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Efficient silviculture - EFFORTE Business Forum

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Presentation by Timo Saksa

Publié dans : Environnement
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Efficient silviculture - EFFORTE Business Forum

  1. 1. Efficient Silviculture Timo Saksa EFFORTE Business Forum 19.6.2019 Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2. Main results in efficient silviculture Improving productivity of mechanized planting Isabelle Bergkvist, L-G Sundbland, Jörgen Hajek, Skogforsk Efficient methods for early PCT Timo Saksa, Tiina Laine, Veli-Matti Saarinen; Luke Techniques and methods for systematic thinning Dan Bergström, SLU, Yrjö Nuutinen, Timo Saksa, Luke Regeneration and young stand management regimes Ulf Sikström, Nils Fahlvik, Karin Hjelm; Skogforsk, Kristina Wallerts SLU , Kjersti-Holt Hansen, NIBIO, Saija Huuskonen, Marja-leena Päätalo, Timo Saksa ; Luke Precision forestry – tree species selection method Timo Saksa, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Sampo Kulju; Luke, Esko Häyrynen, Metsä Group
  3. 3. Improving productivity of mechanized planting Continuously moving inverse soil preparation machine. Testing a site preparation machine equipped with centre-mounted flat scarification arms, Kovesen. Key findings Soil preparation tracks were not good enough to continue to develop Kovesen site preparation (inverting) device further. After Kovesen device there was enough planting spots but soil disturbance level was as high as with mounders which was not acceptable.
  4. 4. Improving productivity of mechanized planting Improved logistics and new solutions concerning the interface between nursery and planting machine Key findings: The interface nursery/planter should be based on plant deliveries in containers. Seedling feeding system in planting machine should be made simple and robust, based on mechanical/hydraulic solutions and using gravity for feeding of seedlings to the planting device (i.e. not robot-based ‘plant picking systems’).
  5. 5. Improving productivity of mechanized planting Comparison of novel conceptual Silva Nova systems to conventional scarification followed manual planting Key findings: The simulation results confirmed current knowledge: disc trenching followed by manual planting is the most effective alternative today. SilvaNova 2.0 was somewhat (22 %) more expensive than disc trenching and manual planting. Autonomous SilvaSuperNova was slightly (12 %) cheaper than disc trenching and manual planting. Today’s planting machine (Bracke p11) was the most time-consuming alternative. The original Silva Nova SilvaNova 2.0 SilvaSuperNova
  6. 6. Efficient methods for early PCT – uprooting Silvicultural feasibility of uprooting Key findings: 3-5 years after uprooting the mean number of freely growing crop trees was 1235 ha-1, varying from 600 to 1900 stems ha-1. The height of crop-tree spruce at uprooting moment and TWI were the most important variables behind the variation of freely growing crop-tree spruces. According to Motti simulations, the competing birch trees will reach the height of crop trees before first thinning in most cases but birches will be less than 10% taller than spruces at the first thinning. As the final conclusion, this study showed that uprooting can serve as the only PCT- operation in a planted spruce stand.
  7. 7. Mechanized application of White-rot fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar, to suppress regrowth of sprouts Key findings: Fungal treatment with Tehojätkä machine increased mortality of birch stumps compared to the control (cutting only) being about 30 % but it was much less than in manual application in earlier studies (>75%). The accuracy of the spreading mechanism was not satisfactory - implementation into practice needs more testing in order to increase efficacy The mortality of stumps decreased when treatment was performed later on in the growing season Photos: Veli-Matti Saarinen and Usewood Forest Tec Oy and Erkki Oksanen / Luke Efficient methods for early PCT – biocontrol of control
  8. 8. Techniques and methods for systematic thinning Productivity of boom corridor thinning (BCT) Key findings: Preliminary results in first thinning stands indicate an productivity increase by up to 40% when implementing BCT instead of selective thinning. Better results are due to both higher cutting efficiency and larger average tree sizes harvested. Selective thinning Systematic thinning Remaining trees Corridor Pile Harvested trees
  9. 9. Techniques and methods for systematic thinning Functionality of boom corridor thinning technique Devices in tests: Two different cutting heads are tested: Accumulation setting and head-frame is the same but cutting with chain-saw or disc (as used in sawmilling). Full-scale studies autumn 2019. Expected efficiency when fully developed 50-100% than best practice today!
  10. 10. Techniques and methods for systematic thinning Modeling and simulating optimized boom corridor thinning and bundling techniques Systems in analyze: FlowConv consists of a conventional harvester equipped with an innovative continuously cutting, accumulating and bunching head, Flowcut. FlowFix system consists of a harvester equipped with Flowcut connected to a Fixteri bundling unit. FlowCin consists of a Cintoc harwarder equipped with Flowcut. Simulation results indicate that supply costs of the FlowCin system would be 6-10% and 24-29% lower than those of the FlowFix and FlowConv systems, respectively Cintoc harvester
  11. 11. Regeneration and young stand management regimes Effects of site preparation - literature review Key findings: According to studies made in boreal forests the effect of mechanical site preparation (MSP) on the survival of conifer seedlings was about 10-20 %- units compared to no site prepared ones. The MSP-effect on height growth in first 10-15 years was about 20- 30 %-units. Sikström et al. 2019 (manuscript)
  12. 12. Regeneration and young stand management regimes Tool for selecting regeneration chain – simulation study / Motti and Heureka 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoPCT PCT4 NoEC EC1 NoEC EC1 NoEC EC1 NoEC EC1 No site preparation Disc Trenching Mounding Inverting Norway spruce OMT South Finland Mortality Wastewood Pulpwood Sawlogs Broadleaved % m3/ha/aMAI, m3/ha/a Proportion of broadleavesKey findings: Highest mean annual increment (MAI) was detected after mounding or inverting following early PCT operations. Also according to bare land values (BLV) with interest rate 2-4% MSP and PCT operations are profitable. Predicting the dynamic of young stands is the most challenging; unmanaged young stands seem to develop too well and cause an underestimation of differences between management options.
  13. 13. Thank you!

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