsoft Kinect and Leap Motion
Stroke survivors at
home
Broad(Upper limbs, torso,
lower limbs)
VR
(Monitor)
Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation
programs
User MindMaze SA Switzerland Telerehabilitation
https://mindmaze.com/digital-therapies-for-
neurorehabilitation/mindmotion-telerehab/
https://www.physiofunction.co.uk/rehabilitation-
technology/upper-limb-rehabilitation/mind-motion-go-
for-home-use
MindMotion Pro
(1) Designed for acute neurorehabilitation and ideally suited for delivering
table-top therapy to patients recovering from upper-limb hemiparesis
(2) Gamification of the exercises (levels of difficulty, rewards, real-time
feedback) to maintain patient motivation and to increase the amount of
practice
(3) FDA-cleared system
Acute stroke
patients at hospital
Upper limbs (or )
VR
(Monitor)
Project a CG depiction of the nonfunctional one
hand, which is controlled by the patient's
movement of the working another hand
User MindMaze SA Switzerland None
https://www.mindmaze.com/digital-therapies-for-
neurorehabilitation/
mediVR KAGURA
Seated reaching motion improving postural balance and dual-task cognitive
processing function
Stroke patients Upper limbs, torso (core) VR (HMD)
Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation
programs: horizontal/vertical/Mito-
Komon/vegetables/fruits
User mediVR inc. Japan None https://www.medivr.jp/
RehaVR
Gives the feeling of walking in a grassland or a place with beautiful scenery
to increase motivation
Elderly people who
wish to improve
their motor skills
Lower limbs
VR (HMD,
Foot Pedal
Exerciser)
Providing virtual environments with beatiful
scenary such as sightseeing spots
User silvereye Inc. Japan None https://rehavr.com
KiNvis system
Using KiNvis (KiNesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation) described
as the feeling of one’s body moving during sensory input, even though the
body is actually in a resting state; cognitive stimulation to the embodied
brain system for body ownership, a sense of agency, and kinesthetic
perception
Patients with
chronic stroke
Upper limbs
VR/AR
(Monitor/
HMD)
(1) Providing visual stimulation which is
recorded hand moviment in the movement task
involving hand opening and closing
(2) Applying electrical stimulation while
watching the movie during the finger-extension
phase.
User Inter Reha Co.,Ltd. Japan None
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00076
https://www.irc-web.co.jp/kinvis
https://keio-rehab.jp/efforts/kinvis/
Prototype/Research
Phantom motor
execution facilitated by
ML and AR
Novel plasticity-based, non-invasive treatment for phantom limb pain, in
which phantom motor execution is decoded via machine learning, while
visualisation of the phantom is accomplished via augmented and virtual
reality.
Patients with
phantom limb pain
Upper limbs
AR/VR
(Monitor)
Preserving the virtual arm in the anatomically
correct placement
User
Chalmers University of
Technology
Sweden None
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31598-7
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ek7JHGC-T4E
Walk Again Project
(WAP)
(1) BMI with VR makes the patient's brain reacquire the notion of walking.
(2) By walking in a custom-designed exoskeleton with BMI, patients are
eventually able to rekindle their remaining nerves to send signals back to
brain, and reactivate some voluntary movement and sensitivity.
Paraplegics Lower limbs VR (HMD)
Presenting visually the virtual lower limbs
through the HMD and the sense of touching the
ground through haptic display attached on
forearms
User Duke University USA None
https://qz.com/757516/paraplegics-are-learning-to-
walk-again-with-virtual-reality/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pb36O-Yotac
Name Features Users Target symptoms Type of XR How to use XR
People
involved in XR
Organization Country Notes URL
Mental health/Phobia
Product/Service
Immersive simulation
system for overcoming
fear of heights
Standing on top of a vitrual skyscraper to alleviate fear
People with a fear
of heights
(acrophobia)
Acrophobia VR (HMD)
Providing virtual environments on top of a
skyscraper
User CRESCENT,INC Japan None https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AR-VAImfFXI
Prototype/Research
RECOVER: Virtual
Reality in Rehab
Providing valid contexts for people to practise their communication skills,
build confidence interacting with others and generalise their communication
skills to various environments
People with
communication
disorders
Communication disorder VR (HMD)
Simulating social communication situations that
are difficult to create within the clinic in realistic,
personally relevant and safe environments
(Cooking etc.)
User and other
people
interacting
with the user
The University of
Queensland
Australia
Speech
pathologists
https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2021/03/virtual-
reality-help-patients-speak
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/096382
88.2021.1895333?journalCode=idre20
Bravemind
Supporting exposure therapy, in which a patient with PTS(Post-Traumatic
Stress) – guided by a trained therapist – confronts their trauma memories
through a retelling of the experience
Veterans with
urgently needed
options for PTS
treatment
PTS and depression VR (HMD)
Providing 14 different worlds from a crowded
Iraqi marketplace to a remote Afghan village, a
checkpoint in the desert to a forward operating
base in the mountains
User
The University of
Southern California
Institute for Creative
Technologies
USA None
https://www.soldierstrong.org/bravemind/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVmxmDFCMlQ
Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
(1) Assigned physical therapists proposing VR rehab programs for
each disease
(2) Improving physical functions through VR games
(3) FDA-registered medical VR applications
Broad
Broad (physical,
neurological or
behavioral
symptoms)
VR (HMD)
Playing VR games designed for
rehabilitation programs
XRHealth XRHealth USA INC
22
Service/Product
Physical rehab
Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research
☑ ☑
Telerehabilitation
☑
Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
(1) Gamified neurorehabilitation therapy platform for medium and
light severity impairments able to be deployed in the patient’s
home
(2) Including rehabilitation exercises for the upper extremity,
trunk, and lower extremity; audio-visual feedback and graphic
movement representations for patients
(3) Using Microsoft Kinect and Leap Motion
(4) FDA-cleared system
Stroke
survivors at
home
Broad(Upper
limbs, torso, lower
limbs)
VR
(Monitor)
Playing VR games designed for
rehabilitation programs
MindMotion GO MindMaze SA
国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所
23
Service/Product
Physical rehab
Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research
☑ ☑
Telerehabilitation
☑
国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所
24
Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
(1) Designed for acute neurorehabilitation and ideally suited for
delivering table-top therapy to patients recovering from upper-
limb hemiparesis
(2) Gamification of the exercises (levels of difficulty, rewards,
real-time feedback) to maintain patient motivation and to
increase the amount of practice
(3) FDA-cleared system
Acute stroke
patients at
hospital
Upper limbs
VR
(Monitor)
Project a CG depiction of the
nonfunctional one hand, which is
controlled by the patient's movement
of the working another hand
MindMotion Pro MindMaze SA
Service/Product
Physical rehab
Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research
☑ ☑
Telerehabilitation
Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
Using KiNvis (KiNesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation)
described as the feeling of one’s body moving during sensory
input, even though the body is actually in a resting state;
cognitive stimulation to the embodied brain system for body
ownership, a sense of agency, and kinesthetic perception
Patients with
chronic stroke
Upper limbs
VR/AR
(Monitor/
HMD)
(1) Providing visual stimulation which
is recorded hand moviment in the
movement task involving hand
opening and closing
(2) Applying electrical stimulation
while watching the movie during the
finger-extension phase.
KiNvis system Inter Reha Co.,Ltd.
国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所
25
Service/Product
Physical rehab
Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research
☑ ☑
Telerehabilitation
国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所
26
Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR
Seated reaching motion improving postural balance and dual-task
cognitive processing function
Stroke
patients
Upper limbs, torso
(core)
VR (HMD)
Playing VR games designed for
rehabilitation programs:
horizontal/vertical/Mito-
Komon/vegetables/fruits
mediVR KAGURA mediVR inc.
Service/Product
Physical rehab
Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research
☑ ☑
Telerehabilitation
NEDOプロ
遠隔リハビリのための多感覚XR-AI技術基盤構築と保健指導との互恵ケア連携
MR3: MultiModal Mixed Reality for Remote Rehab、エムアールキューブ
XR-AI: XR powered by AI、エックスレイ
27
MR3ウェア・マネキンによる遠隔触力覚インタラクション
28
IROS-TV (YouTube)
MR3: MultiModal Mixed Reality for Remote Rehab、エムアールキューブ
ハンガー反射デバイス 視覚提示
Actual
Exaggerated
ハンドリダイレクション
(視覚と触力覚による錯覚)
Takuto Nakamura, et al., Effect of Hanger Reflex on Detection Thresholds for Hand Redirection during
Forearm Rotation, ACM Symposium on Applied Perception 2023 (accepted)
錯覚に基づく手法:
• 現状はVRを想定(完全に実世界を隠蔽して錯覚しやすくする)
• ビデオシースルーHMDとの相性が良い(MREAL, Vision Pro, Quest Proなど)
• 光学シースルーHMDもディミング機能もあれば有効(Magic Leap2)
錯覚表現を扱えるような
アバター・メタバース標準
があれば応用が進む?!
NEDOプロ関連
シンポジウムのご紹介
30
https://unit.aist.go.jp/harc/nedo-xrai-
healthcare/symposium2023/
産総研人間拡張研究セ
ンターシンポジウムの
ご案内
31
https://unit.aist.go.jp/harc/symposium/
HARCS2023/
メタバース・インターバース・XR関連ネタで
標準化(国際じゃなくてもOK,デジュール標準
じゃなくてもOK)に興味のある方はご一報く
ださい!
1 sur 32

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SC 24でのメタバース関連標準化概要:ヘルスケア応用事例を交えて(ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24)

  • 1. SC 24でのメタバース関連標準化概要: ヘルスケア応用事例を交えて (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24) 蔵田 武志123 1国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 人間拡張研究センター 副研究センター長 2筑波大学 システム情報系 教授(連携大学院) 応用サービス工学研究室 (システム情報工学研究群 知能機能システム学位プログラム) 3名古屋大学 未来社会創造機構 客員教授 2023年電子情報通信学会ソサイエティ大会 ソサイエティ特別企画セッション [BK-3] メタバースを支える技術、標準化の観点から [BK-3-5] ISO/IECでのメタバースの標準化概要(ISO/IEC Joint SEG metaverse) 三宅滋 (日立)
  • 2. 自己紹介: 蔵田 武志 1996年より電子技術総合研究所研究員、2020年より現職(産業技術 総合研究所人間拡張研究センターの副研究センター長)。2003-2005 年にJSPS海外特別研究員(ワシントン大)を兼務。2013年より筑波 大学大学院教授(連携大学院)、2018-2020年に住友電気工業(株)ク ロスアポイントメントフェロー、2021年より名古屋大学客員教授をそ れぞれ兼務。日本VR学会評議員、サービス学会理事、 ISO IEC/JTC 1/SC 24(CG、XRなど)日本代表(HOD)、 ISO IEC/JTC 1/SC 24/WG 9(MR/ARグループ)コンビーナー、 PDRベンチマーク標準化委員会初代委員長。屋内測位、XR、サービス 工学、健康経営支援、視覚障害者支援等の研究に従事。博士(工学)。
  • 4. Benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and tracking methods for MAR (ISO/IEC 18520) 4 • Main Body • Terms and Definitions • Benchmarking processes • Benchmark indicators • Trial set for benchmarking • Conformance • Annex A: Benchmarking activities • Annex B: Usage examples of conformation checklists • Annex C: Conceptual relationship between this document and other standards ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24/WG 9 (MR/ARグループ)で作成
  • 5. AWE US 2023 5 Metaverse was dead. XR is hard. 「メタバース」という言葉 が初めて使われた小説 Snow Crashの著者も登壇
  • 6. Metaverse, (Digital) Multiverse, Omniverse, Interverse, etc. • Interverse • The concept of fusing digital multiverse with the universe • Virtual economy forms and related technologies that return value in cyberspace to physical space (by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan) 6 https://www.techtarget.com/searchcio/tip/Metaverse-vs-multiverse-vs-omniverse-Key-differences https://ivrc.net/2023/en/toppage/ https://www.w3.org/2008/WebVideo/Annotations/wiki/images/1/19/MetaverseRoadmapOverview.pdf Source: Metaverse Roadmap 2008 Source: SIP, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan ARもメタバース?!
  • 8. Niantec: Real World Metaverse 8 https://nianticlabs.com/news/real-world-metaverse • AR的なものを単にメタバースと呼ぶのは 抵抗があるというように解釈できる • ともかく、用語の定義は重要
  • 9. 業界における 用語の使われ方 ISOでは、 MetaverseもXRも まだ定義されていない。 (VR, AR, AV, MRは定義されている) → 世の中的にある程度意味が安定してからで ないと、定義しない傾向 ISOで何が定義されているかを調べるサイト https://www.iso.org/obp/ 9
  • 10. XRとしか書かない。賢い。 10 XRはXR XRはeXtended Reality XRはCross Reality などなど IEEE VR 2023のパネルセッショ ンでは、Khronosからのパネリ ストが、「XRはXRで、 eXtended RealityはBackronym (後付け)のように感じるが、 それを言うと批判がでそうな ので・・・」という趣旨の発 言をしていた。 (XR分野の歴史からすると、 XRはXRしておいた方が良い気 がしています)
  • 13. ISO/IECウェビナー: Standards and projects by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 13 • PNG(画像フォーマット) • VRML • X3D(VRMLの後継) • HAnim(アバター) • Metaverse関連 • 国際安全保障関連の標準 • SEDRIS(環境データ) • BIIF(画像等のの交換)
  • 15. Standards and projects by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24/WG9 15 ISO/IEC 18039:2019 MAR reference model ISO/IEC 18038:2020 Sensor representation in MAR ISO/IEC PRF 3721 Information model for MAR content — Core objects and attributes ISO/IEC PRF 21145 Style representation for MAR ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021 Material property and parameter representation for model-based haptic simulation of objects in VR/MAR ISO/IEC 23488:2022 Object/environmental representation for image- based rendering in VR/MAR ISO/IEC 18040:2019 Live actor and entity representation in MAR ISO/IEC AWI TR 16088 Constructs for Visual Positioning Systems in MAR ISO/IEC AWI 21134 Benchmarking of integrated indoor localization and tracking methods using dead reckoning ISO/IEC 18520:2019 Benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and tracking methods for MAR • 日本主導で作成 • インターバース(空 間コンピューティン グ、AR、実世界メタ バース)実現のため の主要技術の評価の 枠組みの標準化
  • 17. launched on 21 June 2022 650+ member organizations https://metaverse-standards.org/ あれっ? ISO/IEC JTC 1は? 17
  • 20. 市場調査:バーチャルリハビリ・遠隔リハビリシステム 20 2027年 グローバル:市場規模 1620億円 年成長率 18% 日本: 市場規模 190億円 年成長率 18% 家庭、アジアパシフィックで需要が伸びる
  • 21. 21 XRに基づくリハビリの研究・事業事例リスト Name Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR People involved in XR Organization Country Notes URL Physical rehab Service/Product IREX (1) A patient’s real-time image is projected into virtual environments where they perform individualised gesture-based exercise games designed by their clinician to each patient’s ability and recovery level (2) The biometrics for quantitative evaluation are collected by the video camera tracking and analysis systems Broad Broad (upper and lower- limbs, cognitive capabilities) MR (Monitor) Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation programs User (and clinician) GestureTek Health Canada None https://gesturetekhealth.com/products/irex XRHealth (1) Assigned physical therapists proposing VR rehab programs for each disease (2) Improving physical functions through VR games (3) FDA-registered medical VR applications Broad Broad (physical, neurological or behavioral symptoms) VR (HMD) Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation programs User XRHealth USA INC USA Telerehabilitation https://www.xr.health/ SaeboVR (1) Designed to engage the client involving daily functional activities through a virtual ADL (activities of daily living) rehabilitation system to help the brain “re-program” itself and form new neural connections (2) Virtual assistant appearing on the screen to educate and facilitate performance by providing real-time feedback (3) Using Microsoft Kinect (4) FDA-cleared software system Patients with cognitive or upper limb impairments Upper limbs VR (Monitor) Providing ADL-focused virtual world in which the users incorporates their impaired upper limb to perform simulated self-care tasks that involve picking up, transferring and manipulating virtual objects User Saebo, Inc USA None https://www.saebo.com/shop/saebovr/ MindMotion GO (1) Gamified neurorehabilitation therapy platform for medium and light severity impairments able to be deployed in the patient’s home (2) Including rehabilitation exercises for the upper extremity, trunk, and lower extremity; audio-visual feedback and graphic movement representations for patients (3) Using Microsoft Kinect and Leap Motion Stroke survivors at home Broad(Upper limbs, torso, lower limbs) VR (Monitor) Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation programs User MindMaze SA Switzerland Telerehabilitation https://mindmaze.com/digital-therapies-for- neurorehabilitation/mindmotion-telerehab/ https://www.physiofunction.co.uk/rehabilitation- technology/upper-limb-rehabilitation/mind-motion-go- for-home-use MindMotion Pro (1) Designed for acute neurorehabilitation and ideally suited for delivering table-top therapy to patients recovering from upper-limb hemiparesis (2) Gamification of the exercises (levels of difficulty, rewards, real-time feedback) to maintain patient motivation and to increase the amount of practice (3) FDA-cleared system Acute stroke patients at hospital Upper limbs (or ) VR (Monitor) Project a CG depiction of the nonfunctional one hand, which is controlled by the patient's movement of the working another hand User MindMaze SA Switzerland None https://www.mindmaze.com/digital-therapies-for- neurorehabilitation/ mediVR KAGURA Seated reaching motion improving postural balance and dual-task cognitive processing function Stroke patients Upper limbs, torso (core) VR (HMD) Playing VR games desiend for rehabilitation programs: horizontal/vertical/Mito- Komon/vegetables/fruits User mediVR inc. Japan None https://www.medivr.jp/ RehaVR Gives the feeling of walking in a grassland or a place with beautiful scenery to increase motivation Elderly people who wish to improve their motor skills Lower limbs VR (HMD, Foot Pedal Exerciser) Providing virtual environments with beatiful scenary such as sightseeing spots User silvereye Inc. Japan None https://rehavr.com KiNvis system Using KiNvis (KiNesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation) described as the feeling of one’s body moving during sensory input, even though the body is actually in a resting state; cognitive stimulation to the embodied brain system for body ownership, a sense of agency, and kinesthetic perception Patients with chronic stroke Upper limbs VR/AR (Monitor/ HMD) (1) Providing visual stimulation which is recorded hand moviment in the movement task involving hand opening and closing (2) Applying electrical stimulation while watching the movie during the finger-extension phase. User Inter Reha Co.,Ltd. Japan None https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00076 https://www.irc-web.co.jp/kinvis https://keio-rehab.jp/efforts/kinvis/ Prototype/Research Phantom motor execution facilitated by ML and AR Novel plasticity-based, non-invasive treatment for phantom limb pain, in which phantom motor execution is decoded via machine learning, while visualisation of the phantom is accomplished via augmented and virtual reality. Patients with phantom limb pain Upper limbs AR/VR (Monitor) Preserving the virtual arm in the anatomically correct placement User Chalmers University of Technology Sweden None https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31598-7 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ek7JHGC-T4E Walk Again Project (WAP) (1) BMI with VR makes the patient's brain reacquire the notion of walking. (2) By walking in a custom-designed exoskeleton with BMI, patients are eventually able to rekindle their remaining nerves to send signals back to brain, and reactivate some voluntary movement and sensitivity. Paraplegics Lower limbs VR (HMD) Presenting visually the virtual lower limbs through the HMD and the sense of touching the ground through haptic display attached on forearms User Duke University USA None https://qz.com/757516/paraplegics-are-learning-to- walk-again-with-virtual-reality/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pb36O-Yotac Name Features Users Target symptoms Type of XR How to use XR People involved in XR Organization Country Notes URL Mental health/Phobia Product/Service Immersive simulation system for overcoming fear of heights Standing on top of a vitrual skyscraper to alleviate fear People with a fear of heights (acrophobia) Acrophobia VR (HMD) Providing virtual environments on top of a skyscraper User CRESCENT,INC Japan None https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AR-VAImfFXI Prototype/Research RECOVER: Virtual Reality in Rehab Providing valid contexts for people to practise their communication skills, build confidence interacting with others and generalise their communication skills to various environments People with communication disorders Communication disorder VR (HMD) Simulating social communication situations that are difficult to create within the clinic in realistic, personally relevant and safe environments (Cooking etc.) User and other people interacting with the user The University of Queensland Australia Speech pathologists https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2021/03/virtual- reality-help-patients-speak https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/096382 88.2021.1895333?journalCode=idre20 Bravemind Supporting exposure therapy, in which a patient with PTS(Post-Traumatic Stress) – guided by a trained therapist – confronts their trauma memories through a retelling of the experience Veterans with urgently needed options for PTS treatment PTS and depression VR (HMD) Providing 14 different worlds from a crowded Iraqi marketplace to a remote Afghan village, a checkpoint in the desert to a forward operating base in the mountains User The University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies USA None https://www.soldierstrong.org/bravemind/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVmxmDFCMlQ
  • 22. Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR (1) Assigned physical therapists proposing VR rehab programs for each disease (2) Improving physical functions through VR games (3) FDA-registered medical VR applications Broad Broad (physical, neurological or behavioral symptoms) VR (HMD) Playing VR games designed for rehabilitation programs XRHealth XRHealth USA INC 22 Service/Product Physical rehab Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research ☑ ☑ Telerehabilitation ☑
  • 23. Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR (1) Gamified neurorehabilitation therapy platform for medium and light severity impairments able to be deployed in the patient’s home (2) Including rehabilitation exercises for the upper extremity, trunk, and lower extremity; audio-visual feedback and graphic movement representations for patients (3) Using Microsoft Kinect and Leap Motion (4) FDA-cleared system Stroke survivors at home Broad(Upper limbs, torso, lower limbs) VR (Monitor) Playing VR games designed for rehabilitation programs MindMotion GO MindMaze SA 国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 23 Service/Product Physical rehab Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research ☑ ☑ Telerehabilitation ☑
  • 24. 国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 24 Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR (1) Designed for acute neurorehabilitation and ideally suited for delivering table-top therapy to patients recovering from upper- limb hemiparesis (2) Gamification of the exercises (levels of difficulty, rewards, real-time feedback) to maintain patient motivation and to increase the amount of practice (3) FDA-cleared system Acute stroke patients at hospital Upper limbs VR (Monitor) Project a CG depiction of the nonfunctional one hand, which is controlled by the patient's movement of the working another hand MindMotion Pro MindMaze SA Service/Product Physical rehab Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research ☑ ☑ Telerehabilitation
  • 25. Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR Using KiNvis (KiNesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation) described as the feeling of one’s body moving during sensory input, even though the body is actually in a resting state; cognitive stimulation to the embodied brain system for body ownership, a sense of agency, and kinesthetic perception Patients with chronic stroke Upper limbs VR/AR (Monitor/ HMD) (1) Providing visual stimulation which is recorded hand moviment in the movement task involving hand opening and closing (2) Applying electrical stimulation while watching the movie during the finger-extension phase. KiNvis system Inter Reha Co.,Ltd. 国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 25 Service/Product Physical rehab Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research ☑ ☑ Telerehabilitation
  • 26. 国立研究開発法人 産業技術総合研究所 26 Features Users Target body part Which XR How to use XR Seated reaching motion improving postural balance and dual-task cognitive processing function Stroke patients Upper limbs, torso (core) VR (HMD) Playing VR games designed for rehabilitation programs: horizontal/vertical/Mito- Komon/vegetables/fruits mediVR KAGURA mediVR inc. Service/Product Physical rehab Mental health/Phobia Prototype/Research ☑ ☑ Telerehabilitation
  • 27. NEDOプロ 遠隔リハビリのための多感覚XR-AI技術基盤構築と保健指導との互恵ケア連携 MR3: MultiModal Mixed Reality for Remote Rehab、エムアールキューブ XR-AI: XR powered by AI、エックスレイ 27
  • 29. ハンガー反射デバイス 視覚提示 Actual Exaggerated ハンドリダイレクション (視覚と触力覚による錯覚) Takuto Nakamura, et al., Effect of Hanger Reflex on Detection Thresholds for Hand Redirection during Forearm Rotation, ACM Symposium on Applied Perception 2023 (accepted) 錯覚に基づく手法: • 現状はVRを想定(完全に実世界を隠蔽して錯覚しやすくする) • ビデオシースルーHMDとの相性が良い(MREAL, Vision Pro, Quest Proなど) • 光学シースルーHMDもディミング機能もあれば有効(Magic Leap2) 錯覚表現を扱えるような アバター・メタバース標準 があれば応用が進む?!