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(META)COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
Jonna Malmberg
Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
(LET)
WHO AM I?
• Post-Doc Researcher.
• Self-regulated learning (SRL) and socially shared
regulation of learning (SSRL)  (Meta...
WHO ARE YOU?
• Introduce your self
• Explain shortly
- What is the purpose of this course
COURSE TASK
1. Collaborative group work: SRL (mind map)
2. During the presentation EXTEND your mind map about
what you hav...
WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF GOOD
LEARNER?
• How do you define
good learner?
• Discuss and make a
schetch (e.g. a mind
map) o...
SELF-REGULATED LEARNER
• Capable of taking charge of their own learning:
• Recognizes own strengths and weaknesses in
vari...
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
LEARNING?
• Active and proactive learning
• Process of learning to monitor, evaluate, and regulate ...
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
LEARNING?
• Task understanding and goal setting
• Planning
• Enacting strategies
• Evaluating
• Cyc...
SUCCESSFUL LEARNER
• Monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or
strategies and react to feedback by changing p...
A BIT LIKE CONDUCTING
EXPERIMENTS ABOUT
YOUR LEARNING
• Identify a problem
• Set goals
• Make plans and set procedures
• C...
WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO SELF-
REGULATE LEARNING?
• Improved learning outcomes!
Why?
Awareness of strengths and weaknesses
–...
Simply learning a new skill does not
mean that you will use it unless you are
motivated to do so…
Willingness to invest ef...
How do Motivation and Cognition regulation
work in conjuction?
• In the context of collaborative learning succesful
regula...
CYCLICAL MODEL OF SELF-
REGULATED LEARNING
• Self-regulated learning occurs when students sustain and manage their
achieve...
1. TASK UNDERSTANDING
•1st phase in self-regulating learning
•What is this task about?
•Drawing on past knowledge and
expe...
TASK UNDERSTANDING –
TASK COMPONENTS
EXPLICIT
• Understands the main
principles and key
concepts of self-regulated
learnin...
WHAT MAKES THIS STUDENT
SUCCESSFUL WITH THIS TASK
ASSIGNMENT?
Read the Scenario 1
IF THE TASK UNDERSTANDING IS
ACCURATE
• More likely to successfully regulate learning
• Perform better
• Choose good strat...
2. GOAL SETTING AND PLANNING
• Standards
• Something students use to judge progress
• Something students can use to judge ...
WHAT TYPES OF GOALS YOU CAN
SET?
Short term goals in early stages of learning
outline ways you can attain an eventual tar...
3. TASK ENACTMENT
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
1) Understanding (Metalevel and Object Level)
2) Strategy use
3) Progress at ...
WAIT A MINUTE! I need to
choose only MAIN concepts.
NOT EVERYTHING!
Wow..This theory is more
challenging than I
thought..
...
6 serious challenges:
Motivational problems
1) Poor Task understanding
2) Vague Goals and Plans
3) Weak strategies (or str...
THIS WHERE USUALLY THINGS GO
WRONG
1. What is this task about?
2. What I need to do and how to do
that?
3. Are my actions ...
IT IS NOT PRODUCTIVE
AND THEN YOU…
More appropriate would be…
TU
PLANNING
AND GOAL
SETTING
Toiminta
EVALUATING
AND
ADAPTING
What is the task
about?
What do I...
When you now you do not know what the
task is about?
Faculty of EducationDr. Allyson Hadwin
• Don´t know where to start yo...
How is a good goal like?
• SPECIFIC
• MEASURABLE
• ACTION ORIENTED
• REALISTIC
• TEMPORAL
Why are goals important?
 Without task goals you can’t evaluate your progress
 Can reveal when and if you are off track
...
3. STRATEGY USE
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
• Strategic learning is self-regulated (Zimmerman,
2000; Pintrich, 2000)
• Lear...
General learning strategies
COGNITIVE LEARNING
STRATEGIES
ACTIVITIES
 REHEARSAL UNDERLINE, COPYING WORDS
 ELABORATION EX...
PROBLEMS IN STRATEGIC
LEARNING
• Students can name and use different types of strategies
when they are asked to do so, but...
REHEARSAL STRATEGY
1) Repeating words in the correct serial order
2) Using highlighting
• Identifying only main ideas
• No...
ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY
• The purpose of organisational strategies is to
translate information into another form, such as
...
ELABORATION STRATEGY
• Paraphrasing or summarising, explaining ideas
by making notes to link to-be-learned
information to ...
WHAT PROBLEMS DID THE STUDENT
ENCOUNTER WITH THIS TASK
ASSIGNMENT?
Read the Scenario 2
4. EVALUATING
…In each phase of studying…
Through evaluating changes in
– Task understanding
– Goals and Pland
– Strategie...
In order to self-regulate learning..
…Knowledge about different strategies
…Skill and will to cope with various learning
s...
EXTERNAL CONDITIONSINTERNAL CONDITIONS
• TASK COMPLEXITY
• ENVIRONMENT
• TIME CONSTRAINS
• PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
• KNOWLEDGE OF
...
HAS SOMETHING CHANGED?
• Present your group IDEAS
• How is the ”good learner like” in
the light of models of self-
regulat...
ADDRESS
Adaptive Motivation Regulation in Individual and
Socially Shared Learning Situations
• Task undesrtanding and
lear...
TASK UNDESRSTANDING AND GOAL SETTING
PLANNING NOTE
1. Describe your task
2. What terms and
concepts relate to
this task
3....
STRATEGY USE
STRUCTURED NOTE TOOL
1) Guestion and answer
with starting prompts
2) Compare and Contrast
3) IDEA note (Idea,...
MONITORING UNDERSTANDING
HOW AM I DOING?
• Identifying main
topics
• Connecting ideas
• Explaining
• Using prior
knowledge...
MONITORING STRATEGY USE
STRATEGY LOG
• What strategy was used (Strategic knowledge)
• Why strategy was used (Conditional k...
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(Meta)cognitive perspective self-regulated learning

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Srl renoved2015

  1. 1. (META)COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE SELF-REGULATED LEARNING Jonna Malmberg Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit (LET)
  2. 2. WHO AM I? • Post-Doc Researcher. • Self-regulated learning (SRL) and socially shared regulation of learning (SSRL)  (Meta)Cognitive aspects – How to identify challenges that require SRL? – How is the students task understanding related to the students stratgic learning in various task types? • Technology is used as a method to collect process data of the students learning.
  3. 3. WHO ARE YOU? • Introduce your self • Explain shortly - What is the purpose of this course
  4. 4. COURSE TASK 1. Collaborative group work: SRL (mind map) 2. During the presentation EXTEND your mind map about what you have just learned 3. After – prepare to explain (5 min max) what you have just learned about SRL 4. Example of ADDRESS research design – How to support self-regulated learning in practise. • How could you self-regulate your own learning?
  5. 5. WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF GOOD LEARNER? • How do you define good learner? • Discuss and make a schetch (e.g. a mind map) of the qualities of a good learner (5 min)
  6. 6. SELF-REGULATED LEARNER • Capable of taking charge of their own learning: • Recognizes own strengths and weaknesses in various learning situations. – Knowledge of different strategies that can aid meaningful learning – Motivated to use these strategies in order to reach learning goal – Can use these strategies depending on the learning situation. Zimmermann, 2001; Winne & Perry, 2001
  7. 7. WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED LEARNING? • Active and proactive learning • Process of learning to monitor, evaluate, and regulate (or change) your own – Learning and thinking (e.g. remember textbook) – Motivation (e.g. feeling inspired or interested) – Behaviour (e.g. getting organized, getting started) • Lifelong process that you develop and refine over time • CAN BE TEACHED AND LEARNED
  8. 8. WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED LEARNING? • Task understanding and goal setting • Planning • Enacting strategies • Evaluating • Cyclical process whereby students regulate their efforts to optimize cognitive, motivational and behavioural processes, guided by their learning goals and the contextual features of the environment (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 1998).
  9. 9. SUCCESSFUL LEARNER • Monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or strategies and react to feedback by changing perceptions, beliefs or strategies (Winne & Hadwin, 1998) SEEK OUT INFORMATION WHEN NEEDED… ACCEPT GREATER RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR ACHIEVEMENT OUTCOMES… PLAN SET GOALS MONITOR EVALUATE
  10. 10. A BIT LIKE CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS ABOUT YOUR LEARNING • Identify a problem • Set goals • Make plans and set procedures • Collect data about how things are going • Compare findings to original goals • Based on your findings you make changes to the goals, plans or strategies
  11. 11. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO SELF- REGULATE LEARNING? • Improved learning outcomes! Why? Awareness of strengths and weaknesses – What strategies I can use to bridge the caps between ability and task demands?
  12. 12. Simply learning a new skill does not mean that you will use it unless you are motivated to do so… Willingness to invest effort  Evaluation of benefits/costs  Pass the course / deep understanding
  13. 13. How do Motivation and Cognition regulation work in conjuction? • In the context of collaborative learning succesful regulation of motivation enables the learners to proceed with the task (cognitive regulation) (Malmberg, Järvelä, Järvenoja & Panadero, 2015). • It is not clear theoretically how to combine (metacognitive) and motivation/emotions in a unified theory of SRL (e.g. Eliahy & Linnenbrink – Garcia, 2013)
  14. 14. CYCLICAL MODEL OF SELF- REGULATED LEARNING • Self-regulated learning occurs when students sustain and manage their achievement efforts through activities that are employed towards attainment of students own goals (Zimmerman 1999; Pintrich 2001). • Challenges provides means for self-regulated learning to occur (Hadwin, Järvelä & Miller, 2010). • SRL can be divided in three to four different phases depending of the model. 4. REFLECTING •previous experiences •previouse knolwedge 3a CONTROLLING Highlights NotesQuestions 3bMONITORING •understanding •tactic use •Better task understanding •Strategic knowledge 1 TASK UNDERSTANDING 2 PLANNING AND GOAL SETTING Winne & Hadwin, 1998 , Zimmerman, 2000
  15. 15. 1. TASK UNDERSTANDING •1st phase in self-regulating learning •What is this task about? •Drawing on past knowledge and experiences •Constructing your own representation or “picture” of the task When you know what you are supposed to be doing, what it looks like, and what it feels like to be on track
  16. 16. TASK UNDERSTANDING – TASK COMPONENTS EXPLICIT • Understands the main principles and key concepts of self-regulated learning • Develops understanding of the practical implications of SRL in different real life contexts • Has experience of self- regulated learning and shared regulation of learning IMPLICIT • Task purpose • Type of thinking? • Strategies? • Understanding? • Applicable solutions? • What else can you think of
  17. 17. WHAT MAKES THIS STUDENT SUCCESSFUL WITH THIS TASK ASSIGNMENT? Read the Scenario 1
  18. 18. IF THE TASK UNDERSTANDING IS ACCURATE • More likely to successfully regulate learning • Perform better • Choose good strategies for task completion • BECAUSE • Know what to aim for and what success might look like • Can tell if you are “on track” along the way
  19. 19. 2. GOAL SETTING AND PLANNING • Standards • Something students use to judge progress • Something students can use to judge performance • Lead to strategy choices • Reflections of task understanding
  20. 20. WHAT TYPES OF GOALS YOU CAN SET? Short term goals in early stages of learning outline ways you can attain an eventual target or outcome break an outcome goal into processes or steps used to monitor and evaluate progress Long term goals later in the mastery process – performance improvement performance targets (e.g. master the learning material or accomplish the course) used to monitor and evaluate performance
  21. 21. 3. TASK ENACTMENT MONITORING AND CONTROLLING 1) Understanding (Metalevel and Object Level) 2) Strategy use 3) Progress at the task • Strategy use is depending on the different features of current learning situation, such as context, task and various aspects of self (Paris & Paris, 2002). • when to use the strategy • why the strategy works • how to apply the strategy • check if the strategy works • customize strategies IF……THEN…..ELSE
  22. 22. WAIT A MINUTE! I need to choose only MAIN concepts. NOT EVERYTHING! Wow..This theory is more challenging than I thought.. Hmm..usually I am succesful with this types of tasks.. The strategy is first to select main concepts and then apply those in my own experiences..
  23. 23. 6 serious challenges: Motivational problems 1) Poor Task understanding 2) Vague Goals and Plans 3) Weak strategies (or strategy choices) 4) Lack of monitoring 5) Inaccurate self-evaluation Hadwin, 2009; Järvelä & Järvenoja 2010
  24. 24. THIS WHERE USUALLY THINGS GO WRONG 1. What is this task about? 2. What I need to do and how to do that? 3. Are my actions aligned with my goals? 4. If not, what do I need to do? 1. Task understanding 2. Goal setting and planning 3. Enacting strategies 4. Evaluating and adapting ? SRL
  25. 25. IT IS NOT PRODUCTIVE AND THEN YOU…
  26. 26. More appropriate would be… TU PLANNING AND GOAL SETTING Toiminta EVALUATING AND ADAPTING What is the task about? What do I do and how to execute that?
  27. 27. When you now you do not know what the task is about? Faculty of EducationDr. Allyson Hadwin • Don´t know where to start your studying • During your studying, you can´t evaluate how things are doing • You are not sure what is there needed to be done in order to accomplish the task • Goals are not specific • SMART GOALS
  28. 28. How is a good goal like? • SPECIFIC • MEASURABLE • ACTION ORIENTED • REALISTIC • TEMPORAL
  29. 29. Why are goals important?  Without task goals you can’t evaluate your progress  Can reveal when and if you are off track  Against goals it is easier to plan and regulate your time and activities  Easier to get started SUBGOAL S ULTIMATE GOAL SUBGOAL S SUBGOAL S SUBGOAL S
  30. 30. 3. STRATEGY USE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING • Strategic learning is self-regulated (Zimmerman, 2000; Pintrich, 2000) • Learning strategy is a set of different study tecnhiques. ….During that lecture, I wrote down some keywords…. …When I created a timeline, it really made it easy for me… …Browsing through the material helped me to get the picture of the topics... ..By focusing my reading based on the titles and subtitles helped me to understand… SPENT FEW MINUTES TO THINK AND WRITE DOWN STRATGIES YOU USE?
  31. 31. General learning strategies COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES ACTIVITIES  REHEARSAL UNDERLINE, COPYING WORDS  ELABORATION EXPLAINING, MAKING NOTES AND DRAWING CONNECTIONS  ORGANISATIONAL CONCEPT- OR MIND MAPPING TIME LINES These strategies are not equally effective in all the learning situations, but it has been ackowledged that use of these strategies helps to learn and understand (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986),
  32. 32. PROBLEMS IN STRATEGIC LEARNING • Students can name and use different types of strategies when they are asked to do so, but they do not necessarily use the strategies purposefully (Bransford et al.1986). • Selection of strategy is not necessarily optimal when a mismatch between outcome and desired outcome is monitored (Winne & Jamieson-Noel 2002). • Students do not use them or change their prominent strategy (Cao and Nietfeld 2007; Graham et al. 2008; Rabinowits et al. 1992). • Students are not aware of what strategies are. • Effort of carrying out a deeper strategy might be too much (Winne & Hadwin 2008).
  33. 33. REHEARSAL STRATEGY 1) Repeating words in the correct serial order 2) Using highlighting • Identifying only main ideas • Not effective when used alone • Main ideas might not be recognised
  34. 34. ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY • The purpose of organisational strategies is to translate information into another form, such as creating concept maps, diagrams or timelines (Weinstein, & Mayer, 1986). • The use of organisational strategies fosters externalization of knowledge and enhances selection of the most important concepts (Hilbert & Renkl, 2007). • What is already known and how the knowledge structures change.
  35. 35. ELABORATION STRATEGY • Paraphrasing or summarising, explaining ideas by making notes to link to-be-learned information to prior knowledge structures, asking questions, compare/contrast. • Additional ways on how to recall information. • Requires thinking (to be learned information). • Helps to connect what is already known.
  36. 36. WHAT PROBLEMS DID THE STUDENT ENCOUNTER WITH THIS TASK ASSIGNMENT? Read the Scenario 2
  37. 37. 4. EVALUATING …In each phase of studying… Through evaluating changes in – Task understanding – Goals and Pland – Strategies ….Across studying….
  38. 38. In order to self-regulate learning.. …Knowledge about different strategies …Skill and will to cope with various learning situations …Degree of self-regulated learning varies depending on the learning situation… ..When experimenting with your learning, you are regulating….Volet & Järvelä, 2000; Hadwin, Järvelä & Miller,
  39. 39. EXTERNAL CONDITIONSINTERNAL CONDITIONS • TASK COMPLEXITY • ENVIRONMENT • TIME CONSTRAINS • PRIOR KNOWLEDGE • KNOWLEDGE OF STRATEGIES • EXPECTED SUCCESS OPERATIONS SMART TACTICS PRODUCTS STANDARDS EVALUATIONS • SEARCH • MONITOR • ASSEMBLE • REHEARSE • TRANSLATE 1. TASK UNDERSTANDING 2. GOALS AND PLANS 3. TASK ENACTMENT 4. ADAPTING STUDYING MONITORING UNDERLYING MODEL OF SRL
  40. 40. HAS SOMETHING CHANGED? • Present your group IDEAS • How is the ”good learner like” in the light of models of self- regulated learning? • In other words, what you have just heard
  41. 41. ADDRESS Adaptive Motivation Regulation in Individual and Socially Shared Learning Situations • Task undesrtanding and learning goals. • Prompting strategy use with cognitive tools – Structured note tool – Highlight with labels • Important information • Interesting detail • I don´t understand • Prompting awarenes of strategy use 1. Understanding 2. Evaluating strategy use • Adapting and reflecting – Reflecting studying – RLQ Questionnaire 1.TASK UNDERSTANDING 2. PLANNING AND GOAL SETTING 3. STRATEGY USE 3. ADAPTING AND REFLECTING SRL
  42. 42. TASK UNDESRSTANDING AND GOAL SETTING PLANNING NOTE 1. Describe your task 2. What terms and concepts relate to this task 3. Set one goal for this task
  43. 43. STRATEGY USE STRUCTURED NOTE TOOL 1) Guestion and answer with starting prompts 2) Compare and Contrast 3) IDEA note (Idea, Connections and extensions)
  44. 44. MONITORING UNDERSTANDING HOW AM I DOING? • Identifying main topics • Connecting ideas • Explaining • Using prior knowledge • Goal attainment • Focusing
  45. 45. MONITORING STRATEGY USE STRATEGY LOG • What strategy was used (Strategic knowledge) • Why strategy was used (Conditional knowledge) • How well the strategy worked (Procedural knowledge)

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