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Sensation and Perception (psychology)

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Sensation and Perception (psychology)

  1. 1. SENSATION Sensation is the simple experience that arises from the stimulation of the sense organ Sensation refers to physiological arousal of a sense organ by a stimulus Sensation is a physical feeling caused by having one or more of the sense organs stimulated Sensation is the capacity to receive impressions through the sense organs.
  2. 2. Bitter Sour Sweet Salt
  3. 3. Farsightedness, also called hyperopia, common name for a defect in vision in which a person sees near objects with blurred vision, while distant objects appear in sharp focus. Nearsightedness, also called myopia, common name for impaired vision in which a person sees near objects clearly while distant objects appear blurred.
  4. 4. Presbyopia or old-sightedness is a progressive form of farsightedness that affects most people by their early 60s. Astigmatism, a defect in the outer curvature on the surface of the eye that causes distorted vision. Color Blindness, defect of vision affecting the ability to distinguish colors, occurring mostly in males. Color blindness is caused by a defect in the retina or in other nerve portions of the eye.
  5. 5. eye disorders: muscular degeneration, Glaucoma Cataract diabetic retinopathy each have a characteristic way of distorting a person’s vision.
  6. 6. These photographs show how the world appears to a person with each of these disorders.
  7. 7. COMMON OF HEARING DEFECT Conductive hearing loss, is caused by diseases or obstruction in the outer or middle ear and usually is not severe. A person with a conductive hearing loss generally can be helped by a hearing aid.
  8. 8. FOUR SEPARATE SKIN SENSES: Pain Pressure Cold Warmth
  9. 9. EXAMPLE OF SKIN DISEASES: Chicken Pox sometimes called varicella, is a common childhood disease caused by a virus. Its characteristic feature is a rash that appears one to three weeks after infection on the face, under the armpits, and on the upper arms and legs.
  10. 10. “Money is like a sixth sense without which you cannot make a complete use of the other five” Somerset Maugham (1874 - 1965) British writer
  11. 11. ANESTHESIA  absence of physical sensation in part or all of the body.  refers to a reversible condition that is induced using anesthetic drugs. These drugs may be injected, inhaled, or applied directly to the surface of the body.  Each year about 40 million patients in the United States receive anesthetic drugs for surgery, obstetrics, dentistry, or other medical procedures.  The lack of sensation caused by these conditions is not easily reversible, and patients’ unawareness of pain and other sensations can put them at risk of serious harm.
  12. 12. Early Operation American dentist William Morton pioneered the use of ether as an anesthetic in 1846. He used it first to extract a tooth and then, in an operation illustrated here, to remove a tumor from a patient’s neck. The discovery of anesthesia removed one of the major obstacles to the progression of surgery.
  13. 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF SENSATION Specificity of Sensory Stimulation -- each sensory organ is stimulated by specific form of external or internal energy Transduction as a Transmission Process --Transduction– transportation of stimuli to nervous
  14. 14. Thresholds --each sense has a different threshold and every sense’s threshold will differ from situation to situation Some Approximate Absolute Thresholds (from Hilgard, 1983) Stimulus Threshold Light A candle seen at 30 mile on a dark, clear night Sound The tick of a watch under quiet conditions at 20 feet Taste One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Smell One drop of a perfume diffused into a 3-room apartment Touch The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of 1cm.
  15. 15. Absolute Threshold is the least amount of stimulus necessary to produce a response in a person. Difference Thresholds are smallest changes in stimuli that a person is able to detect, often refer to as the “jnd” or just noticeable difference. Interrelatedness of the senses
  16. 16. Perception refers to the interpretation of a stimulus Perception is the organization of sensory input into meaningful experience Perception serves the function of converting raw sensory input into useful information Perception serves as an encoding process PERCEPTION
  17. 17. VISUAL PERSPECTIVE
  18. 18. VISUAL PERSPECTIVE Gestalt Laws of grouping Proximity The law of proximity states that the closer objects are to one another, the more likely we are to mentally group them together
  19. 19. Similarity The law of similarity leads us to link together parts of the visual field that are similar in color, lightness, texture, shape, or any other quality.
  20. 20. Continuity The law of continuity leads us to see a line as continuing in a particular direction, rather than making an abrupt turn. In the drawing on the left below, we see a straight line with a curved line running through it.
  21. 21. Closure According to t he law of closure, we prefer complete forms to incomplete forms
  22. 22. Common fate The law of common fate leads us to group together objects that move in the same direction.
  23. 23. Simplicity Central to the approach of Gestalt psychologists is the law of prägnanz, or simplicity. This general notion, which encompasses all other Gestalt laws, states that people intuitively prefer the simplest, most stable of possible organizations.
  24. 24. FIGURE AND GROUND distinguishing objects from its surroundings The object, or figure, is closer to you, and the background, or ground, is farther away.
  25. 25. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY allows us to perceive an object as roughly the same in spite of changes in the retinal image. Kinds of perceptual constancies: lightness constancy color constancy shape constancy size constancy
  26. 26. lightness constancy perception of an object’s lightness or darkness remains constant despite changes in illumination. color constancy means that we perceive the color of an object as the same despite changes in lighting conditions.
  27. 27. shape constancy means that you perceive objects as retaining the same shape despite changes in their orientation size constancy tendency to perceive objects as staying the same size despite changes in our distance from them
  28. 28. DEPTH PERCEPTION is the ability to see the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance. Although this ability may seem simple, depth perception is remarkable when you consider that the images projected on each retina are two-dimensional. To perceive depth, we depend on two main sources of information: binocular disparity, a depth cue that requires both eyes monocular cues, which allow us to perceive depth with just one eye.
  29. 29. binocular disparity, a depth cue that requires both eyes This difference in the left and right images is called binocular disparity.
  30. 30. monocular cues cues to depth that are effective when viewed with only one eye. kinds of monocular cues: Interposition atmospheric perspective texture gradient linear perspective size cues height cues motion parallax.
  31. 31. the most important monocular cue is interposition, or overlap. When one object overlaps or partly blocks our view of another object, we judge the covered object as being farther away from us.
  32. 32. The air contains microscopic particles of dust and moisture that make distant objects look hazy or blurry. This effect is called atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective, and we use it to judge distance.
  33. 33. A texture gradient arises whenever we view a surface from a slant, rather than directly from above. Most surfaces—such as the ground, a road, or a field of flowers—have a texture.
  34. 34. Linear perspective means that parallel lines, such as the white lines of this road, appear to converge with greater distance and reach a vanishing point at the horizon.
  35. 35. TWO TYPES OF SIZE CUES: Relative size Familiar size If we assume that two objects are the same size, we perceive the object that casts a smaller retinal image as farther away than the object that casts a larger retinal image. This depth cue is known as relative size
  36. 36. Another depth cue involves the familiar size of objects. Through experience, we become familiar with the standard size of certain objects, such as houses, cars, airplanes, people, animals, books, and chairs. Knowing the size of these objects helps us judge our distance from them and from objects around them.
  37. 37. HEIGHT CUES When judging an object’s distance, we consider its height in our visual field relative to other objects. The closer an object is to the horizon in our visual field, the farther away we perceive it to be
  38. 38. motion parallax The monocular cues discussed so far— interposition, atmospheric perspective, texture gradient, linear perspective, size cues, and height cues—are sometimes called pictorial cues, because artists can use them to convey three-dimensional information. Another monocular cue cannot be represented on a canvas. Motion parallax occurs when objects at different distances from you appear to move at different rates when you are in motion
  39. 39. AUDITORY PERCEPTION PERCEPTION OF DIRECTION Time differential Because the ears are on opposite sides of the head, a sound wave coming form either side of the will reach one ear before it reaches the other. Although only a split second is involved, this time differential permits the person to judge the direction of the sound. Intensity differential (strength, power, force, or concentration) When a sound originates on one side of the head, the full strength of the sound wave goes into the ear on that side. The intensity decreases by the time the sound reaches the other ear. Much of the sound wave is detoured by the head itself, which acts as a sound shadow, absorbing some of the sound’s intensity. Because of this decrease in intensity, a person can generally judge sound direction within an angle of 20 degree.
  40. 40. ripple rise and fall of volume or in loudness The wave character of sound includes its ripple. The ear on the same side as the sound source usually picks up one part of the ripple, and the ear on the other side picks up a different part. This gives the listener still another means of identifying the direction of the sound SET AND PERCEPTION SET or perceptual set is the readiness to perceive in a certain manner Can influence the perceptual set: past experience context
  41. 41. Past experience Past experience is so influential in the development of personal traits, particularly attitudes, values, interests, and prejudices and thus, it has an inescapable influence on the way we are prepared to perceive the world. context surrounding condition Group pressure influences individual judgment. One’s family, friends, and other social groups may play strong but subtle role in determining the manner in which one perceives the world. Each of us “filters” the world somewhat differently, due to personal bases.
  42. 42. The context in which an object appears influences our perception of it. In Example A of this illustration, you perceive a B or an 8 depending on whether you read the row of letters or the column of numbers. In Example B, the green circles are the same size but appear to be different sizes because of the context of the surrounding red circles.
  43. 43. TACTUAL PERCEPTION one theory holds that local sign allow us to make appropriate responses to the corresponding stimuli. relating the sense of touch OLFACTORY & GUSTATORY PERCEPTION sensitivity to gustatory stimulus varies according to point of application and temperature of the substance  Relating the sense of smell and taste
  44. 44. INACCURATE PERCEPTIONS:  Illusion  Hallucination  Delusion
  45. 45. ILLUSIONS  Illusions of Length  Illusions of Shape  Illusions of size  Illusory Contour  Impossible Figures  Illusory motion Illusion is an impression from experience which does not correctly represent the objective situation outside the observer
  46. 46. Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri the height and width of the arch are the same—each is 192 m (630 ft.). horizontal-vertical illusion,.
  47. 47. ZOLLNER ILLUSION
  48. 48. Parthenon, a masterpiece of ancient Greek architecture Although it looks perfectly straight, the structure contains no perfect right angles. Its architects designed the columns to lean slightly inward, and they constructed the base and other horizontal elements with a slight upward curvature.
  49. 49. This type of room is known as an Ames room after its inventor, American ophthalmologist Adelbert Ames.
  50. 50. Moon Illusion When the moon is close to the horizon, it seems larger than when it is in the sky overhead
  51. 51.  people prefer to see a well-organized whole, rather than many individual parts we perceive the simplest possible interpretations of the figures
  52. 52. Also called as ambiguous figures They are figures that allow for more than one perceptual interpretation, each of which is accurate
  53. 53. This drawing, from an 1888 German postcard, is an example of a reversible figure—a figure that can be perceived in two different ways.
  54. 54. Hallucinations are perception of somebody or something that is not really there, which often symptom of psychiatric disorder or a response to some drugs from Latin word “alucinatio” means dream and to wander mentally Example: victims believe that they hear accusing or commanding voices, to which they may react in panic, with abject obedience, or with attempts at self- protection or even suicide
  55. 55. DELUSIONS refers to false belief organized from both, perception and memory. (misinterpret) DIFFERENT DELUSIONS: A grandiose delusion is a belief that one is extremely famous or that one has special powers, such as the ability to magically heal people. A somatic delusion is a belief that something is wrong with one’s body—for example, that one’s brain is rotting away—even though no medical evidence supports this belief A person with an erotic delusion believes that someone is in love with him or her despite a lack of evidence for this belief In a delusion of jealousy, a person believes that his or her spouse or lover is unfaithful despite evidence to the contrary.
  56. 56. scientific investigation of alleged phenomena and events that appear to be unaccounted for by conventional physical, biological, or psychological theories  study of unexplained mental phenomena Parapsychologists study two kinds of so-called psi phenomena: 1. extrasensory perception (ESP) 2. psychokinesis (PK),
  57. 57. 1. EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP) perception without the mediation of the senses. It is also called “sixth sense” knowledge of external objects or events without the aid of the senses
  58. 58. ESP includes: Telepathy thought transmission from one mind to another Clair voyage an extrasensory awareness of objects Precognition foreknowledge of specific events, there is ability to look way back into past Psychometry  ability to touch an object and feel the energy of the object, can know the past, present and future of the person owned the object.
  59. 59. 2. PSYCHOKINESIS mental operations that influences a material body or an energy system  the ability to affect objects at a distance by means other than known physical forces  moving objects with mind: the supposed ability to use mental powers to make objects move or to otherwise affect them
  60. 60. NAME:_____________________________ PSYCHOLOGY DATE:______________ I-Encircle the words that correspond to the following description and write your answer on the blank. __________________1.Refers to the interpretation of a stimulus. NOTIREPPCE __________________2.Is an impression from experience which does not correctly represent the objective situation outside the observer. LOISLIUN __________________3.Is the simple experience that arises from the stimulation of the sense organ. ASSETONIN __________________4.Another term for old-sightedness. AYBRESPOI __________________5.It is also called “sixth sense”. YROSNESARTXE II- Enumeration: •Give 2 of the Gestalt Laws of grouping in visual perception: 1. 2. •Give 2 types of perception: 3. 4. •Give one of the common visual defects: 5. R G T R E L Z K I S L E E H T U I O S P L D H J X G A P E R C E P T I O N T U N R J H K N L K L F H R I P E L J T S A V L H D A T T S K C Z A W F U F R S P I B S P H T A B S M L E R Z Y R L E I P J I H P N I E O W A L O I K O O Q S K K P I F Y N L M N P G O G B I P R G C Y N Q S Y R H S A O C K O E Y H K Z Y U A J P I A A F L U E W T U

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