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Termes scientifiques d'origine arabe

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Tens of scientific terms found in many European languages are derived from Arabic. The following text, though in French, provides comprehensible concrete examples of such terms from various disciplines (e.g.: mathematics, astronomy, medicine and pharmacy).
This text is extracted from the second (French) edition of my book:
INTRODUCTION A L'HISTOIRE DES MATHEMATIQUES MAGHREBINES

published on Lulu website:
http://www.lulu.com/shop/driss-lamrabet/introduction-%C3%A0-lhistoire-des-math%C3%A9matiques-maghr%C3%A9bines/paperback/product-21257920.html

Publié dans : Sciences
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Termes scientifiques d'origine arabe

  1. 1. 1 6.3 Exemples d'influence de la science arabe sur l'Occident: terminologie scientifique et traductions d'oeuvres Driss Lamrabet Extrait de mon livre: INTRODUCTION A L'HISTOIRE DES MATHEMATIQUES MAGHREBINES Deuxième édition ; publié sur le site de LULU: http://www.lulu.com/shop/driss-lamrabet/introduction-%C3%A0-lhistoire-des- math%C3%A9matiques-maghr%C3%A9bines/paperback/product- 21257920.html 6.3.1 Termes scientifiques d'origine arabe L'influence de la science arabe médiévale sur les pays occidentaux se manifeste, entre autres, à travers les emprunts de termes scientifiques arabes par les langues européennes. Nous allons mettre ce fait en évidence en montrant l'origine arabe de termes présents dans certaines langues européennes et concernant les domaines suivants: mathématiques, chimie, médecine et pharmacie. Par commodité, nous nous servons le plus souvent du français, mais la forme des vocables empruntés varie très peu d'une langue européenne à l'autre, puisque généralement le latin fut la langue intermédiaire commune. La liste n'est évidemment pas exhaustive. Nous ne donnons en outre que les termes qui sont d'origine arabe et nous ne mentionnerons pas ceux qui, tout en figurant dans le lexique d'une langue européenne, sont une traduction littérale d'un concept introduit par les savants arabo-musulmans1 . i) Termes de mathématiques Algèbre ‫الجبر‬ (Anglais, allemand, espagnol, etc.: Algebra): al-Jabr. Algorithme ‫خوارزمية‬ (Ang.: algorithm- all.: algorithmus): dérive du nom du mathématicien al- Khwārizmī. Le terme arabe correspondant ‫خوارزمية‬ est un néologisme. Chiffre ‫صفر‬ (All.: Ziffer, ang.: cipher, esp.: cifra)): ṣifr. Zéro ‫:صفر‬ ṣifr, ṣifrun qui donna zephyro puis zéro. ii) Termes de chimie Alambic ‫االنبيق‬ (Ang.: Alembic): al-Inbīq (appareil de distillation). Alcali, alcalin, alcaliniser ‫,القلي‬ étymologiquement, de ‫,قلى‬ frire (Ang.: Alkaline – Esp.: àlcali): al-Qiliy (= soude). Alcool ‫الكحول‬ (Ang. et esp.: Alcohol- All.: Alkohol): al-Kuḥūl. Alizarine ‫العصارين‬ (Fr. et ang. -Esp.: alizarina) al-‘Iṣārīn (teinte rouge orange tirée du goudron). Amalgame ‫الملغم‬ (Ang.et all.: amalgam – Esp.: amalgama): al-Mulgham (alliage d'un métal avec le mercure). 1 Par exemple, "sinus "est la traduction de jayb, utilisé par Al-Battānī; "sourd "(fr) et "surd "(ang) traduisent: aṣamm (al-Khwārizmī), désignant un nombre irrationnel, etc.
  2. 2. 2 Aniline ‫النيل‬ (Fr.et ang.- Esp.: Anilina- All.: Anilin): al-Nīl (plante teinturière). Antimoine ‫االثميد‬ (Ang.: antimony- All.: Antimon – Esp.: antimonio): al-Ithmīd (étymologie hypothétique). Azur ‫الالزورد‬ (Fr. et all. - Ang.: azure- Esp.: azul): al-Lāzaward (substance minérale bleue). Benjoin ‫الجاوي‬ ‫لبان‬ (Ang.: benzoin et benjamin- All.: Benzoeharz – Esp. benjamín, benjuí, benzoína): Luban al-jāwī (résine utilisée comme balsamique et antiseptique). Borax ‫بورق‬ (Fr., ang. et all – Esp. Bórax): Bawraq (Borate hydraté de sodium). Camphre ‫كافور‬ (Ang.: camphor- Esp.: alcanfor- All.: Kampfer): Kāfūr. Carmin ‫قرمزي‬ (Ang. carmine- All.: Karmesin, Karmin – Esp.: carmín, carmesí): Qirmiziy (teinte rouge extraite d'un type d'insecte). Elixir ‫االكسير‬ (Fr, esp. et ang.- All.: Elixier): al-Iksīr. Goudron ‫القطران‬ (Esp.: alquitràn): al-Qaṭrān/al-Qiṭrān /al-Qaṭirān. iii) Termes de médecine et de pharmacie Jarde ou Jardon ‫جرد‬ (All. et ang.: Jarde – Esp. jardé): Jard. Julep ‫جالب‬ (Fr. et ang. – Esp.: julepe): Julāb (potion). Kali ‫قلي‬ (All.: Kalisalzkraut, Kaliumkarbonat): Qaly (type de plante riche en soude). Kermès ‫قرمز‬ (Ang.: Kermes et kermesite): Qirmīz (médicament expectorant à base d'antimoine). Kétmie ‫:ختمية‬ Khitmiyya. Laque ‫لك‬ (Ang.: lac- Esp.: laca- All.: Lack): Lakk. Looch ‫لعوق‬ (prononcer louk): La‘ūq (un breuvage médical). Séné ‫سنا‬ (Ang.: senna- All.: Sennesstrausch, Sennessblaeter – Esp.: sena): Sanā (plante purgative). Sirop ‫شراب‬ (Ang.: syrup- Esp.: jarabe- All.: Sirup): Sharāb. Soude ‫السوداء‬ (All., ang. et esp.: soda): al-Sawdā'. Talc ‫طلق‬ (Fr.et ang.- All.: Talk, Talkum- Esp.: Talco): ṭalq. Tamarin ‫الهند‬ ‫تمر‬ (Fr. et ang.- All.: Tamarinde, Tamariske – Esp.: tamarindo): Tamar al-hindī. Tamaris ‫تمر‬ (Ang. tamarisk- All.: Tamariske – Esp. tamarisco): Tamar (datte). Tartre ‫دردي‬ (Ang.: tartar- Esp.: tàrtaro): Durdī. iv) Termes d'astronomie Alidade ‫العضادة‬ (All.: Alhidade): al-‘Iḍāda (partie de l'astrolabe). Almicantarat ‫المقنطرات‬ (ou Almucantarat): al-Muqanṭarāt; (petit cercle de la sphère céleste qui est parallèle au plan de l'horizon). Azimut ‫السم‬‫و‬‫ت‬ (Fr. et all.- Ang.: azimuth): al-samt, pl.: al-Sumūt; (angle entre le plan vertical passant par un astre et un vertical origine). Zénith ‫ال‬‫سمت‬ (Fr.et ang.- All. et esp.: Zenit): Samt. Nadir ‫النظير‬ (Fr., ang., all. et esp): Naẓīr. Le ciel est peuplé de dizaines d'étoiles portant des noms arabes. En voici quelques unes (ces noms varient très peu d'une langue européenne à une autre; la plupart ne figurent générale- ment pas dans les dictionnaires courants de taille moyenne, mais dans des lexiques d'astronomie ou sur des cartes du ciel): Achernar ‫النهر‬ ‫:اخر‬ Akhir al-Nahr (étoile de magnitude  de la constellation Fleuve Eridan2 ) 2 Une constellation est un groupement d'étoiles. La magnitude d'une étoile mesure sa luminosité. On utilise une échelle: généralement  pour l'étoile la plus brillante de la constellation,  pour celle de magnitude immédiate- ment inférieure, etc.
  3. 3. 3 Acrab ‫:العقرب‬ ‘Aqrab (étoile  du Scorpion; ce n'est pas la deuxième étoile la plus brillante de cette constellation). Albaldah ‫:البلدة‬ al-Baldah ( du Sagittaire). Aldébaran ‫:الدبران‬ al-Dabarān ( du Taureau). Aldhanab ‫الذنب‬ al-Dhanab ( de La Grue). Algol ‫:الغول‬ al-Ghūl ( de Persée). Alhena ‫:الهنقة‬ al-Hanaqa ( des Gémeaux). Aljunina ‫:الجنينة‬ al-Junayna (étoile  du Grand Chien). Alkaid ‫القائد‬ (= Bénétnasch): al-Qā'id ( de la Grande Ourse). Alphard ‫:الفرد‬ al-Fard ( Hydre femelle). Alrai‫الراعي‬ : al-Rā‘ī ( de Céphée). Arnab ‫:األرنب‬ Arnab ( du Lièvre). Altair ‫:الطائر‬ al-Ṭā'ir ( de la constellation de L'Aigle). Bételgeuse ‫الجوزاء‬ ‫:ابط‬ Ibṭ al-Jawzā' ( d'Orion). Bénétnasch ‫نعش‬ ‫:بنات‬ Banāt Na‘sh = Alkaid. Diphda ‫:الدفضع‬ al-Difḍa‘ ( de La Baleine). Deneb ‫الدجاجة‬ ‫:ذنب‬ Dhanab al-Dajāja ( du Cygne). Fomalhaut ‫الحوت‬ ‫:فم‬ Fam al-ḥūt ( Poisson Austral). Gienah ‫الدجاجة‬ ‫:جناح‬ Jināḥ al-Dajāja ( du Cygne). Hamal ‫:الحمل‬ al-Ḥamal ( du Bélier). Markab ‫الفرس‬ ‫:مركب‬ Markab al-Faras ( de Pégasse). Merak‫االزار‬ ‫مراق‬ : Mirāq al-Izār ( Grande Ourse). Mirzam ‫:مرزم‬ Mirzam ( du Grand Chien). Mufrid ‫:المفرد‬ al-Mufrid ( du Bouvier). Alna'ir ‫:النائر‬ al-Nā'ir ( de La Grue). Nath (El) ‫:النطح‬ al-Naṭḥ ( du Taureau). Nihal ‫:النهال‬ al-Niḥāl (étoile  du Lièvre). Ras Alhague ‫العواء‬ ‫:رأس‬ Ra's al-‘Awwā' ( d'Ophiucus). Rigel ‫الجبار‬ ‫:رجل‬ Rijl al-Jabbār ( d'Orion). Rucbah ‫:ركبةالجاثي‬ Rukbat al-Jāthi ( de Cassiopée). Sadalmalik ‫الملك‬ ‫:سعد‬ Sa‘d al-Malik ( du Verseau). Sadalsud ‫السعود‬ ‫:سعد‬ Sa‘d al-Su‘ūd ( du Verseau). Sadr ‫الدجاجة‬ ‫:صدر‬ Ṣadr al-Dajāja ( du Cygne). Shaula ‫:الشولة‬ Ash- Shawla ( du Scorpion). Shédir (ou Schédar) ‫الكرسي‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫صدر‬ Ṣadr dhāt al-Kursiyy ( de Cassiopée). Thuban ‫:الثعبان‬ al-Thu‘bān ( du Dragon). Véga ‫:الواقع‬ al-Wāqi‘ ( de La Lyre). [Sources: Le Guide des Etoiles, par le Capitaine Pierre Sizaire, Paris 1975 - Ṣuwar al-Kawākib par al-Rāzī al-Ṣūfī (m. 986), Beyrouth 1981 - Tôqān, p. 137].
  4. 4. 4 v) Divers termes Amiral‫البحر‬ ‫:أمير‬ Amīr al-bahr - Arsenal ‫الصناعة‬ ‫دار‬ (fr., ang. et esp) Dar al-ṣinā‘a (repris par l'arabe moderne à partir des langues européennes: "tarsana "! !)- Bocal ‫:بقال‬ Būqāl - Calibre‫قالب‬ (fr. et ang): Qālib - Carat ‫قيراط‬ (fr. et ang.- all.: Karat- esp.: quilate): Qīrāṭ - Cété- rac (h) ‫:شتراق‬ Shutrāq (plante) – Fardeau ‫فرض‬ (esp.: fardo): Farḍ - Mastic ‫مسطكى‬ (fr. et ang.- esp.: almàciga): Musṭakā –Salep ‫سحلب‬ (fr. et all): Saḥlab (plante) - Sophora‫صفيراء‬ (fr. et all): Ṣufayrā' (type d'arbre) – Sumac ‫سماق‬ (all.: Sumach): Sumāq (plante) - Tare ‫طرح‬ (fr. et ang.- all. et esp.: Tara): Ṭarḥ. L'influence de la science arabo-musulmane sur l'Occident apparaît également, comme on le verra plus bas, à travers la latinisation des noms des savants arabes dont les oeuvres furent traduites en latin et donc étudiées et exploitées. Voici des exemples (il y a souvent plusieurs orthographes pour un même nom, suivant les traducteurs): Abenragel (Ibn Abī al-Rijāl), Abubacer (Abū Bakr Ibn Ṭufayl), Abulcasis (Abū al-Qāsim al- Zahrāwī), Albategnius (al-Battānī), Albumazar/ Albumasar (Abū Ma‘shar al-Balkhī), Alkindus/ Alchindi (al-Kindī), Alfarabius/ Alpharabius (al-Fārābī), Alfraganus (al-Farghānī), Algazel (al-Ghazzālī), Algorismus/Alchorizmus (al-Khwārizmī), Alhacen/ Alhazen (al-Ḥaṣan b. al-Haytham), Alpetragius (al-Biṭrūjī), Anaritius (al-Nayrizī), Avempace (Ibn Bājja), Avenzoar (Ibn Zohr), Averroes (Ibn Rushd), Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā), Arzachel/ Azarchel (Ibn al- Zarqālluh), Azaragui (al-Zahrāwī), Dreses (al-Idrīsī), Geber (Jābir b.al-Aflaḥ ou Jābir b. Ḥayyān), Haly/Hali/Aly (‘Alī), Hametus/Ametus (Aḥmed), Razes, (al-Rāzī), Thebit (Thābit b. Qurra).

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