• Ecology is the scientific analysis and study of
interactions among living organisms and their
• An ecosystem is a community of living
organisms in conjunction with the nonliving
components of their environment (things like
air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a
5. HUMAN ECOLOGY
• Human ecology is a study of the relationship
between humans and their natural, social,
and built environments.
7. APPROACHES & RELATION
The different approaches for disasters
with human ecology are:
1. Ecosystem Approach
2. Landscape Approach
3. Perception Approach
8. ECOSYSTEM APPROACH
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated
management of land, water and living resources that
promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable
way. It is focused on levels of biological organization which
encompass the essential processes, functions and
interactions among organisms and their environment. It
recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an
integral component of ecosystems.
9. ECOSYSTEM APPROACH
• An ecosystem approach is based on the application
of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on
levels of biological organization, which encompass
(cause to takes place) the essential structure,
processes, functions and interactions among
organisms and their environment. It recognizes that
humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral
component of many ecosystems.
15. FOCUS ON THE RELATIONSHIPS AND
PROCESSES WITHIN ECOSYSTEM
• The many components of biodiversity control the stores
and flows of energy, water and nutrients within ecosystems,
and provide resistance to major perturbations. A much
better knowledge of ecosystem functions and structure, and
the roles of the components of biological diversity in
ecosystems, is required, especially to understand:
• Ecosystem resilience and the effects to biodiversity loss
(species and genetic levels) and habitat fragmentation; and
• Underlying causes of biodiversity loss; and
• Determinants of local biological diversity in management
16. FOCUS ON THE RELATIONSHIPS AND
PROCESSES WITHIN ECOSYSTEM
• Functional biodiversity in ecosystems provides
many goods and services of economic and social
importance. While there is a need to accelerate
efforts to gain new knowledge about functional
biodiversity, ecosystem management has to be
carried out even in the absence of such knowledge.
The ecosystem approach can facilitate practical
management by ecosystem managers (whether
local communities or national policy makers).
• A ‘landscape’ is a flexible concept without a
clearly defined spatial entity or physical
space. It includes natural features of the
landscape, infrastructure, stakeholders and
external forces that affect the physical area.
19. LANDSCAPE APPROACH
• The landscape approach is an interdisciplinary, cross-
sectoral and holistic approach. For disaster risk
reduction purposes, the approach facilitates an inclusive
and participatory learning process for shared risk
understanding and risk intervention scenario planning.
An inclusive and participatory process allows for more
innovative and integrated, and therefore more impactful,
solutions to risk (e.g. ecosystem-based or hybrid
measures and optimised initiatives on water governance
as part of disaster risk management strategies and
20. LANDSCAPE APPROACH
• Applying the landscape approach helps to
overcome barriers by sector and
contributes to effect risk management by
connecting all stakeholders involved,
starting with the communities at risk in
21. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
1. Communities at the centre.
2. All actors - either contributing to or impacted by disaster
3. Analysis of the hydrology - groundwater and surface
4. Ecosystem management and restoration.
5. Flexible to future changes – Identifying solutions
6. Long-term perspective
22. STEPS OF THE LANDSCAPE
The seven steps of the landscape approach:
• Carry out an initial assessment of the risk landscape.
• Conduct an in-depth stakeholder analysis and power mapping.
• Stimulate multi-stakeholder processes and create groups of the
• Conduct a collaborative, in-depth problem and solution analysis.
• Carry out collaborative (action) planning.
• Organise collaborative implementation.
• Promote adaptive management.
23. CARRY OUT AN INITIALASSESSMENT
OF THE RISK LANDSCAPE.
• Find common concerns as an entry point.
• Understand drivers of risk, capacities and assets of
communities and the wider social and natural environment.
• Understand the hydrology (when disaster risks are water
• Define the spatial boundaries of the risk landscape.
• Conduct organisational self assessment.
• Decide whether or not to adopt a landscape approach.
24. CONDUCT AN IN-DEPTH STAKEHOLDER
ANALYSIS AND POWER MAPPING
• Analyse all stakeholders who are in any way related
to the disaster risk.
• Conduct a power mapping.
• Pay attention to the gender dimension.
• Identify entry points and motivations to join the
process per key stakeholder.
• Develop a business case per key stakeholder.
25. STIMULATE MULTI-STAKEHOLDER
PROCESSES AND CREATE GROUPS OF THE
• Build on existing initiatives to create ownership
and sustainable outcomes.
• Involve as many stakeholders as possible from the
outset (a coalition of the willing) and ensure
involvement of remaining relevant stakeholders
• Create space to discuss different perspectives.
• Agree on the core problem/risk.
• Strengthen stakeholder capacity if necessary.
26. Conduct a collaborative, in-depth
problem and solution analysis
• Identify root causes of issues of mutual concern.
• Create an open and respectful dialogue while
exploring stakeholders’ roles in relation to the core
• Recognise and use information/practices from
multiple sources including traditional, local and
• Identify possible solutions to problems identified.
27. Carry out collaborative (action)
• Develop landscape scenarios.
• Agree on tasks, responsibilities and
• Keep funding in mind.
• Divide the landscape into smaller and more
manageable units to monitor risks better.
28. Organise collaborative
• Implement interventions aimed at addressing the drivers of
risk, enhancing the capacities and assets of communities,
and strengthening the enabling environment.
• Focus on securing some quick wins at the outset of the
• Link long-term risk reduction goals to socioeconomic
• Make use of synergies while avoiding tradeoffs and negative
• Promote ownership and gradually hand over responsibilities
to the enabling environment.
29. Promote adaptive management
• Develop indicators tracking changes in the drivers
of risk, the capacities and assets of communities
and the enabling environment.
• Involve research institutes in monitoring and
• Use M&E outcomes to improve landscape
• Ensure flexible management of projects or
• The second part of the perception
process in which we sort & categorize
information that we perceive based on
innovate & learned cognitive patterns.
46. DIFFERENT WAYS
• There are 3 different ways to sort things into
• Proximity – we tend to think that things are close
• Similarity - Similarity looking or similarity acting
• Difference – differ from the rest does n’t belong
with the group
• Figure/ Ground
a) Physical Constructs
b) Role Constructs
c) Interaction Contracts
d) Psychological Contracts
• Link/ Connect Categories