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Thermal Comfort And
Fire Safety Of
Passenger Aircrafts Presented by : S.V.A.A. Indupama
Passenger Aircraft Thermal comfort
Passengers are more and more demanding in terms of comfort. Therefore
thermal comfort inside the cabin is more important.
 Outside temperature variation : −55°C to over 50°C.
 Ambient pressure variation : 10.1 kPa to 101 kPa
 Water content variation : from virtually dry to greater than saturation.
To overcome this variation and maintain constant cabin conditions
ECS – Environmental Control system
What is Thermal comfort..
❑ The state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal
environment- ISO 7730
❑ Basically, the thermal situation inside the cabin can be describe
using several parameters.
 Temperature
 Humidity
 Air stream
 Air quality
 Cabin inside thermal convection coefficient
 Flight time
ECS – Environmental Control system
❑ Combination of equipment and controls used to maintain the
environmental conditions in the aircraft cabin
❑ Functions of ECS
 Pressurize the aircraft cabin
 Maintain cabin temperature within tolerable limits
Personal characteristics to be considered while designing the cabin
air ventilation system
 Mood
 Alertness
 Relaxation level
 Efficiency
 Satisfaction
Cabin Air Conditioning
❑ There are basic two types of air conditioning systems in aircrafts.
 Air cycle air conditioning system – Gas turbine type engine powered aircrafts
 Vapour cycle air conditioning – Reciprocating type engine powered aircrafts
Duct arrangement of Air Conditioning
system
❑ Factors to be considered
 Enough to supply required air flow
 Individual air-conditioning outlet duct for each passenger
 Facility to change the flow direction
 Proper locations for install ducts
 Minimize the circulating airflow between passengers.
Aircraft Fire Safety
❑ Two types of fires can affect an airplane.
 In-flight fire
 Post-crash fire
❑ A fire cannot exist without three things being present. These are
 Heat or a source of ignition
 Fuel material that will burn
 Oxygen
 Specific areas that require protection are
 Engines
 Auxiliary power unit
 Wheels wells
 Cargo compartment
Fire detection systems in Use
 Fire and overheat detection system, Fire extinguishing system –
Both engine and APU
 Cargo smoke detection and Extinguishing system
 Lavatory smoke detection and Extinguishing system
 Smoke detection system – Avionics bay
 Portable fire extinguisher – Cockpit and cabin
Engine fire detection and extinguishing
system
❑ Both systems have a fire and overheat
detection system consisting of two
identical fire detection loops called A
and B.
❑ If fire detects from any of loop, then
triggers starts warning
After switching fire switches
• Silence the aural fire warning
• Arms the fire extinguisher squibs
• Closes the low pressure fuel valve
• Closes the hydraulic fire shutoff valve
• Closes the engine bleed valve
• Closes the pack flow control valve
• Cuts off the FADEC power supply and
deactivates the IDG (integrated drive
unit driving the generator)
Cabin fire control
• Several fire extinguishers are located at the cabin area.
• All the extinguishers are hanged on places which can be
easily approached in case of fire.
Fire Extinguishers - Cabin Area
Location Type
Galley complex A Halon 1211 or equivalent fire extinguisher is generally
located within 8 feet (2.4 meters) of each galley complex
Flight deck A Halon 1211 or equivalent extinguisher is placed for easy
access by the flight crew
Crew/attendant rest compartments, purser
workstations, video control centres, and business
canters
At least one Halon 1211 or equivalent fire extinguisher is
generally located within 8 feet (2.4 meters) of the
compartment
Lavatories Each lavatory is equipped with fire protection systems
designed to detect and extinguish fires and to prevent
hazardous quantities of smoke from entering occupied areas
Fire in Landing Gears
 Use of incorrect grease during maintenance led to wheel fire and
evacuation of B747
 The investigation of a brake fire accident that resulted in serious injuries
during the evacuation found that incorrect and excessive grease had
been applied to the landing gear axles
Thank you

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Fire safety of passenger aircraft

  • 1. Thermal Comfort And Fire Safety Of Passenger Aircrafts Presented by : S.V.A.A. Indupama
  • 2. Passenger Aircraft Thermal comfort Passengers are more and more demanding in terms of comfort. Therefore thermal comfort inside the cabin is more important.  Outside temperature variation : −55°C to over 50°C.  Ambient pressure variation : 10.1 kPa to 101 kPa  Water content variation : from virtually dry to greater than saturation. To overcome this variation and maintain constant cabin conditions ECS – Environmental Control system
  • 3. What is Thermal comfort.. ❑ The state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- ISO 7730 ❑ Basically, the thermal situation inside the cabin can be describe using several parameters.  Temperature  Humidity  Air stream  Air quality  Cabin inside thermal convection coefficient  Flight time
  • 4. ECS – Environmental Control system ❑ Combination of equipment and controls used to maintain the environmental conditions in the aircraft cabin ❑ Functions of ECS  Pressurize the aircraft cabin  Maintain cabin temperature within tolerable limits
  • 5. Personal characteristics to be considered while designing the cabin air ventilation system  Mood  Alertness  Relaxation level  Efficiency  Satisfaction
  • 6. Cabin Air Conditioning ❑ There are basic two types of air conditioning systems in aircrafts.  Air cycle air conditioning system – Gas turbine type engine powered aircrafts  Vapour cycle air conditioning – Reciprocating type engine powered aircrafts
  • 7. Duct arrangement of Air Conditioning system ❑ Factors to be considered  Enough to supply required air flow  Individual air-conditioning outlet duct for each passenger  Facility to change the flow direction  Proper locations for install ducts  Minimize the circulating airflow between passengers.
  • 8. Aircraft Fire Safety ❑ Two types of fires can affect an airplane.  In-flight fire  Post-crash fire ❑ A fire cannot exist without three things being present. These are  Heat or a source of ignition  Fuel material that will burn  Oxygen
  • 9.  Specific areas that require protection are  Engines  Auxiliary power unit  Wheels wells  Cargo compartment
  • 10. Fire detection systems in Use  Fire and overheat detection system, Fire extinguishing system – Both engine and APU  Cargo smoke detection and Extinguishing system  Lavatory smoke detection and Extinguishing system  Smoke detection system – Avionics bay  Portable fire extinguisher – Cockpit and cabin
  • 11. Engine fire detection and extinguishing system ❑ Both systems have a fire and overheat detection system consisting of two identical fire detection loops called A and B. ❑ If fire detects from any of loop, then triggers starts warning After switching fire switches • Silence the aural fire warning • Arms the fire extinguisher squibs • Closes the low pressure fuel valve • Closes the hydraulic fire shutoff valve • Closes the engine bleed valve • Closes the pack flow control valve • Cuts off the FADEC power supply and deactivates the IDG (integrated drive unit driving the generator)
  • 12. Cabin fire control • Several fire extinguishers are located at the cabin area. • All the extinguishers are hanged on places which can be easily approached in case of fire.
  • 13. Fire Extinguishers - Cabin Area Location Type Galley complex A Halon 1211 or equivalent fire extinguisher is generally located within 8 feet (2.4 meters) of each galley complex Flight deck A Halon 1211 or equivalent extinguisher is placed for easy access by the flight crew Crew/attendant rest compartments, purser workstations, video control centres, and business canters At least one Halon 1211 or equivalent fire extinguisher is generally located within 8 feet (2.4 meters) of the compartment Lavatories Each lavatory is equipped with fire protection systems designed to detect and extinguish fires and to prevent hazardous quantities of smoke from entering occupied areas
  • 14. Fire in Landing Gears  Use of incorrect grease during maintenance led to wheel fire and evacuation of B747  The investigation of a brake fire accident that resulted in serious injuries during the evacuation found that incorrect and excessive grease had been applied to the landing gear axles