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Robot schiva ostacoli

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Grazie soprattutto al microcontrollore Arduino UNO, ho realizzato un robot in grado di schivare gli ostacoli

Publié dans : Périphériques & matériel
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Robot schiva ostacoli

  1. 1. PERCHÈ QUESTO PROGETTO Lo scopo del progetto è quello di creare un’opera interattiva unendo la programmazione con l’elettronica. Questa unione è resa possibile dal microcontrollore ARDUINO
  2. 2. FUNZIONAMENTO Il robot, riconosciuto un ostacolo attraverso il sensore ad infrarossi, valuta da quale lato lo spazio di manovra è migliore e in base ad esso compie la manovra a destra o a sinistra, schivandolo
  3. 3. «MAGICIAN CHASSIS» Piattaforma Robot (con due motoriduttori + ruote + sfera di assetto)
  4. 4. X2 SUPPORTI BATTERIE DA 4.8V Uno per l’alimentazione generale ed uno per alimentare a parte il servomotore
  5. 5. SHARP GP2Y0A21YK Sensore ad infrarossi per la rilevazione dell’ostacolo
  6. 6. 1A DUAL TB6612FNG Driver per i motori: permette la comunicazione tra Arduino e i motori
  7. 7. ARDUINO UNO
  8. 8. PINS PER I COLLEGAMENTI
  9. 9. TOWERPRO SG90 Sub Micro Servo 9g
  10. 10. BREADBOARD
  11. 11. STUDIO DI ARDUINO E DEL SUO LINGUAGGIO DI PROGRAMMAZIONE
  12. 12. ACQUISTO E PREPARAZIONE DEI MATERIALI
  13. 13. PARTE MECCANICA montaggio della piattaforma, fissando i motori, le ruote, i supporti batterie e tutti i dispositivi
  14. 14. COLLEGAMENTO DRIVER - MOTORI  Driver A01  positivo motore sinistro  Driver A02  negativo motore sinistro  Driver B02  negativo motore destro  Driver B01  positivo motore destro
  15. 15. COLLEGAMENTO DRIVER - ARDUINO  Driver VM  Arduino Vin (alimentazione driver)  Driver VCC  Arduino GND (connette la massa comune di tutto il robot)  Driver STBY  Arduino digital 2 (per consentire ai motori di funzionare)  Driver PWMA  Arduino digital 3  Driver AIN1  Arduino digital 4  Driver AIN2  Arduino digital 7  Driver PWMB  Arduino digital 5  Driver BIN1  Arduino digital 8  Driver BIN2  Arduino digital 12
  16. 16. ARDUINO + DRIVER
  17. 17. COLLEGAMENTO SENSORE - ARDUINO  Sensore infrarossi filo GIALLO in Arduino AIN5 (per i valori del sensore)  Sensore infrarossi filo NERO in Arduino GND (massa)  Sensore infrarossi filo ROSSO in Arduino 5V (positivo)
  18. 18. POSIZIONAMENTO SENSORE
  19. 19. COLLEGAMENTO SERVO - ARDUINO  Servo filo GIALLO in Arduino PWM 0 (segnale)  Servo filo VIOLA in Arduino GND (massa)  Servo filo ROSSO al polo + dell’alimentatore (positivo) Infine Arduino e i il servo vanno collegati ai rispettivi alimentatori
  20. 20. TEST DEL SENSORE Valuto la lontananza dall’ostacolo alla quale il robot deve fermarsi Sketch utile per verificare il corretto funzionamento del sensore ed impostare il valore da usare come riferimento per la fermata Minore è il valore che arriva in output, più la lontananza dall’ostacolo è maggiore
  21. 21. TEST DEL SERVO Valuto i gradi di rotazione che deve compiere il servo una volta che il robot ha riconosciuto l’ostacolo. Tutto ciò attraverso la programmazione del microcontrollore
  22. 22. SKETCH FINALE Avrà il compito di dare al robot tutte le funzioni descritte nello scopo del progetto La distanza è maggiore della sensibilità ? Avanti Valuto la direzione: stop e leggo il valore del sensore ruotato a sinistra (VS) e a destra (VD) VS < VD ? VD < sens ? (e se la rilevazione dell’ostacolo fosse stato un errore?) Sinistra VS < sens ? Destra SI NO S I NO S I NO NOS I
  23. 23. SKETCH PT1
  24. 24. SKETCH PT2
  25. 25. SKETCH PT3
  26. 26. DIFFICOLTÀ RISCONTRATE  La sfera di assetto era difettosa ho dovuto farmi mandare un altro “Magician Chassis”  Iniziale difficoltà nella parte elettrica, come nel collegamento dei pin, a causa della poca parte pratica fatta a scuola con elettronica;  Un supporto batterie dà problemi di funzionamento (a volte ad Arduino non arriva la giusta alimentazione)  Inversione dei poli + e – nel collegamento del servo, che si è bruciato (me ne sono fatto spedire uno nuovo)  Difficoltà nel far ruotare il servo attraverso lo sketch (difficoltà nel programmarlo)  Il robot richiede un gran numero di batterie (in totale 8 pile AA) che necessitano spesso di essere sostituite

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