The most important and most commonly
used methods of classifying plants is the
botanical method which is based on
descent or phylogenetic relationship of
plants. There are approximately 3,000,000
plants species identified and classified
into 4 main divisions in the plant
kingdom as follows:
There are approximately 3,000,000
plants species identified and
classified into 4 main divisions in the
plant kingdom as follows:
ALL SEED-BEARING PLANTS WHICH ARE IN TURN DIVIDED INTO
A.) GYMNUSPERMS- INCLUDE ALL PLANTS WITH NAKED SEEDS
LIKE PINES TREES.
B.) ANGIOSPERMS- SEEDS ENCLOSED IN A VESSEL AND ARE IN
TURN DIVIDED INTO 2 CLASSES;
I. MONOCOTYLEDON – ONE COTYLEDON
II. DICOTYLEDONS – TWO COTOLYDONS
Carl von Linne’ better known as Carolous Linnaeus
was the originator of this binomial system of plant
nomenclature and the publication of his book entitled
Genera Plantarum led to the modern taxonomy or
classification of plants. Because of his great
contributions to taxonomy, he consider as the father of
In crop science, plants are classified
in many ways;
(1) Based on the manner of culture (agronomic or horticultural)
(2) Based on their use (food, fiber, beverage, oil, medicinal, etc.)
(3) Based on their climatic requirement (temperate, sub-
(4) Based on the length of their life cycle (annuals, biennials,
(5) Based on their habitat whether aquatic, terrestrial or aerial,
1.) VEGETABLES – crops usually grown for culinary purposes
a. Leafy vegetables – pechay, kangkong, mustard
b. Cole Crop or crucifers – cabbage, Chinese cabbage,
c. Spice crops – black pepper, vanilla
d. Fiber crops – abaca, cotton, buri, kapok, maguey, kenaf,
e. Medicinal crops – niyog niyugan, sambong tsaanggubat
f. Latex or resin – pili, rubber, almaciga
2.) FRUITS – tissues support the ovules of a plant and whose
development is dependent upon psychological changes occuring
in these ovules. Some fruits in their immature stage are used as
vegetables. Examples are the jackfruit and papaya.
a. Tree fruit – mango, durian, lanzones, santol
b. Nut fruit – pili, cashew
c. Small fruits – strawberry, grapes
3.) ORNAMENTALS – includes all plants that are used of their
aesthetic qualities or for decorative purposes.
a. Cutflowers – roses, chrysanthemum, anthurium, gladiolus
b. Flowering pot plants – roses, bougainvillea, chrysanthemum
c. Folliage plants – fern, asparagus, palmera, aglaonema,
d. Landscape plants – usually consisting of trees and shrubs both
flowering and evergreens.
e. Turf grass – lawn grass as well as well as other species used in
4. PLANTATION CROPS – usually perennial and require minor
changes in the structure of the product ( primary processing )
a. Oil crops – coconut, African oil, castor bean
b. Beverage – coffee, cacao
a. CEREALS – corn, rice, barley, oats, sorghum, wheat
b. SEED LEGUMES ( pulses ) – soybeans, mungbeans, castor
c. FORAGE – feed for animals ( hay, sillage, pasture)
d. FIBER – cotton abaca
e. DRUG AND BEVERAGES – tobacco, tea, coffee
f. SUGAR – sugarcane, sweet sorghum, sugar beets
g. OIL – flax, sunflower, coconut
2. ACCORDING TO LIFE CYCLE
a. ANNUALS - plants that complete their life cycle in one
year or less . Plant start seeds, produce vegetative growth,
flowers, fruits and seeds and die within one growing season.
b. BIENNIALS – plants that produce leaves and roots in the first
year and flowers in the second year then die. Celery, carrot
and cabbage are the common example of biennials
c. PERENNIALS – plants that do not die after flowering and and
fruiting but live from one year to year without being
3. ACCORDING TO GROWTH HABIT
a. HERBS – sufficient plants with self-supporting stems
b. VINES – plants without self-supporting stems
c. SHRUBS – plants that may have different branches with no
trunk and rarely grows higher than five meters.
d. TREES – plants with single central stem to which branches are
attached, usually taller than shrubs.
5. ACCORDING TO CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT
a. Temperate plants are those that grow in the place where there
is a marked winter seasons with considerable freezing.
b. Tropical plants are those that grow in a place with a warm
6. ACCORDING TO HABITAT
a. Aquatic plants are those that grow in in lowland areas with
b. Terrestrial plants are those that grow in the soil or upland
c. Aerial plants are those plants that grow in the air, not in water
7. ACCORDING TO LEAF RETENTION
a. DECIDUOUS PLANTS – are those that shred off their leaves
annually and are leafless for some extended periods.
b. EVERGREEN PLANTS – are those maintain green leaves
throughout the year
TO USE OR PURPOSE
1. CEREALS – crops under the family Graminae that are grown
for their edible grains. Some examples are rice, corn, and
2. LEGUMES – crops that produce pods and seeds. e.g. peanut,
soybeans, munggo, cowpea, pigeon pea
3. ROOT CROP – crops that enlarged and modified roots that are
used for foods. E.g. cassava
TO USE OR PURPOSE
4. FIBER CROPS – crops that are grown for their fibers used in
textile, cordages, twines, sacks, bags. E.g abaca, buri, kapok,
cotton, maguey, kenaf, ramie.
5. OIL CROPS – crops that are grown for their oil content. E.g.
sunflower, coconut, oil palm, sesame, flax.
6. SUGAR CROPS – crops grown for their sweet juice from which
surcose is extracted and crystallized into sugar. E.g. sugarcane,
sugar beets, sweet sorghum
TO USE OR PURPOSE
7.) PASTURE CROPS – crops grown for grazing or direct feeding
by animals in the field.
8.) BEVERAGE CROPS – crops used for brewing non-alcoholic
drinks. E.g. coffee, cacao, tea
9.) SPICE CROPS – crops used to provide special flavors to food.
23. 10.) LATEX CROPS -crops that
produce milky substance from
thetrunk or stem. E.g.