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Yet, not all the learning is self-regulated. Rather, challenges, wheather they are cognitive, motivational or behavioral provides means for self-regulated learning. Theoretically, SRL can be divided in four different phases.
Before the actual studying phase, the students evaluate what is the task about. This is evaluation is based on the students preveious experiences about the same types of tasks. At the second phase, the students set a goal for their learning based on their evaluation about the task and plan their learning in line with their task spesific learning goals.
During the actual studying phase, the students control their learning by using different types of study tactics. Yet, at the same time the students monitor their understanding and wheather the tactic they are currently using is appropriate for their learning. And – this is actually the phase which constitutes strategy use during learning.
Finally, after the studying the students reflect their current learning. According to this reflection, the students might have a better understanding about different types of tasks and also better knowledge about strategies for future learning.
What is the task I am I supposed to do now and why? Why am I about to do this and how? What methods
9. Winne and Hadwins model differentiates from other models so, that it differentiates task understanding from goals setting and planning phase.
Also, each five phases stages are embedded in the same general cognitive architecture. Conditions influence the whole learning process, especially to the operations and standards. Operations are involved in memory storage and retrieval. searching memory, monitoring new information’s fit with previously learned information, assembling new links to knowledge, rehearsing knowledge to commit it to memory, and translat ing knowledge in one form, such as verbal, to another, such as pictorial. However, in phase three, Task enactment these operations are the most visible in terms of tactics and strategies learners utilize to solve a learning task.
In each learning stage, these operations create internal or external products. These products include task definitions in Phase 1, goals and plans in Phase 2, and attempts at learning in Phase 3. These products are then compared with standards through the monitoring process, and the fit between product and standards (internal, self self-selected goal that determines whether any particular phase’s product is sufficient so that the next phase can begin.
Lastly, evaluations might occur during a learning cycle of after the learning task. For example, when the evaluation indicates a mismatch between a phase product and standard. Winne and Hadwin suggest that students can enact control functions that can alter current and previous phase products. Accordingly, these regulatiry activities are situated for spesific tasks, but also adaptive for past learning experiences. That is, they affevte to conditions, namely internal conditions such as prior domain knowledge, strategies and expected success.
In address research project, funded by finish academy we have applied self-regulated learning theory in practise in each phase of studying.
First, task understanding and goal setting was supported with
Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
WHO AM I?
• Post-Doc Researcher.
• Self-regulated learning (SRL) and socially shared
regulation of learning (SSRL) (Meta)Cognitive
– How to identify challenges that require SRL?
– How is the students task understanding related to
the students stratgic learning in various task
• Technology is used as a method to collect process
data of the students learning.
WHO ARE YOU?
• Introduce your self
• Explain shortly
- What is the purpose of this course
1. Collaborative group work: SRL (mind map)
2. During the presentation EXTEND your mind map about
what you have just learned
3. After – prepare to explain (5 min max) what you have
just learned about SRL
4. Example of ADDRESS research design – How to
support self-regulated learning in practise.
• How could you self-regulate your own learning?
WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF GOOD
• How do you define
• Discuss and make a
schetch (e.g. a mind
map) of the qualities
of a good learner (5
• Capable of taking charge of their own learning:
• Recognizes own strengths and weaknesses in
various learning situations.
– Knowledge of different strategies that can aid
– Motivated to use these strategies in order to
reach learning goal
– Can use these strategies depending on the
Zimmermann, 2001; Winne & Perry,
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
• Active and proactive learning
• Process of learning to monitor, evaluate, and regulate (or
change) your own
– Learning and thinking (e.g. remember textbook)
– Motivation (e.g. feeling inspired or interested)
– Behaviour (e.g. getting organized, getting started)
• Lifelong process that you develop and refine over time
• CAN BE TEACHED AND LEARNED
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
• Task understanding and goal setting
• Enacting strategies
• Cyclical process whereby students regulate their
efforts to optimize cognitive, motivational and
behavioural processes, guided by their learning
goals and the contextual features of the
environment (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 1998).
• Monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or
strategies and react to feedback by changing perceptions,
beliefs or strategies (Winne & Hadwin, 1998)
SEEK OUT INFORMATION WHEN NEEDED…
ACCEPT GREATER RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR ACHIEVEMENT
A BIT LIKE CONDUCTING
• Identify a problem
• Set goals
• Make plans and set procedures
• Collect data about how things are going
• Compare findings to original goals
• Based on your findings you make
changes to the goals, plans or strategies
WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO SELF-
• Improved learning outcomes!
Awareness of strengths and weaknesses
– What strategies I can use to bridge the caps between
ability and task demands?
Simply learning a new skill does not
mean that you will use it unless you are
motivated to do so…
Willingness to invest effort
Pass the course / deep
How do Motivation and Cognition regulation
work in conjuction?
• In the context of collaborative learning succesful
regulation of motivation enables the learners to
proceed with the task (cognitive regulation)
(Malmberg, Järvelä, Järvenoja & Panadero, 2015).
• It is not clear theoretically how to combine
(metacognitive) and motivation/emotions in a
unified theory of SRL (e.g. Eliahy & Linnenbrink – Garcia, 2013)
CYCLICAL MODEL OF SELF-
• Self-regulated learning occurs when students sustain and manage their
achievement efforts through activities that are employed towards
attainment of students own goals (Zimmerman 1999; Pintrich 2001).
• Challenges provides means for self-regulated learning to occur (Hadwin,
Järvelä & Miller, 2010).
• SRL can be divided in three to four different phases depending of the model.
•Better task understanding
2 PLANNING AND GOAL
Winne & Hadwin, 1998 , Zimmerman, 2000
1. TASK UNDERSTANDING
•1st phase in self-regulating learning
•What is this task about?
•Drawing on past knowledge and
•Constructing your own representation or
“picture” of the task
When you know what you are supposed
to be doing, what it looks like, and what it
feels like to be on track
TASK UNDERSTANDING –
• Understands the main
principles and key
concepts of self-regulated
• Develops understanding
of the practical
implications of SRL in
different real life contexts
• Has experience of self-
regulated learning and
shared regulation of
• Task purpose
• Type of thinking?
• Applicable solutions?
• What else can you think
WHAT MAKES THIS STUDENT
SUCCESSFUL WITH THIS TASK
Read the Scenario 1
IF THE TASK UNDERSTANDING IS
• More likely to successfully regulate learning
• Perform better
• Choose good strategies for task completion
• Know what to aim for and what success might look like
• Can tell if you are “on track” along the way
2. GOAL SETTING AND PLANNING
• Something students use to judge progress
• Something students can use to judge performance
• Lead to strategy choices
• Reflections of task understanding
WHAT TYPES OF GOALS YOU CAN
Short term goals in early stages of learning
outline ways you can attain an eventual target or outcome
break an outcome goal into processes or steps
used to monitor and evaluate progress
Long term goals later in the mastery process –
performance targets (e.g. master the learning material or
accomplish the course)
used to monitor and evaluate performance
3. TASK ENACTMENT
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
1) Understanding (Metalevel and Object Level)
2) Strategy use
3) Progress at the task
• Strategy use is depending on the different features of current learning situation, such as context,
task and various aspects of self (Paris & Paris, 2002).
• when to use the strategy
• why the strategy works
• how to apply the strategy
• check if the strategy works
• customize strategies IF……THEN…..ELSE
WAIT A MINUTE! I need to
choose only MAIN concepts.
Wow..This theory is more
challenging than I
Hmm..usually I am
succesful with this types of
The strategy is first to select
main concepts and then apply
those in my own experiences..
THIS WHERE USUALLY THINGS GO
1. What is this task about?
2. What I need to do and how to do
3. Are my actions aligned with my
4. If not, what do I need to do?
2. Goal setting
More appropriate would be…
What is the task
What do I do
and how to
When you now you do not know what the
task is about?
Faculty of EducationDr. Allyson Hadwin
• Don´t know where to start your studying
• During your studying, you can´t evaluate how
things are doing
• You are not sure what is there needed to be
done in order to accomplish the task
• Goals are not specific
• SMART GOALS
How is a good goal like?
• ACTION ORIENTED
Why are goals important?
Without task goals you can’t evaluate your progress
Can reveal when and if you are off track
Against goals it is easier to plan and regulate your
time and activities
Easier to get started
3. STRATEGY USE
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
• Strategic learning is self-regulated (Zimmerman,
2000; Pintrich, 2000)
• Learning strategy is a set of different study
….During that lecture, I wrote down some keywords….
…When I created a timeline, it really made it easy for me…
…Browsing through the material helped me to get the picture of the topics...
..By focusing my reading based on the titles and subtitles helped me to
SPENT FEW MINUTES TO THINK AND WRITE DOWN STRATGIES YOU
General learning strategies
REHEARSAL UNDERLINE, COPYING WORDS
ELABORATION EXPLAINING, MAKING NOTES
AND DRAWING CONNECTIONS
ORGANISATIONAL CONCEPT- OR MIND MAPPING
These strategies are not equally effective in all the learning situations, but
it has been ackowledged that use of these strategies helps to learn and
understand (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986),
PROBLEMS IN STRATEGIC
• Students can name and use different types of strategies
when they are asked to do so, but they do not
necessarily use the strategies purposefully (Bransford et
• Selection of strategy is not necessarily optimal when a
mismatch between outcome and desired outcome is
monitored (Winne & Jamieson-Noel 2002).
• Students do not use them or change their prominent
strategy (Cao and Nietfeld 2007; Graham et al. 2008;
Rabinowits et al. 1992).
• Students are not aware of what strategies are.
• Effort of carrying out a deeper strategy might be too
much (Winne & Hadwin 2008).
1) Repeating words in the correct serial order
2) Using highlighting
• Identifying only main ideas
• Not effective when used alone
• Main ideas might not be recognised
• The purpose of organisational strategies is to
translate information into another form, such as
creating concept maps, diagrams or timelines
(Weinstein, & Mayer, 1986).
• The use of organisational strategies fosters
externalization of knowledge and enhances
selection of the most important concepts (Hilbert
& Renkl, 2007).
• What is already known and how the knowledge
• Paraphrasing or summarising, explaining ideas
by making notes to link to-be-learned
information to prior knowledge structures, asking
• Additional ways on how to recall information.
• Requires thinking (to be learned information).
• Helps to connect what is already known.
WHAT PROBLEMS DID THE STUDENT
ENCOUNTER WITH THIS TASK
Read the Scenario 2
…In each phase of studying…
Through evaluating changes in
– Task understanding
– Goals and Pland
In order to self-regulate learning..
…Knowledge about different strategies
…Skill and will to cope with various learning
…Degree of self-regulated learning varies
depending on the learning
..When experimenting with your
learning, you are
regulating….Volet & Järvelä, 2000; Hadwin, Järvelä & Miller,
HAS SOMETHING CHANGED?
• Present your group IDEAS
• How is the ”good learner like” in
the light of models of self-
• In other words, what you have just
Adaptive Motivation Regulation in Individual and
Socially Shared Learning Situations
• Task undesrtanding and
• Prompting strategy use with
– Structured note tool
– Highlight with labels
• Important information
• Interesting detail
• I don´t understand
• Prompting awarenes of
2. Evaluating strategy use
• Adapting and reflecting
– Reflecting studying
– RLQ Questionnaire
2. PLANNING AND
3. STRATEGY USE
3. ADAPTING AND
TASK UNDESRSTANDING AND GOAL SETTING
1. Describe your task
2. What terms and
concepts relate to
3. Set one goal for this
STRUCTURED NOTE TOOL
1) Guestion and answer
with starting prompts
2) Compare and Contrast
3) IDEA note (Idea,
HOW AM I DOING?
• Identifying main
• Connecting ideas
• Using prior
• Goal attainment
MONITORING STRATEGY USE
• What strategy was used (Strategic knowledge)
• Why strategy was used (Conditional knowledge)
• How well the strategy worked (Procedural