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The history of education

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The history of education

  1. 1. Education Culture and Society History of Education
  2. 2. 19 th Century <ul><li>Education was the only for the middle and upper classes. </li></ul><ul><li>The wealthy had no desire to educate the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The working classes had no desire to have their children educated. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1807 <ul><li>Samuel Whitbread introduced a bill the first part of which dealt specifically with education. </li></ul><ul><li>He proposed that each child should have 2 years of education between the ages of 7 and 14 as this should reduce crime and poverty. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It was considered too expensive to implement and would make the lower classes ‘dissatisfied with their social situation’, </li></ul><ul><li>This idea of generalised education for the masses was reiterated constantly throughout the century. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Factory Acts of 1833, 1844 and 1867 <ul><li>These acts restricted child labour which in turn allowed the opportunity of education for the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime, poverty and social unrest grew in the middle of 19 th century as Britain was in economic decline. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>This was felt to be largely because the European countries were more developed in technical education. (skills, trades etc) </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to the view that stability of the political and economic future of Britain was dependent upon the education of the people. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1867 <ul><li>Prior to this 1867 the parliamentary system was based on an archaic system including ‘rotten boroughs’. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote to all male householders and male lodgers who paid more than £10 for unfurnished rooms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>As a result an additional 1.5 million men were eligible to vote who had not been previously. </li></ul><ul><li>This lead the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robert Lowe to state that the Government would now “have to educate our masters”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Suddenly education became financially viable! </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>As a direct result of this the Education Reform Act of 1870 was passed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1870 Education Reform Act (Forster) <ul><li>The country would be divided into 2,500 school districts </li></ul><ul><li>School boards were to be elected by rate payers in each district </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1870 Education Reform Act (Forster) <ul><li>School boards had to examine provision and had permission to build schools out of the rates if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>They could make their own by-laws to charge fees or permit free admission </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1870 Education Reform Act (Forster) <ul><li>Women were allowed to vote for the school boards and could also stand as candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Garrett polled more than 47,000 votes in Marylebone. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1944 Education Act - Butler <ul><li>The next Education Act was passed in 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Main Provision was that it established Primary Education in law. </li></ul><ul><li>Education was to be free for primary and secondary age children </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1944 Education Act - Butler <ul><li>Recognised 3 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Primary (up to 11 divided into nursery, infant and junior) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary (11-15) </li></ul><ul><li>Further or higher education (beyond school leaving age. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1944 Education Act - Butler <ul><li>Introduced 3 tier system of secondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Modern </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Technical </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Over time parents began to see Grammar schools as ‘the best’ and secondary modern schools as inferior. This lead to the introduction of the comprehensive system in the 1950’s and 60’s. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970’s state and religious schools had to become comprehensive which lead to some schools being unable to cope with the change. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1965 <ul><li>The desire for the teaching profession to become a graduate profession lead to the introduction of the first Batchelor of Education degree. </li></ul><ul><li>The current position .......... </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Plowden Report 1967 <ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Full parental participation </li></ul><ul><li>Parental choice </li></ul><ul><li>Education priority areas </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation between educational, health and social services </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Plowden Report 1967 <ul><li>Universal education for 3-5 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>End the 11+ </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching to use a combination of individual, group and whole class methods </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of teaching assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Training for teacher assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Bascially laid down the basic of schools today though not fully implemented until 1990’s on. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1974 <ul><li>First attempt to monitor national standards called Professional Performance Unit. </li></ul><ul><li>In languages, English, Maths, Science, aesthetic development, personal and social development and PE at 11 and 14. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1975 Bullock Report <ul><li>This report refuted the view that schools were ignoring the ‘basics’ of teaching English in favour of ‘creativity’. </li></ul><ul><li>Argues a ‘whole language’ approach to teaching English. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1978 <ul><li>Major HMI Survey entitled ‘Primary Education in England’ published. </li></ul><ul><li>Identified serious inconsistencies in breadth, balance and quality of the curriculum and management. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1988 Warnock Report <ul><li>Report into provision for ‘the handicapped’. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly recommended integration. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1988 Education Act <ul><li>Introduction of the National Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>National tests at 7, 11 and 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Management of Schools </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1991 <ul><li>First full run of KS1 Sats and the results were published in Local Education Authority league tables. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1992 <ul><li>The ‘Three Wise Men’ Report which refocused emphasis of primary education in terms of the character and quality of the pedagogy. </li></ul><ul><li>OfSTED </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1997 Excellence in Schools White Paper <ul><li>Introduces the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets for 2002 </li></ul>
  29. 29. 2000 <ul><li>The National Curriculum is slimmed down but is fundamentally unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>EYFS strategy is introduced with the curriculum split into six areas of learning. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 2003 <ul><li>Every Child Matters - ‘Joined up’ education and care from birth to 19. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence and Enjoyment – new primary strategy manifesto. Consolidates National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 2009 <ul><li>Rose Review and Alexander Report ...... </li></ul><ul><li>.....but that’s a story for another time! </li></ul>