Martin Luther King, JR Power Point.pptx

Martin Luther King, JR
CIVIL RIGHTS
Lucy Beam Hoffman
• Reconstruction
• Black Codes
• Jim Crow
• Plessy Vs. Ferguson
• Brown vs. Board of Education
20XX 2
1968
20XX 3
1929
January 15 - Michael King, later known as Martin
Luther King, Jr., is born at 501 Auburn Ave. in Atlanta,
Georgia.
1941
The King family -- Martin Luther King, Sr. (Daddy
King), Alberta Williams King, Willie Christine King,
Martin Luther King, Jr., and Alfred Daniel Williams
King (known as A. D. King) -- moves from 501
Auburn Avenue to 193 Boulevard in Atlanta.
1944
King begins his freshman year at Morehouse
College in Atlanta
Morehouse College
1946
The Atlanta Constitution publishes King’s letter to the
editor stating that black people "are entitled to the
basic rights and opportunities of American citizens."
1948
25 February- King is ordained and appointed assistant
pastor at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta.
8 June - King receives his bachelor of arts degree in
sociology from Morehouse College.
14 September - King begins his studies at Crozer
Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 4
Ebenezer Baptist Church
Marriage
18 June - King and Coretta Scott are married at the Scott home near Marion,
Alabama.
Coretta Scott was born in Marion, Alabama on April 27, 1927.
• King’s parents were both entrepreneurs and her mother was
musically talented.
• As a child, King expressed interest in music and quickly excelled in
grade school as lead in the choir.
• She was the valedictorian in high school and went on to received her
BA in music from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio.
• King was awarded a scholarship to further her music studies at the
New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts.
While studying at the school King was introduced to then, doctoral
student Martin Luther King Jr. Although she was not initially attracted
to him, the two began to date, and married in 1953.
PRESENTATION TITLE 20XX 5
1954
1 September - King begins his pastorate at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in
Montgomery, Alabama.
1955
5 June - King is awarded his doctorate in systematic theology from Boston
University.
17 November - Yolanda Denise King, the Kings’ first child, is born.
1 December - Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to vacate her seat and
move to the rear of a city bus in Montgomery to make way for a white
passenger. Jo Ann Robinson and other Women’s Political Council members
mimeograph thousands of leaflets calling for a one-day boycott of the city’s
buses on Monday, 5 December.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 6
Bravery
13 November - The U.S. Supreme Court affirms
the lower court opinion in Browder v.
Gayle declaring Montgomery and Alabama bus
segregation laws unconstitutional.
21 December - Montgomery City Lines resumes
full service on all routes. King is among the first
passengers to ride the buses in an integrated
fashion.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 7
1956
27 January - According to King’s later account in Stride Toward
Freedom, he receives a threatening phone call late in the
evening, prompting a spiritual revelation that fills him with
strength to carry on in spite of persecution.
30 January - At 9:15 p.m., while King speaks at a mass
meeting, his home is bombed. His wife and daughter are not
injured. Later King addresses an angry crowd that gathers
outside the house, pleading for nonviolence.
PRESENTATION TITLE 20XX 8
PRESENTATION TITLE
Montgomery Bus Boycott
December 5, 1955 to December 20, 1956
King recalled in his memoir that “Mrs. Parks was ideal for the role
assigned to her by history,” and because “her character was impeccable
and her dedication deep-rooted” she was “one of the most respected
people in the Negro community” (King, 44).
Robinson and the WPC responded to Parks’ arrest by calling for a one-
day protest of the city’s buses on 5 December 1955. Robinson prepared a
series of leaflets at Alabama State College and organized groups to
distribute them throughout the black community.
Meanwhile, after securing bail for Parks with Clifford and Virginia Durr, E.
D. Nixon, past leader of the Montgomery chapter of the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), began
call local black leaders, including Ralph Abernathy and King, to organize
a planning meeting.
On 2 December, black ministers and leaders met at Dexter Avenue
Baptist Church and agreed to publicize the 5 December boycott. The
planned protest received unexpected publicity in the weekend
newspapers and in radio and television reports.
20XX 9
Outcome of the Bus Boycott
Dec 1, 1955 -
i. On 5 December, 90 percent of Montgomery’s black citizens stayed
off the buses.
ii. That afternoon, the city’s ministers and leaders met to discuss the
possibility of extending the boycott into a long-term campaign.
iii. During this meeting the MIA was formed, and King was elected
president. Parks recalled: “The advantage of having Dr. King as
president was that he was so new to Montgomery and to civil
rights work that he hadn’t been there long enough to make any
strong friends or enemies” (Parks, 136).
iv. On 5 June 1956, the federal district court ruled in Browder v.
Gayle that bus segregation was unconstitutional, and in November
1956 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed Browder v. Gayle and struck
down laws requiring segregated seating on public buses.
20XX 10
SCLC & Time Magazine
1957
10-11 January - Southern black ministers
meet in Atlanta to share strategies in the fight
against segregation. King is named chairman
of the Southern Negro Leaders Conference on
Transportation and Nonviolent Integration
(later known as the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference, SCLC).
18 February - King appears on the cover
of Time magazine.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 11
PRESENTATION TITLE
1957
6 March - At the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., King delivers his first
national address, "Give Us The Ballot," at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom.
13 June - King and Ralph D. Abernathy meet with Vice President Richard M.
Nixon and issue a statement on their meeting.
23 October - Coretta King gives birth to their second child, Martin, III.
20XX 12
Lincoln Memorial: I Have a Dream marker
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vP4iY1TtS3s
PRESENTATION TITLE
1958
23 June - King and other civil
rights leaders meet with
President Dwight D.
Eisenhower in Washington.
17 September - King’s first
book Stride Toward Freedom:
The Montgomery Story is
published.
20 September - During a
book signing at Blumstein’s
Department Store in Harlem,
New York, King is stabbed
by Izola Ware Curry. He is
rushed to Harlem Hospital
where a team of doctors
successfully remove a seven- 20XX 13
• Izola Ware Curry, the mentally ill woman
who in 1958 stabbed the Rev. Dr. Martin
Luther King Jr. at a Harlem book signing —
an episode that a decade later would
become a rhetorical touchstone in the last
oration of his life — died on March 7 in
Queens. She was 98.
• What surprised many observers at the time
of the crime was that Ms. Curry herself was
black, the daughter of sharecroppers from
the rural South.
• Questions persisted about what could have
moved her to attack Dr. King, then a 29-
year-old Alabama preacher.
• The stabbing nearly cost Dr. King his life,
requiring hours of delicate surgery to
remove Ms. Curry’s blade, a seven-inch
ivory-handled steel letter opener, which had
lodged near his heart. If he had so much as
sneezed, his doctors later told him, he
would not have survived.
Two Peace Makers
1959
3 February - King embarks on a month-long visit to
India where he meets with Prime Minister Jawaharlal
Nehru and many of Gandhi’s followers.
1960
1 February - King moves from Montgomery to Atlanta to
devote more time to SCLC and the freedom struggle. He
becomes assistant pastor to his father at Ebenezer
Baptist Church.
25-28 May - King is found not guilty of tax fraud by a
white jury in Montgomery.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 14
King meets with JFK
1960
1 February - King moves from Montgomery to
Atlanta to devote more time to SCLC and the
freedom struggle. He becomes assistant pastor to
his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church.
25-28 May - King is found not guilty of tax fraud
by a white jury in Montgomery.
23 June - King meets privately in New York with
Democratic presidential candidate John F.
Kennedy.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 15
Nonviolent sit-ins
19 October - King is arrested during a sit-
in demonstration at Rich’s department store in
Atlanta. He is sentenced to four months hard
labor for violating probation conditions he had
received earlier that year for driving with an out
of state driver’s license. He is released on $2000
bond on 27 October.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 16
Civil Rights Sit-ins
The sit-in movement, sit-in campaign or
student sit-in movement, were a wave of
sit-ins that followed the Greensboro sit-ins
on February 1, 1960 in North Carolina. The
sit-in movement employed the tactic of
nonviolent direct action and was a pivotal
event during the Civil Rights Movement.l
Rights Sit-Ins
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 17
King addresses a mass rally at a mob-
besieged Montgomery church
1961
31 January - Dexter Scott, King’s third child, is born
21 May - After the initial group of Freedom
Riders seeking to integrate bus terminals are
assaulted in Alabama, King addresses a mass rally
at a mob-besieged Montgomery church.
16 October - King meets with President John F.
Kennedy and urges him to issue a
second Emancipation Proclamation to eliminate
racial segregation.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 18
Freedom RidersEDOM
RIDERS
Freedom Riders is the powerful harrowing and ultimately inspirational
story of six months in 1961 that changed America forever.
1. From May until November 1961, more than 400 black and white
Americans risked their lives—and many endured savage beatings
and imprisonment—for traveling together on buses and trains as
they journeyed through the Deep South.
2. Deliberately violating Jim Crow laws in order to test and challenge a
segregated interstate travel system, the Freedom Riders met with
bitter racism and mob violence along the way, sorely testing their
belief in nonviolent activism.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 19
A continued testament to
nonviolence
1962
27 July – 10 August - King is arrested at an Albany,
Georgia prayer vigil and jailed. After spending two
weeks in jail, King is released.
28 September - During the closing session of the
SCLC conference in Birmingham, Alabama, a
member of the American Nazi Party assaults King,
striking him twice in the face.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 20
Birmingham and Bull Connor
1963
28 March - Bernice Albertine, King’s fourth child, is born.
16 April - Responding to eight Jewish and Christian
clergymen’s advice that African Americans wait patiently
for justice, King pens his "Letter from Birmingham Jail."
King and Abernathy were arrested on 12 April and
released on 19 April.
7 May - Conflict in Birmingham reaches its peak when
high-pressure fire hoses force demonstrators from the
business district. In addition to hoses, Police
Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor employs dogs,
clubs, and cattle prods to disperse four thousand
demonstrators in downtown Birmingham.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 21
16th Street Baptist Church bombing
September 15, 1963
18 September - King delivers the eulogy at the
funerals of Addie Mae Collins, Carol Denise McNair,
and Cynthia Dianne Wesley, three of the four
children that were killed during the 15 September
bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in
Birmingham. Carole Robertson, the fourth victim,
was buried in a separate ceremony.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 22
PRESENTATION TITLE
On May 16, 2000, a grand jury in Alabama indicted Thomas
Edwin Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry on eight counts each
in relation to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. Both
named individuals were charged with four counts of first-
degree murder, and four counts of universal malice.
20XX 23
MLK meets Malcolm X
1964
3 January - King is named "Man of the Year"
by Time Magazine.
18 January - President Lyndon B. Johnson
meets with King, Roy Wilkins, Whitney Young,
and James Farmer and seeks support for his War
on Poverty initiative.
9 February - Robert Hayling, leader of the
movement in St. Augustine, Florida, invites King
and SCLC to join the struggle.
26 March - King meets Malcolm X in
Washington, D.C. for the first and only time.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 24
Malcolm X
As the nation’s most visible proponent of Black Nationalism,
Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of
Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set the tone for the ideological and
tactical conflicts that took place within the black freedom struggle
of the 1960s.
Given Malcolm X’s abrasive criticism of King and his advocacy of
racial separatism, it is not surprising that King rejected the
occasional overtures from one of his fiercest critics.
However, after Malcolm’s assassination in 1965, King wrote to his
widow, Betty Shabazz: “While we did not always see eye to eye on
methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection
for Malcolm and felt that he had the great ability to put his finger
on the existence and root of the problem” (King, 26 February
1965).
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 25
Malcolm X
Early years and conversion to Islam
Born in Nebraska, while an infant Malcolm moved
with his family to Lansing, Michigan.
When Malcolm was six years old, his father, the Rev.
Earl Little, a Baptist minister and former supporter
of the early Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey,
died after being hit by a streetcar, quite possibly the
victim of murder by whites.
The surviving family was so poor that Malcolm’s
mother, Louise Little, resorted to cooking dandelion
greens from the street to feed her children. After
she was committed to an insane asylum in 1939,
Malcolm and his siblings were sent to foster homes
or to live with family members.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 26
During his time, he was a controversial figure among
White and Black Americans alike for speaking out
vociferously against the racism of White people —
famously referring to them as “blue-eyed devils” —
and arguing for the creation of a Black separatist
society.
But the same outspoken stance against the brutal
treatment of Black people during that era made him
a hero to many, especially African Americans in the
North.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 27
PRESENTATION TITLE
56 Years Ago, He Shot Malcolm X. Now He Lives Quietly in
Brooklyn.
20XX 28
The police said seven bullets had struck Malcolm.
Three other Negroes were shot.
About two hours later the police said the shooting had
apparently been a result of a feud between followers of
Malcolm and members of the extremist group he broke
with last year, the Black Muslims. However, the police
declined to say whether Hagan is a Muslim.
The Medical Examiner's office said early this morning
that a preliminary autopsy showed Malcolm had died
of ``multiple gunshot wounds.'' The office said that
bullets of two different calibers as well as shotgun
pellets had been removed from his body.
Hoover taps MLK’s Phone
line
1964
11 June - King is arrested and jailed for demanding service at a
white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida.
20 July - King and SCLC staff launch a People-to-People tour of
Mississippi to assist the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in
the Mississippi Freedom Summer campaign.
28 November - After King criticizes the FBI’s failure to protect
civil rights workers, the agency’s director J. Edgar
Hoover denounces King as "the most notorious liar in the
country." A week later he states that SCLC is "spearheaded
by Communists and moral degenerates."
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 29
PRESENTATION TITLE
10 December - King receives the Nobel Peace Prize at a
ceremony in Oslo, Norway. He declares that "every
penny" of the $54,000 award will be used in the ongoing
civil rights struggle
20XX 30
Denounces Vietnam War
1965
The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset
Avenue in Atlanta.
7 March - In an event that will become known as
"Bloody Sunday," voting rights marchers are beaten at
the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama as they
attempt to march to Montgomery.
17 – 25 - King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil
rights marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S.
District judge upholds the right of demonstrators to
conduct an orderly march.
12 August - King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a
mass rally at the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in
Birmingham.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 31
PRESENTATION TITLE
Selma, Alabama
1965
The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset Avenue in
Atlanta.
7 March - In an event that will become known as "Bloody Sunday,"
voting rights marchers are beaten at the Edmund Pettus Bridge
in Selma, Alabama as they attempt to march to Montgomery.
17 – 25 - King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil rights
marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S. District judge
upholds the right of demonstrators to conduct an orderly march.
12 August - King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a mass rally at
the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in Birmingham.
20XX 32
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8QiNerYz
qA
James Meredith
1966
26 January - King and his wife move into an apartment at
1550 South Hamlin Avenue in Chicago to draw attention to
the city's poor housing conditions.
23 February - In Chicago, King meets Nation of Islam leader
Elijah Muhammad.
7 June - King, Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely
Carmichael of SNCC resume James Meredith’s "March Against
Fear" from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, after Meredith
was shot and wounded near Memphis.
o James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African
American to attend the University of Mississippi, is shot by
a sniper shortly after beginning a lone civil rights march
through the South.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 33
Beyond Vietnam Speech
1967
4 April - King delivers "Beyond Vietnam" to a gathering
of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam at Riverside
Church inOn April 4, 1967, Martin Luther King delivered his
first major public statement against the Vietnam War,
entitled "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break the Silence."
Addressing a crowd of 3,000 at Riverside Church in New York
City, King condemned the war as anti-democratic, impractical,
and unjust. New York City. He demands that the U.S. take new
initiatives to end the war.
June - King’s book Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or
Community? is published.
4 December - King publicly reveals his plans to organize a
mass civil disobedience campaign, the Poor People's
Campaign, in Washington, D.C., to force the government to
end poverty.
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 34
PRESENTATION TITLE
1968
28 March - King leads a march of six thousand protesters in
support of striking sanitation workers in Memphis. The
march descends into violence and looting, and King is
rushed from the scene.
3 April - King returns to Memphis, determined to lead a
peaceful march. During an evening rally at Mason Temple
in Memphis, King delivers his final speech, "I’ve Been to
the Mountaintop."
4 April - King is shot and killed while standing on the
balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis.
9 April - King is buried in Atlanta.
20XX 35
April 9, 1968
20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 36
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Martin Luther King, JR Power Point.pptx

  • 1. Martin Luther King, JR CIVIL RIGHTS Lucy Beam Hoffman
  • 2. • Reconstruction • Black Codes • Jim Crow • Plessy Vs. Ferguson • Brown vs. Board of Education 20XX 2
  • 3. 1968 20XX 3 1929 January 15 - Michael King, later known as Martin Luther King, Jr., is born at 501 Auburn Ave. in Atlanta, Georgia. 1941 The King family -- Martin Luther King, Sr. (Daddy King), Alberta Williams King, Willie Christine King, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Alfred Daniel Williams King (known as A. D. King) -- moves from 501 Auburn Avenue to 193 Boulevard in Atlanta. 1944 King begins his freshman year at Morehouse College in Atlanta Morehouse College
  • 4. 1946 The Atlanta Constitution publishes King’s letter to the editor stating that black people "are entitled to the basic rights and opportunities of American citizens." 1948 25 February- King is ordained and appointed assistant pastor at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. 8 June - King receives his bachelor of arts degree in sociology from Morehouse College. 14 September - King begins his studies at Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 4 Ebenezer Baptist Church
  • 5. Marriage 18 June - King and Coretta Scott are married at the Scott home near Marion, Alabama. Coretta Scott was born in Marion, Alabama on April 27, 1927. • King’s parents were both entrepreneurs and her mother was musically talented. • As a child, King expressed interest in music and quickly excelled in grade school as lead in the choir. • She was the valedictorian in high school and went on to received her BA in music from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio. • King was awarded a scholarship to further her music studies at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. While studying at the school King was introduced to then, doctoral student Martin Luther King Jr. Although she was not initially attracted to him, the two began to date, and married in 1953. PRESENTATION TITLE 20XX 5
  • 6. 1954 1 September - King begins his pastorate at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. 1955 5 June - King is awarded his doctorate in systematic theology from Boston University. 17 November - Yolanda Denise King, the Kings’ first child, is born. 1 December - Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to vacate her seat and move to the rear of a city bus in Montgomery to make way for a white passenger. Jo Ann Robinson and other Women’s Political Council members mimeograph thousands of leaflets calling for a one-day boycott of the city’s buses on Monday, 5 December. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 6
  • 7. Bravery 13 November - The U.S. Supreme Court affirms the lower court opinion in Browder v. Gayle declaring Montgomery and Alabama bus segregation laws unconstitutional. 21 December - Montgomery City Lines resumes full service on all routes. King is among the first passengers to ride the buses in an integrated fashion. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 7
  • 8. 1956 27 January - According to King’s later account in Stride Toward Freedom, he receives a threatening phone call late in the evening, prompting a spiritual revelation that fills him with strength to carry on in spite of persecution. 30 January - At 9:15 p.m., while King speaks at a mass meeting, his home is bombed. His wife and daughter are not injured. Later King addresses an angry crowd that gathers outside the house, pleading for nonviolence. PRESENTATION TITLE 20XX 8
  • 9. PRESENTATION TITLE Montgomery Bus Boycott December 5, 1955 to December 20, 1956 King recalled in his memoir that “Mrs. Parks was ideal for the role assigned to her by history,” and because “her character was impeccable and her dedication deep-rooted” she was “one of the most respected people in the Negro community” (King, 44). Robinson and the WPC responded to Parks’ arrest by calling for a one- day protest of the city’s buses on 5 December 1955. Robinson prepared a series of leaflets at Alabama State College and organized groups to distribute them throughout the black community. Meanwhile, after securing bail for Parks with Clifford and Virginia Durr, E. D. Nixon, past leader of the Montgomery chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), began call local black leaders, including Ralph Abernathy and King, to organize a planning meeting. On 2 December, black ministers and leaders met at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church and agreed to publicize the 5 December boycott. The planned protest received unexpected publicity in the weekend newspapers and in radio and television reports. 20XX 9
  • 10. Outcome of the Bus Boycott Dec 1, 1955 - i. On 5 December, 90 percent of Montgomery’s black citizens stayed off the buses. ii. That afternoon, the city’s ministers and leaders met to discuss the possibility of extending the boycott into a long-term campaign. iii. During this meeting the MIA was formed, and King was elected president. Parks recalled: “The advantage of having Dr. King as president was that he was so new to Montgomery and to civil rights work that he hadn’t been there long enough to make any strong friends or enemies” (Parks, 136). iv. On 5 June 1956, the federal district court ruled in Browder v. Gayle that bus segregation was unconstitutional, and in November 1956 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed Browder v. Gayle and struck down laws requiring segregated seating on public buses. 20XX 10
  • 11. SCLC & Time Magazine 1957 10-11 January - Southern black ministers meet in Atlanta to share strategies in the fight against segregation. King is named chairman of the Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration (later known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, SCLC). 18 February - King appears on the cover of Time magazine. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 11
  • 12. PRESENTATION TITLE 1957 6 March - At the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., King delivers his first national address, "Give Us The Ballot," at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom. 13 June - King and Ralph D. Abernathy meet with Vice President Richard M. Nixon and issue a statement on their meeting. 23 October - Coretta King gives birth to their second child, Martin, III. 20XX 12 Lincoln Memorial: I Have a Dream marker https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vP4iY1TtS3s
  • 13. PRESENTATION TITLE 1958 23 June - King and other civil rights leaders meet with President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Washington. 17 September - King’s first book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story is published. 20 September - During a book signing at Blumstein’s Department Store in Harlem, New York, King is stabbed by Izola Ware Curry. He is rushed to Harlem Hospital where a team of doctors successfully remove a seven- 20XX 13 • Izola Ware Curry, the mentally ill woman who in 1958 stabbed the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. at a Harlem book signing — an episode that a decade later would become a rhetorical touchstone in the last oration of his life — died on March 7 in Queens. She was 98. • What surprised many observers at the time of the crime was that Ms. Curry herself was black, the daughter of sharecroppers from the rural South. • Questions persisted about what could have moved her to attack Dr. King, then a 29- year-old Alabama preacher. • The stabbing nearly cost Dr. King his life, requiring hours of delicate surgery to remove Ms. Curry’s blade, a seven-inch ivory-handled steel letter opener, which had lodged near his heart. If he had so much as sneezed, his doctors later told him, he would not have survived.
  • 14. Two Peace Makers 1959 3 February - King embarks on a month-long visit to India where he meets with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and many of Gandhi’s followers. 1960 1 February - King moves from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more time to SCLC and the freedom struggle. He becomes assistant pastor to his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church. 25-28 May - King is found not guilty of tax fraud by a white jury in Montgomery. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 14
  • 15. King meets with JFK 1960 1 February - King moves from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more time to SCLC and the freedom struggle. He becomes assistant pastor to his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church. 25-28 May - King is found not guilty of tax fraud by a white jury in Montgomery. 23 June - King meets privately in New York with Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 15
  • 16. Nonviolent sit-ins 19 October - King is arrested during a sit- in demonstration at Rich’s department store in Atlanta. He is sentenced to four months hard labor for violating probation conditions he had received earlier that year for driving with an out of state driver’s license. He is released on $2000 bond on 27 October. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 16
  • 17. Civil Rights Sit-ins The sit-in movement, sit-in campaign or student sit-in movement, were a wave of sit-ins that followed the Greensboro sit-ins on February 1, 1960 in North Carolina. The sit-in movement employed the tactic of nonviolent direct action and was a pivotal event during the Civil Rights Movement.l Rights Sit-Ins 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 17
  • 18. King addresses a mass rally at a mob- besieged Montgomery church 1961 31 January - Dexter Scott, King’s third child, is born 21 May - After the initial group of Freedom Riders seeking to integrate bus terminals are assaulted in Alabama, King addresses a mass rally at a mob-besieged Montgomery church. 16 October - King meets with President John F. Kennedy and urges him to issue a second Emancipation Proclamation to eliminate racial segregation. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 18
  • 19. Freedom RidersEDOM RIDERS Freedom Riders is the powerful harrowing and ultimately inspirational story of six months in 1961 that changed America forever. 1. From May until November 1961, more than 400 black and white Americans risked their lives—and many endured savage beatings and imprisonment—for traveling together on buses and trains as they journeyed through the Deep South. 2. Deliberately violating Jim Crow laws in order to test and challenge a segregated interstate travel system, the Freedom Riders met with bitter racism and mob violence along the way, sorely testing their belief in nonviolent activism. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 19
  • 20. A continued testament to nonviolence 1962 27 July – 10 August - King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia prayer vigil and jailed. After spending two weeks in jail, King is released. 28 September - During the closing session of the SCLC conference in Birmingham, Alabama, a member of the American Nazi Party assaults King, striking him twice in the face. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 20
  • 21. Birmingham and Bull Connor 1963 28 March - Bernice Albertine, King’s fourth child, is born. 16 April - Responding to eight Jewish and Christian clergymen’s advice that African Americans wait patiently for justice, King pens his "Letter from Birmingham Jail." King and Abernathy were arrested on 12 April and released on 19 April. 7 May - Conflict in Birmingham reaches its peak when high-pressure fire hoses force demonstrators from the business district. In addition to hoses, Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor employs dogs, clubs, and cattle prods to disperse four thousand demonstrators in downtown Birmingham. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 21
  • 22. 16th Street Baptist Church bombing September 15, 1963 18 September - King delivers the eulogy at the funerals of Addie Mae Collins, Carol Denise McNair, and Cynthia Dianne Wesley, three of the four children that were killed during the 15 September bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. Carole Robertson, the fourth victim, was buried in a separate ceremony. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 22
  • 23. PRESENTATION TITLE On May 16, 2000, a grand jury in Alabama indicted Thomas Edwin Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry on eight counts each in relation to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. Both named individuals were charged with four counts of first- degree murder, and four counts of universal malice. 20XX 23
  • 24. MLK meets Malcolm X 1964 3 January - King is named "Man of the Year" by Time Magazine. 18 January - President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with King, Roy Wilkins, Whitney Young, and James Farmer and seeks support for his War on Poverty initiative. 9 February - Robert Hayling, leader of the movement in St. Augustine, Florida, invites King and SCLC to join the struggle. 26 March - King meets Malcolm X in Washington, D.C. for the first and only time. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 24
  • 25. Malcolm X As the nation’s most visible proponent of Black Nationalism, Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set the tone for the ideological and tactical conflicts that took place within the black freedom struggle of the 1960s. Given Malcolm X’s abrasive criticism of King and his advocacy of racial separatism, it is not surprising that King rejected the occasional overtures from one of his fiercest critics. However, after Malcolm’s assassination in 1965, King wrote to his widow, Betty Shabazz: “While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had the great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem” (King, 26 February 1965). 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 25
  • 26. Malcolm X Early years and conversion to Islam Born in Nebraska, while an infant Malcolm moved with his family to Lansing, Michigan. When Malcolm was six years old, his father, the Rev. Earl Little, a Baptist minister and former supporter of the early Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey, died after being hit by a streetcar, quite possibly the victim of murder by whites. The surviving family was so poor that Malcolm’s mother, Louise Little, resorted to cooking dandelion greens from the street to feed her children. After she was committed to an insane asylum in 1939, Malcolm and his siblings were sent to foster homes or to live with family members. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 26
  • 27. During his time, he was a controversial figure among White and Black Americans alike for speaking out vociferously against the racism of White people — famously referring to them as “blue-eyed devils” — and arguing for the creation of a Black separatist society. But the same outspoken stance against the brutal treatment of Black people during that era made him a hero to many, especially African Americans in the North. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 27
  • 28. PRESENTATION TITLE 56 Years Ago, He Shot Malcolm X. Now He Lives Quietly in Brooklyn. 20XX 28 The police said seven bullets had struck Malcolm. Three other Negroes were shot. About two hours later the police said the shooting had apparently been a result of a feud between followers of Malcolm and members of the extremist group he broke with last year, the Black Muslims. However, the police declined to say whether Hagan is a Muslim. The Medical Examiner's office said early this morning that a preliminary autopsy showed Malcolm had died of ``multiple gunshot wounds.'' The office said that bullets of two different calibers as well as shotgun pellets had been removed from his body.
  • 29. Hoover taps MLK’s Phone line 1964 11 June - King is arrested and jailed for demanding service at a white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida. 20 July - King and SCLC staff launch a People-to-People tour of Mississippi to assist the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in the Mississippi Freedom Summer campaign. 28 November - After King criticizes the FBI’s failure to protect civil rights workers, the agency’s director J. Edgar Hoover denounces King as "the most notorious liar in the country." A week later he states that SCLC is "spearheaded by Communists and moral degenerates." 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 29
  • 30. PRESENTATION TITLE 10 December - King receives the Nobel Peace Prize at a ceremony in Oslo, Norway. He declares that "every penny" of the $54,000 award will be used in the ongoing civil rights struggle 20XX 30
  • 31. Denounces Vietnam War 1965 The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset Avenue in Atlanta. 7 March - In an event that will become known as "Bloody Sunday," voting rights marchers are beaten at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama as they attempt to march to Montgomery. 17 – 25 - King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil rights marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S. District judge upholds the right of demonstrators to conduct an orderly march. 12 August - King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a mass rally at the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in Birmingham. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 31
  • 32. PRESENTATION TITLE Selma, Alabama 1965 The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset Avenue in Atlanta. 7 March - In an event that will become known as "Bloody Sunday," voting rights marchers are beaten at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama as they attempt to march to Montgomery. 17 – 25 - King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil rights marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S. District judge upholds the right of demonstrators to conduct an orderly march. 12 August - King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a mass rally at the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in Birmingham. 20XX 32 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8QiNerYz qA
  • 33. James Meredith 1966 26 January - King and his wife move into an apartment at 1550 South Hamlin Avenue in Chicago to draw attention to the city's poor housing conditions. 23 February - In Chicago, King meets Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad. 7 June - King, Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely Carmichael of SNCC resume James Meredith’s "March Against Fear" from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, after Meredith was shot and wounded near Memphis. o James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, is shot by a sniper shortly after beginning a lone civil rights march through the South. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 33
  • 34. Beyond Vietnam Speech 1967 4 April - King delivers "Beyond Vietnam" to a gathering of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam at Riverside Church inOn April 4, 1967, Martin Luther King delivered his first major public statement against the Vietnam War, entitled "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break the Silence." Addressing a crowd of 3,000 at Riverside Church in New York City, King condemned the war as anti-democratic, impractical, and unjust. New York City. He demands that the U.S. take new initiatives to end the war. June - King’s book Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? is published. 4 December - King publicly reveals his plans to organize a mass civil disobedience campaign, the Poor People's Campaign, in Washington, D.C., to force the government to end poverty. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 34
  • 35. PRESENTATION TITLE 1968 28 March - King leads a march of six thousand protesters in support of striking sanitation workers in Memphis. The march descends into violence and looting, and King is rushed from the scene. 3 April - King returns to Memphis, determined to lead a peaceful march. During an evening rally at Mason Temple in Memphis, King delivers his final speech, "I’ve Been to the Mountaintop." 4 April - King is shot and killed while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. 9 April - King is buried in Atlanta. 20XX 35
  • 36. April 9, 1968 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 36