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Improving Smartphone
Interactions During
Vehicle Operation
Final Project Report
University at Buffalo - IE 435/535 Fall 20...
Goals/Background
& Data Gathering
Background
Distracted driving is a large issue. Smartphones have become a large source of distraction.
Smartphones have be...
Goal
Explore…
● The types of tasks users commonly perform on their phones while driving
● How easy or difficult they find ...
Data Gathering
Survey allowed us to gather information about:
● Users
○ Age, driving experience, etc
● Common phone-relate...
Inconsistent Vehicle Controls
Data Analysis,
Initial Prototype & Storyboard
Storyboard & Paper Prototype
● Low fidelity
● Ease of button placement/movability
● Limited resources● User selecting a mu...
Feedback for Paper Prototype
● Learnability factor
● Initial run - 53 seconds
● Second run - 24 seconds
● Why did speed in...
Data Analysis of Survey
● Gathered data through Google Forms
● 45 responses
○ 24 long-form responses
(~40 questions)
○ 21 ...
Requirements &
Usability Test Plan
Prototype Requirements & Criteria
● As a result from our survey and paper prototype, the interactive prototype was
require...
Usability Test Plan
To assess the usability of the final interactive prototype, we examined:
● Task completion times
● Tim...
Final Prototype & Results
Prototype Methodology
● Considered Axure and other prototyping software
● Needed to allow online distribution to users
● D...
Reduced # of scenarios due to constraints
Planned to do 3 scenarios of type media, communication, navigation.
Only had tim...
Data Captured
● Users
○ Demographic attributes: ID, Email, IP
○ State control attributes: Current Mode (practice, task),
C...
Controls
Keyboard (simulate steering buttons without
needing to divert gaze), available in all views
including undistracte...
Controls - continued
‘Look at Steering Controls’ button fallback.
● analogous to keyboard arrows/enter
● allows users who ...
Practice vs Task Modes
● Wanted to account for repeated uses having better performance in
our paper prototypes
● Created a...
Screen/Interaction Flow
Start Screen/
Email Collection
Main Menu
Practice, Task Modes
& Pre-survey
Task Mode
Practice Mode
Task Instruction
End of Tasks &
Rating Survey
Two Undistracted Views
Default (HUD off)
Hud Activated
Distracted View 1 -
Phone
Distracted View 2 -
Touchscreen
Distracted View 3 -
Steering Control
Event Types
● Event Types
○ Prototype Session Started
○ User Created (when email submitted)
○ Main Menu Entered
○ Entered ...
Control and Menu Differences in Views
Media Menu Hierarchy
Final Prototype Outcomes
What went well:
● Easy to send to many users
● Interactivity scope could be focused
● Time needed...
Data Overload!
Just ask if you need more time to view, too many to cover in allotted time.
Response for Final Prototype
● Total Responses: 23
● Removed due to data
collection issues: 10
● Responses examined: 13
Users: 13, Survey Responses: 11 Inconsistencies or
confusion about need to
complete/submit
embedded
Google Forms
Age Ranges & Use of Video Games/Controllers
Sam
e
age
rangesasinitial
survey,no
responses51-65
Gameplay withcontrollers?
Usability Metrics-Task Completion Performance
SKIPPEDALL
SKIPPEDALL
SKIPPEDALL
SKIPPEDALL
Zero values for a
single task me...
Summary Statistics - Tasks
Task 1 Completed
(seconds)
Task 2 Completed
(seconds)
Task 3 Completed
(seconds)
Mean 49.00 Mea...
Summary Statistics - Total Time & Survey
Age Group Gameplay
Mean 31-50 Mode 3 (controller, sometimes)
Standard Error 0
Med...
Navigation into Modes
Perhaps forcing a
practice session
and/or additional
instructions would
have increased ease
of use.
Event Metrics - All
Event Metrics
Total touchscreen ‘touches’ in
media menu:
170
Total media menu navigation
events:
202
Total KeyPresses:
208
Event Metrics
}
Practice/Task View Changes
Steering Wheel View Onscreen
Arrow/Enter Buttons
‘Look at Steering Wheel’ control survey responses
Event Metrics - Keyboard
Used to navigate
media menu and
select media
options.
Did the prototype achieve goals? Some...
No ‘Easy’ responses,
result distribution inconclusive
Need to analyze
data furthe...
Goals - easy to learn controls
While more analysis
needs to be done to
determine length of time
spent in distracted
modes,...
Goals - user opinions
Users also commented that it was difficult to remember
what song/album/station to target and wanted ...
Interesting
Finding:
Time Spent in Prototype
vs
Game Controller Use
(per person)
Only 6 users
completed the
pre-prototype
...
Interesting
Finding:
Time Spent in Prototype
vs
Game Controller Use
(per person)
If this user had been slower, might
have ...
● Analyze data more thoroughly, tracing user paths.
● Explore alternate menu structures & tasks.
● Resolve issues with use...
Thank you. Questions?
Prochain SlideShare
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IE 535: Improving Smartphone Interactions During Vehicle Operation prototype project final presentation

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Slides from the final project presentation for a prototype created as part of University at Buffalo's Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering IE 535 Human-Computer Interaction course taught by Sudeep Hegde.
Lead/graduate: Lauren Madar
Undergraduate members: Scott Baron, Kaitlyn Franz, Tiffany Standish

Publié dans : Ingénierie
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IE 535: Improving Smartphone Interactions During Vehicle Operation prototype project final presentation

  1. 1. Improving Smartphone Interactions During Vehicle Operation Final Project Report University at Buffalo - IE 435/535 Fall 2018 Graduate Student: Lauren Madar Undergraduate Students: Scott Baron, Kaitlyn Franz, Tiffany Standish
  2. 2. Goals/Background & Data Gathering
  3. 3. Background Distracted driving is a large issue. Smartphones have become a large source of distraction. Smartphones have become an important part of everyday life to the point that some people feel they must answer or make phone calls, respond to messages, and perform other activities on their mobile devices while driving. As of right now there is no easy way to change phone applications without taking attention away from the road.
  4. 4. Goal Explore… ● The types of tasks users commonly perform on their phones while driving ● How easy or difficult they find using their vehicle’s phone integration functions ● Provide options for improvement over existing vehicle-phone controls.
  5. 5. Data Gathering Survey allowed us to gather information about: ● Users ○ Age, driving experience, etc ● Common phone-related functions performed (while driving) ● Level of difficulty of perform tasks We examined different cars to see the inconsistency between steering wheel controls.
  6. 6. Inconsistent Vehicle Controls
  7. 7. Data Analysis, Initial Prototype & Storyboard
  8. 8. Storyboard & Paper Prototype ● Low fidelity ● Ease of button placement/movability ● Limited resources● User selecting a music album from phone to play through car ● Many different pathways to do this
  9. 9. Feedback for Paper Prototype ● Learnability factor ● Initial run - 53 seconds ● Second run - 24 seconds ● Why did speed increase so much?
  10. 10. Data Analysis of Survey ● Gathered data through Google Forms ● 45 responses ○ 24 long-form responses (~40 questions) ○ 21 short-form responses (~10 questions) Q02 Occupation Q03 Q04 Q05 combined Q10 combined Q4 0 Q02 Occupation 1 Q03 0.1457456481 1 Q04 -0.097473073 74 0.644612802 4 1 Q05 combined -0.018485342 53 -0.23387031 59 -0.331535460 7 1 Q10 combined 0.2621671445 -0.15225447 26 -0.044801076 83 0.116588507 3 1 Q40 -0.071903905 08 0.114219479 1 0.0284400255 6 -0.10678276 15 -0.15329698 38 1
  11. 11. Requirements & Usability Test Plan
  12. 12. Prototype Requirements & Criteria ● As a result from our survey and paper prototype, the interactive prototype was required to have: ○ Steering wheel controls ○ Touchscreen view ○ Mobile device view ○ HUD view ● Wanted to simulate an actual car dashboard/windshield ● Contain distracted and non-distracted views ○ Goal: reduce/limit time in distracted views
  13. 13. Usability Test Plan To assess the usability of the final interactive prototype, we examined: ● Task completion times ● Time spent in a distracted modes ● Subjective ratings from users
  14. 14. Final Prototype & Results
  15. 15. Prototype Methodology ● Considered Axure and other prototyping software ● Needed to allow online distribution to users ● Desire to collect detailed analytics made a website with database necessary - not available in Axure/AdobeXD out of the box ● 2 Google Forms surveys embedded to capture demographic info and subjective measures, one at app start and one after task completion ● ExtJS used for UI, PHP on Apache server for backend, MySQL for database ● Specific interaction events stored on server
  16. 16. Reduced # of scenarios due to constraints Planned to do 3 scenarios of type media, communication, navigation. Only had time to complete menu/interactions for the media/music category. Created 3 music tasks: 1. Play a specific song (Yellow Submarine, The Beatles - Album: Sgt. Pepper) 2. Change radio station to a specific station (FM 102.5) 3. Play a specific album (Brass Monkey by Beastie Boys)
  17. 17. Data Captured ● Users ○ Demographic attributes: ID, Email, IP ○ State control attributes: Current Mode (practice, task), Current View (undistracted, phone, steering, touch) CurrentHUDstate (off, on) ● Events - actions that users perform ○ Attributes: ID Timestamp (date/time event happened) Type Value (used for some events)
  18. 18. Controls Keyboard (simulate steering buttons without needing to divert gaze), available in all views including undistracted & HUD. ● left arrow (back) ● up arrow/down arrow (next/prevsibling) ● right arrow (select or get children) ● enter (ok or select) Touch Simulation (mouse click) ● select menu item to navigate in Phone and Touchscreen views ● trigger arrows/select in Steering view ● activate different views to simulate looking/paying attention to different controls
  19. 19. Controls - continued ‘Look at Steering Controls’ button fallback. ● analogous to keyboard arrows/enter ● allows users who don’t have sufficient hand-eye coordination to explore controls on-screen ● only available in a distracted ‘look down’ view.
  20. 20. Practice vs Task Modes ● Wanted to account for repeated uses having better performance in our paper prototypes ● Created an option for users to get familiar with the controls before starting the timed tasks, but did not force users to do a practice task
  21. 21. Screen/Interaction Flow
  22. 22. Start Screen/ Email Collection Main Menu Practice, Task Modes & Pre-survey
  23. 23. Task Mode Practice Mode
  24. 24. Task Instruction End of Tasks & Rating Survey
  25. 25. Two Undistracted Views Default (HUD off) Hud Activated
  26. 26. Distracted View 1 - Phone
  27. 27. Distracted View 2 - Touchscreen
  28. 28. Distracted View 3 - Steering Control
  29. 29. Event Types ● Event Types ○ Prototype Session Started ○ User Created (when email submitted) ○ Main Menu Entered ○ Entered Practice Mode ○ Entered Task Mode ○ HUD enabled/disabled ○ Mode changed (undistracted, phone, steering, touchscreen) ○ Key pressed (value = which key) ○ Menu chosen (value = menu name) ○ Button pressed (value = button name ○ Task # started ○ Task # quit (skipped) ○ Task # completed
  30. 30. Control and Menu Differences in Views
  31. 31. Media Menu Hierarchy
  32. 32. Final Prototype Outcomes What went well: ● Easy to send to many users ● Interactivity scope could be focused ● Time needed from designers to interact with respondents was minimal ● Able to collect variety of data events and capture in DB Events captured: Total: 2021, usable: 1001 What was problematic: ● Higher fidelity took longer than anticipate to finish ● Training/instruction for users limited to a few paragraphs of text ● Limitations on type of devices that the prototype could be used on caused confusion (required laptop/desktop with keyboard and mouse or touchpad, not touchscreens) ● Little time for debugging resulted in data not being recorded for first 10 respondents ● Timestamp configuration in database only captured seconds, not milliseconds. ● Lots of data gathered, not enough time to analyze.
  33. 33. Data Overload! Just ask if you need more time to view, too many to cover in allotted time.
  34. 34. Response for Final Prototype ● Total Responses: 23 ● Removed due to data collection issues: 10 ● Responses examined: 13
  35. 35. Users: 13, Survey Responses: 11 Inconsistencies or confusion about need to complete/submit embedded Google Forms
  36. 36. Age Ranges & Use of Video Games/Controllers Sam e age rangesasinitial survey,no responses51-65 Gameplay withcontrollers?
  37. 37. Usability Metrics-Task Completion Performance SKIPPEDALL SKIPPEDALL SKIPPEDALL SKIPPEDALL Zero values for a single task means user started but then quit/skipped that task.
  38. 38. Summary Statistics - Tasks Task 1 Completed (seconds) Task 2 Completed (seconds) Task 3 Completed (seconds) Mean 49.00 Mean 25.50 Mean 9.71 Standard Error 28.00 Standard Error 5.65 Standard Error 2.41 Median 21.00 Median 28.50 Median 9.00 Mode 21.00 Mode 40.00 Mode 9.00 Standard Deviation 48.50 Standard Deviation 13.84 Standard Deviation 6.37 Sample Variance 2352.00 Sample Variance 191.50 Sample Variance 40.57 Kurtosis -2.40 Kurtosis 0.53 Skewness 1.73 Skewness -0.32 Skewness 0.92 Range 84.00 Range 31.00 Range 19.00 Minimum 21.00 Minimum 9.00 Minimum 2.00 Maximum 105.00 Maximum 40.00 Maximum 21.00 Sum 147.00 Sum 153.00 Sum 68.00 Count 3 Count 6 Count 7
  39. 39. Summary Statistics - Total Time & Survey Age Group Gameplay Mean 31-50 Mode 3 (controller, sometimes) Standard Error 0 Median 31-50 Mode 31-50 Standard Deviation 0 Sample Variance 0 Range 0 Range 3 Minimum 31-50 Minimum 1 Maximum 31-50 Maximum 4 Count 6 Count 6 Time Spent in Prototype (minutes) Mean 50.66 Standard Error 32.29 Median 3.28 Mode 316.02 Standard Deviation 116.41 Sample Variance 13550.20 Kurtosis 3.23 Skewness 2.18 Range 315.13 Minimum 0.88 Maximum 316.02 Sum 658.53 Count 13
  40. 40. Navigation into Modes Perhaps forcing a practice session and/or additional instructions would have increased ease of use.
  41. 41. Event Metrics - All
  42. 42. Event Metrics Total touchscreen ‘touches’ in media menu: 170 Total media menu navigation events: 202 Total KeyPresses: 208
  43. 43. Event Metrics } Practice/Task View Changes Steering Wheel View Onscreen Arrow/Enter Buttons
  44. 44. ‘Look at Steering Wheel’ control survey responses
  45. 45. Event Metrics - Keyboard Used to navigate media menu and select media options.
  46. 46. Did the prototype achieve goals? Some... No ‘Easy’ responses, result distribution inconclusive Need to analyze data further to find ‘time spent in distracted views’
  47. 47. Goals - easy to learn controls While more analysis needs to be done to determine length of time spent in distracted modes, this MAY indicate preference for using keyboard controls in the undistracted view!
  48. 48. Goals - user opinions Users also commented that it was difficult to remember what song/album/station to target and wanted an on-screen reminder during task operation.
  49. 49. Interesting Finding: Time Spent in Prototype vs Game Controller Use (per person) Only 6 users completed the pre-prototype survey.
  50. 50. Interesting Finding: Time Spent in Prototype vs Game Controller Use (per person) If this user had been slower, might have been an inverse correlation. These are people at work leaving the window open/multitasking, so may skew results.
  51. 51. ● Analyze data more thoroughly, tracing user paths. ● Explore alternate menu structures & tasks. ● Resolve issues with user confusion about tasks, ‘force’ a practice session or trial run, assure surveys are filled out for every respondent. ● Explore if video game controller use (with directional pads) affects performance, learning and preference in using steering wheel directional-pad controls (mapping/ applying previously learned mental models, hand-eye coordination, recognition) Opportunities for Improvement/Further Research
  52. 52. Thank you. Questions?

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