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English: Dr. Nataliia (Natasha) Rudenko

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Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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English: Dr. Nataliia (Natasha) Rudenko

  1. 1. The ecologic, epidemiologic and molecular aspects of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: consequence of diversity, distribution and genome variations of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. Biology Centre CAS, Institute of Parasitology, Laboratory of Molecular Ecology of Vectors and Pathogens Branisovska 31, 37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic natasha@paru.cas.cz Natasha Rudenko Susan Oliver
  2. 2. vector host pathogen What factors make the Lyme borreliosis system so successful? Diverse interaction that occurs between spirochete, the tick vector and the host makes Borrelia an elusive pathogen!!!
  3. 3. TICK FACTOIDS  Approximately 900 tick species exists; 10% are of concern to humans. All ticks are obligate, nonpermanent blood feeders; hosts include all terrestrial vertebrates. Ticks are vectors of more kinds of microorganisms than any other arthropod taxon. Worldwide distribution from arctic to antarctic. The most important genera of hard ticks are: Amblyomma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus.
  4. 4. The worldwide distribution of major Ixodes tick species of medical and veterinary importance (“bridge” vectors) I.pacificus I.scapularis I.ricinus I.persulcatus adapted from B. Rosner 2006; www.lymebook.com
  5. 5. Ticks, important as “maintenance” vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (usually non-human biting) I. hexagonus, I. trianguliceps, I. uriae, H. concinna, –Europe I. minor, I. affinis, I. dentatus, I. spinipalpis - USA I. turdus, I. ovatus, I. columnae, I. tanuki – Japan I. nipponensis –Korea, Japan I. granulatus, I. monospinosus – China, Korea I. moschiferi, H. concinna, H. longicornis, H. bispinosa - China In some areas maintenance vectors appear to be more important in the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi s.l. than the ‘bridge’ vectors that feed on the same hosts and bite humans (Oliver, 1996).
  6. 6. Tick species experimentally confirmed as vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Eisen&Lane) Tick specie Bb SL Bb ss B. afzelii B. garinii B. bissettii I. affinis ☺ I. angustus ☺ ☺ I. dentatus ☺ I. hexagonus ☺ I. jellisoni ☺ I. minor ☺ ☺ I. muris ☺ I. pacificus ☺ ☺ I. persulcatus ☺ I. ricinus ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ I. scapularis ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ I. spinipalpis ☺ ☺ I. sinensis ☺
  7. 7. Tick species experimentally confirmed as vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Eisen&Lane) Tick specie Bb SL Bb ss B. afzelii B. garinii B. bissettii I. affinis ☺ I. angustus ☺ ☺ I. dentatus ☺ I. hexagonus ☺ I. jellisoni ☺ I. minor ☺ ☺ I. muris ☺ I. pacificus ☺ ☺ I. persulcatus ☺ I. ricinus ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ I. scapularis ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ I. spinipalpis ☺ ☺ I. sinensis ☺
  8. 8. Reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Efficient reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi s.l. share several characteristics. They are abundant, large number of them is naturally infected and serves as hosts to numerous vector competent ticks. They do not usually become resistant to repeated tick feeding. They are readily infected and remain infected and infective to competent tick vectors for long periods of time, often for life. Lyme disease spirochetes infect diverse animal species, but not all of them serve as competent hosts.
  9. 9. Reservoir Hosts - mammals; -rodents; -birds; -lizards;
  10. 10. Pattern of response of vertebrate serum complement to B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. Ticha et al., 2016
  11. 11. 0 5 10 15 20 25 1982 1984 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 2001 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2014 2016 Expanding complex of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes
  12. 12. Currently known spirochete species from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex
  13. 13. Spirochete species from the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex involved in LB worldwide
  14. 14. Altering the level of gene expression in response to changes in temperature, pH, salts, nutrient content, host and vector dependent factors spirochetes developed strategies to sense and survive in these diverse environments, often changing their phenotypes….
  15. 15. The geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato 10 years ago (K. Kurtenbach et al., 2006)
  16. 16. The geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato 5 years ago (G. Margos et al., 2011)
  17. 17. Map showing the updated distribution of the LB species based on published and unpublished results (2016) The present geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato -updates
  18. 18. Map showing the updated distribution of the LB species based on published and unpublished results (2016) The present geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato -updates
  19. 19. Borrelia finlandensis, 2011 Borrelia chilensis, 2014 Borrelia mayoni, 2016 New species from B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex
  20. 20. "The spread of Lyme disease is driven, in part, by climate change, as the tick vector spreads northwards from endemic areas of the United States" (Steven Sternthal)
  21. 21. Main migration flyways The Atlantic Flyway is a bird migration route that generally follows the Atlantic Coast of North America and the Appalachian Mountains. The migration route tends to narrow considerably in the southern U.S.A. in the states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. It serves as avian superhighway’s for 500 + bird species and millions of individual birds.
  22. 22. The diversity of spirochetes from B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the United States (adapted from G. Margos et al., 2010) B. garinii B. afzelii B. kurtenbachii B. mayonii
  23. 23. Worldwide frequency of B. burgdorferi ospC types B. burgdorferi ospC alleles detected in southeastern USA Rudenko et al., 2013 B. burgdorferi ospC alleles detected in Canada Ogden et al., 2011 Rudenko et al., 2013
  24. 24. Some spirochete complexes were believed to be restricted: exclusively to North America - B1, C, D, F, G, H, I, J, N, and U – OR exclusively to Europe: - B2, S, L, Q, and V- three ospC types - A, E, and K- were previously detected on both continents
  25. 25. Geographic distribution of rare ospC allele in N. America A significant spatial cluster of ticks infected with B. burgdorferi carrying rare allele L was detected in Canada and in the southeastern USA (indicated by the black ellipses)
  26. 26. MLST locus sample uvrA rplB pepX clpX ospC allele Bb316 PubMLST Allele distribution GenBank best match (strains) KU577579 allele 19 USA(CT,NY, PA), Canada M11p†, CA382, B31 KU577578 allele 1 USA(CT,NY, MA,MD,IL, MN,MI,WI, CA), Canada, Europe M6p†, M11p† KU577577 allele1 USA(CT,NY, PA,VT,WI, MA,ME,MN, CA), Canada, Europe M11p†, M6p† CA382, B31 KU577576 allele1 USA(CT,NY, PA,WI, MI, ME,MN,IN, VT,MA,CA) Canada, Europe M11p†, B31, M6p†,CA382 A Bb324 PubMLST Allele distribution GenBank best match (strains) KU598201 allele 1 USA(NY,CT, ME, VT, PA, MA, MD), Canada, Europe§ M11p†, B31, CA382 KT598395 allele 1 as Bb316 M11p†, CA382, B31 N/A N/A M Bb327 PubMLST Allele distribution GenBank best match (strains) KU598202 allele 19 as Bb316 M11p†, CA382, B31 KT598396 allele 1 as Bb316 as Bb324 M11p†, CA382, B31 N/A N/A A B. burgdorferi sensu stricto detected in A. americanum ticks in the southeastern United States
  27. 27. A hypothesis for the migration route of Borrelia between the continents was proposed and the first evidences of trans-oceanic dispersals of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were presented almost 15 years ago. (Foretz et al., 1997; Ras et al., 1997; Postic et al., 1999; Marti et al., 1997; Qiu et al., 2008). The worldwide distribution of Borrelia is supported by long-distance transmission of infected ticks by migrating hosts.
  28. 28. Marie Vancová Libor Grubhoffer and James H. Oliver Jr. Marina Golovchenko ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  29. 29. Where Lyme disease is absent: Is it the tick, the vertebrate host, or just a matter of time? ESA, 2004 "Absence of proof is not proof of absence." - Dr. Edwin J. Masters, M.D.
  30. 30. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! natasha@paru.cas.cz

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