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Sources of Map Error in Public Health Activities and Operations Research

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Quantifying Error in Training Data for Mapping and Monitoring the Earth System - A Workshop on “Quantifying Error in Training Data for Mapping and Monitoring the Earth System” was held on January 8-9, 2019 at Clark University, with support from Omidyar Network’s Property Rights Initiative, now PlaceFund.

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Sources of Map Error in Public Health Activities and Operations Research

  1. 1. Sources of Map Error in Public Health Activities and Operations Research Victoria M Gammino Radiant Earth Foundation 8 January 2019
  2. 2. About Us Key facts  Non-profit organization, founded in 2016 with funding from Omidyar Network and Gates Foundation  Back-end infrastructure for global development organizations providing open source imagery and ML tools  Neutral convener  Collaborative & Sector-agnostic
  3. 3. Core Public Health Functions Investigative Activities - Disease surveillance & detection - Outbreak /emergency response - case-finding Link To/ Provide Care - Service delivery - population estimation - supply chain logistics
  4. 4. CASE STUDY: Polio Eradication Four-part strategy - Routine immunization coverage - (x4 in 14 weeks) - Laboratory surveillance/case detection - Outbreak response (targeted campaigns) - 80% coverage all kids < 5 - House-to-house - Strategic public places - Mass immunization coverage o Population size o Location o Terrain
  5. 5. Role of Satellite Imagery & GIS Satellite Imagery  Facilitates feature extraction to identify settlements and temporary encampments missed in « manual » microplanning based on local knowledge  Visualize jurisdictional boundaries  Increase awareness of environment to improve logistical efficiency based on terrain and distance Direct Impact on Microplanning  Assure that all settlements incorporated into written plans  Advocacy to assure adequate resources
  6. 6. in the absence of census data & current shp files
  7. 7. Mapping in the Polio Context (and its relationship to groundtruthing) Logistical plans for field operations crafted at the lowest level of health service administration and data aggregated upwards However, Field operations are implemented at the lowest administrative level Systematic bias Behavioral bias
  8. 8. Rationale: “not our area”
  9. 9. Systematic Errors
  10. 10. Sakwaya Ward Kachi Ward J/Tsada Ward Missed Settlements Map/data credit: Vince Seaman
  11. 11. “Border Settlements” ~40% cases
  12. 12. 13 o Literacy/numeracy o Redundancy o Map reading Qualitative | Behavioral | Perceptual Non-systematic Bias | Perceptual o POIs measurement bias (distance, movement)
  13. 13. o Fear o Insider knowledge-- > wrong KIs? o [Consensus analytics to validate intra-cultural knowledge a.k.a, “expert opinion”] Large surveys o Response bias (e.g., opportunity cost or cost implications) Non-systematic Bias (2)
  14. 14. Discrimination|otherness Quantified: 2 vs 14 settlements 68 vs ~1200 Saliency/ social construction “no man’s land”
  15. 15. Visual balance (benign); “canvas compliance”
  16. 16. 17 Intentional “balancing” -Concerns about equity and pay
  17. 17. This is a photo of the map that was used in an exercise to gather village location information. The map has very little detailed information for reference to place new village locations. The new locations are shown written in pencil. The map is improved by adding detailed data. This map shows Facebook grid data (red) lining up with more detailed road data (black), which improves accuracy in placing points. The written in points are shown in purple and are now aligned with the more detailed data. Imagery was also used to verify the presence of structures, in addition to the Facebook grid data. The image also shows the new road data (in black) aligning to the road in the image. Mozambique vDPV2 outbreak, 2017
  18. 18. Context, context, context In emergency, bang for buck Solutions from Anthro/ Sociology/Other disciplines Consensus Analytics for KIs Hybrid methods Grand Tour / Transects Mnemonic prompts Communicating w/ visuals and analogies
  19. 19. More about Radiant Earth Foundation Additional References | Info
  20. 20. Why we exist DISCOVERY 1 COMPLEXITY2 COSTS 3 Problem Our Solution Opportunity • Increase in imagery and tools • New technologies such as machine learning and cloud computing Facilitating access to imagery and data analytics to enable the global development community to address challenges Global Development Community needs data and tools but often has the least access to it
  21. 21. Vision & Mission  Open Geospatial Data for Positive Global Impact  Connecting people globally to Earth Imagery, geospatial data, tools and knowledge to meet the world’s most critical challenges
  22. 22. Mission Critical Support Food Security & Agriculture Property Rights Humanitarian Response Global Health Conservation, Forestry & Environment WaterPoverty Reduction Climate Change Transparency & Journalism
  23. 23. What we do Provide Open Access to Earth Imagery & Tools Provide Education on Geospatial Data & Tools Provide Remote Sensing Use Case Analytical Support & Advise of Procurement of Commercial Products Technology Platform Community Development Consultancy
  24. 24. 25 Polio Campaign Dashboard 2011-2013 WHO, NPHCDA AND NSTOP Expanded use of GPS tracking to quantify SIA performance (%%) Barau, et al, 2014 J Infect Dis. (2014) 210 (suppl 1): S102-S110 http://vts.eocng.org/GeoCoverage/Lga?campaignId=26&day=7&lgaCode=804
  25. 25. Hybrid: Grand Tour/Transect Interactive technique using interviews and guided tour to document community features and or boundaries with photographs and geotags according to key informant priorities, or systematically by identifying and maintaining a pre-determined pathway through the community. + Combines geotagged data with key informant-identified Priorities + More accurate than hand-drawn - Vulnerable to key informant bias in determining “what’s important” - Limited by informants’ knowledge of the community and Terrain
  26. 26. 740 15th St NW, Suite 900 Washington DC 20005 + 1. 202.596.3603 hello@radiant.earth www.radiant.earth | app.radiant.earth @OurRadiantEarth https://www.facebook.com/OurRadiantEarth/